Abstract

In this paper, the design, fabrication, and application of a highly tolerant polarization-independent optical-waveguide structure suited for operation in the third communication window is presented. The waveguide structure has been optimized toward minimized sensitivity to technological tolerances and low fabrication complexity. The tolerance analysis has been based on the typical processing tolerances of the widely applied silicon-oxynitride technology, being ±3× 10<sup>-4</sup> in refractive index, ±1% in thickness, and ±0.1μm in channel width. The optimized waveguide design fulfills the criterion of a channel birefringence within 5× 10<sup>-5</sup>, including processing tolerance. It also enables a fiber-to-chip coupling loss below 1 dB/facet and is suited for the realization of low-loss bends with a radius down to 600 µm. Based on this waveguide design, a passband-flattened optical wavelength filter with 50-GHz free spectral range has been realized and tested. The measured TE–TM shift of 0.03 nm confirms the polarization dependence of the optical waveguides being as low as 3 x 10<sup>-5</sup>.

© 2007 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. R. C. Alferness, H. Kogelnik, T. H. Wood, "Semiconductors and photonics—The evolution of optical systems: Optics everywhere ," Bell Labs Tech. J. 5, 188-202 (2000).
  2. L. Eldada, "Optical communication components," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 575-593 (2004).
  3. M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hübner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Poulsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, W. Svendsen, "Advances in silica-based integrated optics," Opt. Eng. 42, 2821-2834 (2003).
  4. G. L. Bona, W. E. Denzel, B. J. Offrein, R. Germann, H. W. M. Salemink, F. Horst, "Wavelength division multiplexed add/drop ring technology in corporate backbone networks ," Opt. Eng. 37, 3218-3228 (1998).
  5. T. Miya, "Silica-based planar lightwave circuits: Passive and thermally active devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 38-45 (2000).
  6. B. J. Offrein, R. Germann, F. Horst, H. W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, G. L. Bona, "Resonant coupler-based tunable add-after-drop filter in silicon-oxynitride technology for WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1400-1406 (1999).
  7. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, "Passive components—Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).
  8. M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
  9. L. Eldada, L. W. Shacklette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 54-68 (2000).
  10. B. K. Das, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, H. Suche, W. Sohler, "Distributed feedback-distributed Bragg reflector coupled cavity laser with a Ti :(Fe :)Er : LiNbO3 waveguide," Opt. Lett. 29, 165-167 (2004).
  11. R. Germann, H. W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, I. Massarek, B. J. Offrein, "Silicon oxynitride layers for optical waveguide applications," J. Electrochem. Soc. 147, 2237-2241 (2000).
  12. K. Wörhoff, P. V. Lambeck, A. Driessen, "Design, tolerance analysis and fabrication of silicon oxynitride based planar optical waveguides for communication devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1401-1407 (1999).
  13. C. G. H. Roeloffzen, Passband flattened binary-tree structured add-drop multiplexers using SiON waveguide technology Ph.D. dissertation Univ. TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands (2002).
  14. D. J. W. Klunder, E. Krioukov, F. S. Tan, T. van der Veen, H. F. Bulthuis, G. Sengo, C. Otto, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, "Vertically and laterally waveguide-coupled cylindrical microresonators in Si3N4 on SiO2 technology ," Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem. 73, 603-608 (2001).
  15. O. Zywitzki, T. Modes, H. Sahm, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, D. Glöß, "Structure and properties of crystalline titanium oxide layers deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180–181, 538-543 (2004).
  16. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
  17. B. Schüppert, J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, U. Fischer, T. Zinke, R. Moosburger, K. Petermann, "Integrated optics in silicon and SiGe-heterostructures," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2311-2323 (1996).
  18. H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, "Polarization insensitive arrayed waveguide wavelength multiplexer with birefringence compensating film," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 707-709 (1993).
  19. M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization beam splitter/switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 625-633 (1994).
  20. M. Hoffman, P. Kopka, E. Voges, "Low-loss fiber-matched low-temperature PECVD waveguides with small core dimensions for optical communication systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1238-1240 (1997).
  21. H. H. Yaffe, C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, M. A. Milbrodt, "Polarization independent silica-on-silicon Mach–Zehnder interferometers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 64-67 (1994).
  22. K. Wörhoff, B. J. Offrein, P. V. Lambeck, G. L. Bona, A. Driessen, "Birefringence compensation applying double-core waveguiding structures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 206-208 (1999).
  23. J. J. G. M. van der Tol, F. Hakimzadeh, J. W. Pedersen, D. Li, H. van Brug, "A new short and low-loss passive polarization converter on InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 32-34 (1995).
  24. G. L. Bona, R. Germann, B. J. Offrein, "SiON high-refractive-index waveguide and planar lightwave circuits," IBM J. Res. Develop. 47, 243-249 (2003).
  25. B. E. Little, "A VLSI photonics platform," Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf. (2003) pp. 444-445.
  26. M. G. Hussein, K. Wörhoff, G. Sengo, A. Driessen, "Deposition and characterization of PECVD phosphorus-doped silicon oxynitride layers for integrated optics applications," Proc. EURO CVD (2005) pp. 457-464.
  27. K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, L. T. H. Hilderink, P. W. C. Linders, T. J. A. Popma, "Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon oxynitride optimized for application in integrated optics," Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 74, 9-12 (1999).
  28. TempSeleneBBV Software BV version 4.1.00.
  29. M. K. Smit, E. C. M. Pennings, H. Blok, "A normalized approach to the design of low-loss optical waveguide bends," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1737-1742 (1993).
  30. K. Wörhoff, Polarisatieonafhankelijke lichtgeleidende structuur Dutch Patent NL 1019 488 (2002).
  31. C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. M. de Ridder, A. Driessen, "Low-loss adiabatic bend using minimized chip area," Proc. IEEE LEOS Symp. Benelux Chapter (2000) pp. 175-178.
  32. A. Leinse, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, K. Wörhoff, G. Sengo, R. M. de Ridder, A. Driessen, "Low-loss fiber to chip connection system for telecommunication devices," Proc. IEEE LEOS Symp. Benelux Chapter (2001) pp. 185-188.
  33. C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. M. de Ridder, G. Sengo, K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, "Passband flattening and rejection band broadening of a periodic Mach–Zehnder wavelength filter by adding a tuned ring resonator," Proc. ECOC (2002) pp. 1.20.

2005 (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).

2004 (5)

O. Zywitzki, T. Modes, H. Sahm, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, D. Glöß, "Structure and properties of crystalline titanium oxide layers deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180–181, 538-543 (2004).

L. Eldada, "Optical communication components," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 575-593 (2004).

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, "Passive components—Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).

B. K. Das, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, H. Suche, W. Sohler, "Distributed feedback-distributed Bragg reflector coupled cavity laser with a Ti :(Fe :)Er : LiNbO3 waveguide," Opt. Lett. 29, 165-167 (2004).

2003 (2)

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hübner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Poulsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, W. Svendsen, "Advances in silica-based integrated optics," Opt. Eng. 42, 2821-2834 (2003).

G. L. Bona, R. Germann, B. J. Offrein, "SiON high-refractive-index waveguide and planar lightwave circuits," IBM J. Res. Develop. 47, 243-249 (2003).

2001 (1)

D. J. W. Klunder, E. Krioukov, F. S. Tan, T. van der Veen, H. F. Bulthuis, G. Sengo, C. Otto, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, "Vertically and laterally waveguide-coupled cylindrical microresonators in Si3N4 on SiO2 technology ," Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem. 73, 603-608 (2001).

2000 (4)

R. C. Alferness, H. Kogelnik, T. H. Wood, "Semiconductors and photonics—The evolution of optical systems: Optics everywhere ," Bell Labs Tech. J. 5, 188-202 (2000).

T. Miya, "Silica-based planar lightwave circuits: Passive and thermally active devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 38-45 (2000).

R. Germann, H. W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, I. Massarek, B. J. Offrein, "Silicon oxynitride layers for optical waveguide applications," J. Electrochem. Soc. 147, 2237-2241 (2000).

L. Eldada, L. W. Shacklette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 54-68 (2000).

1999 (4)

K. Wörhoff, P. V. Lambeck, A. Driessen, "Design, tolerance analysis and fabrication of silicon oxynitride based planar optical waveguides for communication devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1401-1407 (1999).

B. J. Offrein, R. Germann, F. Horst, H. W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, G. L. Bona, "Resonant coupler-based tunable add-after-drop filter in silicon-oxynitride technology for WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1400-1406 (1999).

K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, L. T. H. Hilderink, P. W. C. Linders, T. J. A. Popma, "Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon oxynitride optimized for application in integrated optics," Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 74, 9-12 (1999).

K. Wörhoff, B. J. Offrein, P. V. Lambeck, G. L. Bona, A. Driessen, "Birefringence compensation applying double-core waveguiding structures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 206-208 (1999).

1998 (1)

G. L. Bona, W. E. Denzel, B. J. Offrein, R. Germann, H. W. M. Salemink, F. Horst, "Wavelength division multiplexed add/drop ring technology in corporate backbone networks ," Opt. Eng. 37, 3218-3228 (1998).

1997 (1)

M. Hoffman, P. Kopka, E. Voges, "Low-loss fiber-matched low-temperature PECVD waveguides with small core dimensions for optical communication systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1238-1240 (1997).

1996 (1)

B. Schüppert, J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, U. Fischer, T. Zinke, R. Moosburger, K. Petermann, "Integrated optics in silicon and SiGe-heterostructures," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2311-2323 (1996).

1995 (1)

J. J. G. M. van der Tol, F. Hakimzadeh, J. W. Pedersen, D. Li, H. van Brug, "A new short and low-loss passive polarization converter on InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 32-34 (1995).

1994 (2)

H. H. Yaffe, C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, M. A. Milbrodt, "Polarization independent silica-on-silicon Mach–Zehnder interferometers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 64-67 (1994).

M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization beam splitter/switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 625-633 (1994).

1993 (2)

H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, "Polarization insensitive arrayed waveguide wavelength multiplexer with birefringence compensating film," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 707-709 (1993).

M. K. Smit, E. C. M. Pennings, H. Blok, "A normalized approach to the design of low-loss optical waveguide bends," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1737-1742 (1993).

Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem. (1)

D. J. W. Klunder, E. Krioukov, F. S. Tan, T. van der Veen, H. F. Bulthuis, G. Sengo, C. Otto, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, "Vertically and laterally waveguide-coupled cylindrical microresonators in Si3N4 on SiO2 technology ," Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem. 73, 603-608 (2001).

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

R. C. Alferness, H. Kogelnik, T. H. Wood, "Semiconductors and photonics—The evolution of optical systems: Optics everywhere ," Bell Labs Tech. J. 5, 188-202 (2000).

IBM J. Res. Develop. (1)

G. L. Bona, R. Germann, B. J. Offrein, "SiON high-refractive-index waveguide and planar lightwave circuits," IBM J. Res. Develop. 47, 243-249 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (4)

T. Miya, "Silica-based planar lightwave circuits: Passive and thermally active devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 38-45 (2000).

B. J. Offrein, R. Germann, F. Horst, H. W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, G. L. Bona, "Resonant coupler-based tunable add-after-drop filter in silicon-oxynitride technology for WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1400-1406 (1999).

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).

L. Eldada, L. W. Shacklette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 54-68 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, "Passive components—Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).

K. Wörhoff, B. J. Offrein, P. V. Lambeck, G. L. Bona, A. Driessen, "Birefringence compensation applying double-core waveguiding structures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 206-208 (1999).

J. J. G. M. van der Tol, F. Hakimzadeh, J. W. Pedersen, D. Li, H. van Brug, "A new short and low-loss passive polarization converter on InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 32-34 (1995).

H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, "Polarization insensitive arrayed waveguide wavelength multiplexer with birefringence compensating film," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 707-709 (1993).

M. Hoffman, P. Kopka, E. Voges, "Low-loss fiber-matched low-temperature PECVD waveguides with small core dimensions for optical communication systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1238-1240 (1997).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

R. Germann, H. W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, I. Massarek, B. J. Offrein, "Silicon oxynitride layers for optical waveguide applications," J. Electrochem. Soc. 147, 2237-2241 (2000).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

K. Wörhoff, P. V. Lambeck, A. Driessen, "Design, tolerance analysis and fabrication of silicon oxynitride based planar optical waveguides for communication devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1401-1407 (1999).

B. Schüppert, J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, U. Fischer, T. Zinke, R. Moosburger, K. Petermann, "Integrated optics in silicon and SiGe-heterostructures," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2311-2323 (1996).

H. H. Yaffe, C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, M. A. Milbrodt, "Polarization independent silica-on-silicon Mach–Zehnder interferometers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 64-67 (1994).

M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization beam splitter/switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 625-633 (1994).

M. K. Smit, E. C. M. Pennings, H. Blok, "A normalized approach to the design of low-loss optical waveguide bends," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1737-1742 (1993).

Nature (1)

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).

Opt. Eng. (2)

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hübner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Poulsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, W. Svendsen, "Advances in silica-based integrated optics," Opt. Eng. 42, 2821-2834 (2003).

G. L. Bona, W. E. Denzel, B. J. Offrein, R. Germann, H. W. M. Salemink, F. Horst, "Wavelength division multiplexed add/drop ring technology in corporate backbone networks ," Opt. Eng. 37, 3218-3228 (1998).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

L. Eldada, "Optical communication components," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 575-593 (2004).

Sens. Actuators A, Phys. (1)

K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, L. T. H. Hilderink, P. W. C. Linders, T. J. A. Popma, "Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon oxynitride optimized for application in integrated optics," Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 74, 9-12 (1999).

Surf. Coat. Technol. (1)

O. Zywitzki, T. Modes, H. Sahm, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, D. Glöß, "Structure and properties of crystalline titanium oxide layers deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180–181, 538-543 (2004).

Other (8)

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, Passband flattened binary-tree structured add-drop multiplexers using SiON waveguide technology Ph.D. dissertation Univ. TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands (2002).

TempSeleneBBV Software BV version 4.1.00.

K. Wörhoff, Polarisatieonafhankelijke lichtgeleidende structuur Dutch Patent NL 1019 488 (2002).

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. M. de Ridder, A. Driessen, "Low-loss adiabatic bend using minimized chip area," Proc. IEEE LEOS Symp. Benelux Chapter (2000) pp. 175-178.

A. Leinse, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, K. Wörhoff, G. Sengo, R. M. de Ridder, A. Driessen, "Low-loss fiber to chip connection system for telecommunication devices," Proc. IEEE LEOS Symp. Benelux Chapter (2001) pp. 185-188.

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. M. de Ridder, G. Sengo, K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, "Passband flattening and rejection band broadening of a periodic Mach–Zehnder wavelength filter by adding a tuned ring resonator," Proc. ECOC (2002) pp. 1.20.

B. E. Little, "A VLSI photonics platform," Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf. (2003) pp. 444-445.

M. G. Hussein, K. Wörhoff, G. Sengo, A. Driessen, "Deposition and characterization of PECVD phosphorus-doped silicon oxynitride layers for integrated optics applications," Proc. EURO CVD (2005) pp. 457-464.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.