Abstract

We show that a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform offers many advantages for the implementation of planar concave grating (PCG) demultiplexers, as compared with other material systems. We present for the first time the design and measurement results of a PCG demultiplexer fabricated on a nanophotonic SOI platform using standard wafer scale CMOS processes including deep-UV lithography. Our PCG device has four wavelength channels with a channel spacing of 20 nm and a record-small footprint of 280×150 μm. The on-chip loss is 7.5 dB, and the crosstalk is better than -30 dB.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. K. Okamoto, K. Moriwaki, S. Suzuki, "Fabrication of 64 x 64 arrayed-wave-guide grating multiplexer on silicon," Electron. Lett. 31, 184-186 (1995).
  2. S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delage, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, D. X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
  3. S. Chandrasekhar, M. Zirngibl, A. G. Dentai, C. H. Joyner, F. Storz, C. A. Burrus, L. M. Lunardi, "Monolithic eight-wavelength demultiplexed receiver for dense WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1342-1344 (1995).
  4. J. J. He, B. Lamontagne, A. Delage, L. Erickson, M. Davies, E. S. Koteles, "Monolithic integrated wavelength demultiplexer based on a waveguide Rowland circle grating in InGaAsP/InP," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 631-638 (1998).
  5. K. M. Jia, W. H. Wang, Y. Z. Tang, Y. R. Yang, J. Y. Yang, X. Q. Jiang, Y. M. Wu, M. H. Wang, Y. L. Wang, "Silicon-on-insulator-based optical demultiplexer employing turning-mirror-integrated arrayed-waveguide grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 378-380 (2005).
  6. W. H. Wang, Y. Z. Tang, Y. X. Wang, H. C. Qu, Y. M. Wu, T. Li, J. Y. Yang, Y. L. Wang, M. Liu, "Etched-diffraction-grating-based planar waveguide demultiplexer on silicon-on-insulator ," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 559-566 (2004).
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  8. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).
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  10. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, P. Jaenen, "Compact wavelength router based on a silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array," Opt. Express 14, 664-669 (2006).
  11. T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno, T. Baba, "Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides ," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L673-L675 (2004).
  12. H. A. Rowland, "Preliminary notice of the results accomplished in the manufacture and theory of gratings for optical purpose," Philos. Mag. 13, 469-474 (1882).
  13. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1980).
  14. D. Chowdhury, "Design of low-loss and polarization-insensitive reflection grating-based planar demultiplexers ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 233-239 (2000).
  15. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, "Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator," Opt. Express 12, 1583-1591 (2004).
  16. D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
  17. D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, R. Baets, "A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249-1251 (2003).
  18. http://camfr.sourceforge.net.
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  20. W. H. Wang, Y. Z. Tang, Y. X. Wang, H. C. Qu, Y. M. Wu, T. Li, J. Y. Yang, Y. L. Wang, M. Liu, "Silicon-on-insulator-based compact optical demultiplexer employing etched diffraction grating ," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1265-1267 (2004).
  21. M. S. D. Smith, K. A. McGreer, "Diffraction gratings utilizing total internal reflection facets in Littrow configuration ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 84-86 (1999).
  22. D. Dai, J. J. He, S. He, "Elimination of multimode effects in a silicon-on-insulator etched diffraction grating demultiplexer with bi-level taper structure," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 439-443 (2005).
  23. R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, G. Priem, G. Morthier, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, "Silicon-on-insulator based nano-photonics: Why, how, what for?," Proc. 2nd IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV Photonics (2005) pp. 168-170.

2006 (3)

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, P. Jaenen, "Compact wavelength router based on a silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array," Opt. Express 14, 664-669 (2006).

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).

2005 (3)

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).

K. M. Jia, W. H. Wang, Y. Z. Tang, Y. R. Yang, J. Y. Yang, X. Q. Jiang, Y. M. Wu, M. H. Wang, Y. L. Wang, "Silicon-on-insulator-based optical demultiplexer employing turning-mirror-integrated arrayed-waveguide grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 378-380 (2005).

D. Dai, J. J. He, S. He, "Elimination of multimode effects in a silicon-on-insulator etched diffraction grating demultiplexer with bi-level taper structure," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 439-443 (2005).

2004 (5)

W. H. Wang, Y. Z. Tang, Y. X. Wang, H. C. Qu, Y. M. Wu, T. Li, J. Y. Yang, Y. L. Wang, M. Liu, "Etched-diffraction-grating-based planar waveguide demultiplexer on silicon-on-insulator ," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 559-566 (2004).

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delage, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, D. X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).

W. H. Wang, Y. Z. Tang, Y. X. Wang, H. C. Qu, Y. M. Wu, T. Li, J. Y. Yang, Y. L. Wang, M. Liu, "Silicon-on-insulator-based compact optical demultiplexer employing etched diffraction grating ," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1265-1267 (2004).

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno, T. Baba, "Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides ," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L673-L675 (2004).

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, "Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator," Opt. Express 12, 1583-1591 (2004).

2003 (1)

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, R. Baets, "A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249-1251 (2003).

2000 (1)

D. Chowdhury, "Design of low-loss and polarization-insensitive reflection grating-based planar demultiplexers ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 233-239 (2000).

1999 (1)

M. S. D. Smith, K. A. McGreer, "Diffraction gratings utilizing total internal reflection facets in Littrow configuration ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 84-86 (1999).

1998 (2)

E. Gini, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, "Polarization independent InP WDM multiplexer/demultiplexer module," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 625-630 (1998).

J. J. He, B. Lamontagne, A. Delage, L. Erickson, M. Davies, E. S. Koteles, "Monolithic integrated wavelength demultiplexer based on a waveguide Rowland circle grating in InGaAsP/InP," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 631-638 (1998).

1995 (2)

K. Okamoto, K. Moriwaki, S. Suzuki, "Fabrication of 64 x 64 arrayed-wave-guide grating multiplexer on silicon," Electron. Lett. 31, 184-186 (1995).

S. Chandrasekhar, M. Zirngibl, A. G. Dentai, C. H. Joyner, F. Storz, C. A. Burrus, L. M. Lunardi, "Monolithic eight-wavelength demultiplexed receiver for dense WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1342-1344 (1995).

1882 (1)

H. A. Rowland, "Preliminary notice of the results accomplished in the manufacture and theory of gratings for optical purpose," Philos. Mag. 13, 469-474 (1882).

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. H. Wang, Y. Z. Tang, Y. X. Wang, H. C. Qu, Y. M. Wu, T. Li, J. Y. Yang, Y. L. Wang, M. Liu, "Silicon-on-insulator-based compact optical demultiplexer employing etched diffraction grating ," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1265-1267 (2004).

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Okamoto, K. Moriwaki, S. Suzuki, "Fabrication of 64 x 64 arrayed-wave-guide grating multiplexer on silicon," Electron. Lett. 31, 184-186 (1995).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (3)

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).

D. Chowdhury, "Design of low-loss and polarization-insensitive reflection grating-based planar demultiplexers ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 233-239 (2000).

D. Dai, J. J. He, S. He, "Elimination of multimode effects in a silicon-on-insulator etched diffraction grating demultiplexer with bi-level taper structure," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 439-443 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

M. S. D. Smith, K. A. McGreer, "Diffraction gratings utilizing total internal reflection facets in Littrow configuration ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 84-86 (1999).

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, R. Baets, "A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249-1251 (2003).

K. M. Jia, W. H. Wang, Y. Z. Tang, Y. R. Yang, J. Y. Yang, X. Q. Jiang, Y. M. Wu, M. H. Wang, Y. L. Wang, "Silicon-on-insulator-based optical demultiplexer employing turning-mirror-integrated arrayed-waveguide grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 378-380 (2005).

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delage, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, D. X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).

S. Chandrasekhar, M. Zirngibl, A. G. Dentai, C. H. Joyner, F. Storz, C. A. Burrus, L. M. Lunardi, "Monolithic eight-wavelength demultiplexed receiver for dense WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1342-1344 (1995).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

J. J. He, B. Lamontagne, A. Delage, L. Erickson, M. Davies, E. S. Koteles, "Monolithic integrated wavelength demultiplexer based on a waveguide Rowland circle grating in InGaAsP/InP," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 631-638 (1998).

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).

E. Gini, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, "Polarization independent InP WDM multiplexer/demultiplexer module," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 625-630 (1998).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno, T. Baba, "Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides ," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L673-L675 (2004).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. H. Wang, Y. Z. Tang, Y. X. Wang, H. C. Qu, Y. M. Wu, T. Li, J. Y. Yang, Y. L. Wang, M. Liu, "Etched-diffraction-grating-based planar waveguide demultiplexer on silicon-on-insulator ," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 559-566 (2004).

Philos. Mag. (1)

H. A. Rowland, "Preliminary notice of the results accomplished in the manufacture and theory of gratings for optical purpose," Philos. Mag. 13, 469-474 (1882).

Other (4)

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1980).

http://camfr.sourceforge.net.

P. Dumon, G. Roelkens, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, P. Jaenen, R. Baets, "Basic photonic wire components in silicon-on-insulator," Proc. 2nd IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV Photonics (2005) pp. 189-191.

R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, G. Priem, G. Morthier, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, "Silicon-on-insulator based nano-photonics: Why, how, what for?," Proc. 2nd IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV Photonics (2005) pp. 168-170.

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