Abstract

We critically assess recent progress in the integration of near-infrared photodetectors onto nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide circuits. Integration of thin-film InGaAs photodetectors is studied in detail. This method consists of bonding unprocessed III–V dies onto the SOI substrate using an intermediate adhesive layer. Both benzocyclobutene and spin-on glass are studied and compared as bonding agents. After the removal of the III–V substrate, the thin-film detectors are fabricated using wafer-scale-compatible processes and lithographically aligned to the underlying SOI waveguides. The process is compatible with the fabrication of InP/InGaAsP laser diodes on SOI. A new design of an evanescently coupled metal–semiconductor–metal detector is proposed, proving the ability to obtain compact and highly efficient integrated InGaAs photodetectors.

© 2007 IEEE

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2006 (1)

Z. Mi, J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, P. K. L. Chan, K. P. Pipe, "High performance self-organized In(Ga)As quantum dot lasers monolithically grown on silicon ," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612 506 (2006).

2005 (5)

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Coupling schemes for heterogeneous integration of III–V membrane devices and silicon-on-insulator waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3827-3831 (2005).

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, L. C. Kimerling, M. S. Unlu, "High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 175-177 (2005).

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Ultra-thin benzocyclobutene bonding of III–V dies onto SOI substrate," Electron. Lett. 41, 561-562 (2005).

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Notzel, M. Smit, "Integration of InP/InGaAsP photodetectors onto silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuits ," Opt. Express 13, 10 102-10 108 (2005).

2004 (3)

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J. M. Fedeli, M. Rouviere, L. Vivien, S. Laval, "Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3–1.55- µm photodetection," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5905-5913 (2004).

M. Salib, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Alduino, M. Paniccia, "Silicon photonics," Intel Technol. J. 8, 143-160 (2004) http://developer.intel.com/technology/itj.

S. W. Seo, S. Y. Cho, S. Huang, J. J. Shin, N. M. Jokerst, A. S. Brown, M. A. Brooke, "High-speed large-area inverted InGaAs thin-film metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 686-693 (2004).

2003 (3)

Y. T. Sun, K. Baskar, S. Lourdudoss, "Thermal strain in indium phosphide on silicon obtained by epitaxial lateral overgrowth ," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2746-2748 (2003).

D. Cengher, Z. Hatzopoulos, S. Gallis, G. Deligeorgis, E. Aperathitis, M. Androulidaki, M. Alexe, V. Dragoi, E. D. Kyriakis-Bitzaros, G. Halkias, A. Georgakilas, "Fabrication of GaAs laser diodes on Si using low-temperature bonding of MBE-grown GaAs wafers with Si wafers," J. Cryst. Growth 251, 754-759 (2003).

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, R. Baets, "A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249-1251 (2003).

2002 (5)

Y. Kang, P. Mages, A. R. Clawson, P. K. L. Yu, M. Bitter, Z. Pan, A. Pauchard, S. Hummel, Y. H. Lo, "Fused InGaAs–Si avalanche photodiodes with low-noise performances," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1593-1595 (2002).

D. Pasquariello, K. Hjort, "Plasma-assisted InP-to-Si low temperature wafer bonding," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 118-131 (2002).

E. Peiner, A. Guttzeit, H. H. Wehmann, "The effect of threading dislocations on optical absorption and electron scattering in strongly mismatched heteroepitaxial III–V compound semiconductors on silicon," J. Phys.-Condens. Matter 14, 13 195-13 201 (2002).

M. El kurdi, P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, I. Sagnes, G. Patriarche, "Silicon-on-insulator waveguide photodetector with Ge/Si self-assembled islands," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1858-1861 (2002).

P. G. Kik, A. Polman, S. Libertino, S. Coffa, "Design and performance of an erbium-doped silicon waveguide detector operating at 1.5 µm," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 834-839 (2002).

2001 (3)

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: Room temperature operation at 1.55 µm," Electron. Lett. 37, 764-766 (2001).

T. Akatsu, A. Plossl, R. Scholz, H. Stenzel, U. Gosele, "Wafer bonding of different III–V compound semiconductors by atomic hydrogen surface cleaning ," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3856-3862 (2001).

F. Niklaus, P. Enoksson, E. Kalvesten, G. Stemme, "Low-temperature full wafer adhesive bonding," J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 100-107 (2001).

2000 (3)

Y. G. Zhao, W. K. Lu, Y. Ma, S. S. Kim, S. T. Ho, T. J. Marks, "Polymer waveguides useful over a very wide wavelength range from the ultraviolet to infrared ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2961-2963 (2000).

Y. Ma, G. Chang, S. Park, L. W. Wang, S. T. Ho, "InGaAsP thin-film microdisk resonators fabricated by polymer wafer bonding for wavelength add–drop filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1495-1497 (2000).

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, "Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231-1233 (2000).

1999 (3)

H. Lafontaine, N. L. Rowell, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, "Growth of undulating Si0.5Ge0.5 layers for photodetectors at λ=1.55 μm," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1287-1291 (1999).

Q. Y. Tong, U. M. Gosele, "Wafer bonding and layer splitting for microsystems," Adv. Mater. 11, 1409-1425 (1999).

B. F. Levine, C. J. Pinzone, S. Hui, C. A. King, R. E. Leibenguth, D. R. Zolnowski, D. V. Lang, H. W. Krautter, M. Geva, "Ultralow-dark-current wafer-bonded Si/InGaAs photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2141-2143 (1999).

1997 (2)

A. R. Hawkins, W. Wu, P. Abraham, K. Streubel, J. E. Bowers, "High gain-bandwidth-product silicon heterointerface photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 303-305 (1997).

W. A. Wohlmuth, P. Fay, K. Vaccaro, E. A. Martin, I. Adesida, "High-speed InGaAs metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors with thin absorption layers ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 654-656 (1997).

1996 (1)

S. Coffa, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, "High efficiency and fast modulation of Er-doped light emitting Si diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2077-2079 (1996).

1994 (1)

A. Splett, T. Zinke, K. Petermann, E. Kasper, H. Kibbel, H. J. Herzog, H. Presting, "Integration of wave-guides and photodetectors in SiGe for 1.3 µm operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 59-61 (1994).

1993 (1)

R. J. Deri, "Monolithic integration of optical wave-guide circuitry with III–V photodetectors for advanced lightwave receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1296-1313 (1993).

1991 (1)

J. B. D. Soole, H. Schumacher, "InGaAs metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors for long wavelength optical communications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 737-752 (1991).

1987 (1)

J. E. Bowers, C. A. Burrus, "Ultrawide-band long-wavelength p-i-n photodetectors," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 1339-1350 (1987).

1986 (2)

E. Zielinski, H. Schweizer, K. Streubel, H. Eisele, G. Weimann, "Excitonic transitions and exciton damping processes in InGaAs/InP," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2196-2204 (1986).

R. A. Soref, J. P. Lorenzo, "All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for λ=1.3 and 1.6 μm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 873-879 (1986).

1974 (1)

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, "Optical-constants of transition-metals—Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 9, 5056-5070 (1974).

Adv. Mater. (1)

Q. Y. Tong, U. M. Gosele, "Wafer bonding and layer splitting for microsystems," Adv. Mater. 11, 1409-1425 (1999).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

B. F. Levine, C. J. Pinzone, S. Hui, C. A. King, R. E. Leibenguth, D. R. Zolnowski, D. V. Lang, H. W. Krautter, M. Geva, "Ultralow-dark-current wafer-bonded Si/InGaAs photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2141-2143 (1999).

A. R. Hawkins, W. Wu, P. Abraham, K. Streubel, J. E. Bowers, "High gain-bandwidth-product silicon heterointerface photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 303-305 (1997).

Y. G. Zhao, W. K. Lu, Y. Ma, S. S. Kim, S. T. Ho, T. J. Marks, "Polymer waveguides useful over a very wide wavelength range from the ultraviolet to infrared ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2961-2963 (2000).

S. Coffa, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, "High efficiency and fast modulation of Er-doped light emitting Si diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2077-2079 (1996).

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, "Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231-1233 (2000).

Electron. Lett. (2)

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Ultra-thin benzocyclobutene bonding of III–V dies onto SOI substrate," Electron. Lett. 41, 561-562 (2005).

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: Room temperature operation at 1.55 µm," Electron. Lett. 37, 764-766 (2001).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. A. Soref, J. P. Lorenzo, "All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for λ=1.3 and 1.6 μm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 873-879 (1986).

J. B. D. Soole, H. Schumacher, "InGaAs metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors for long wavelength optical communications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 737-752 (1991).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

D. Pasquariello, K. Hjort, "Plasma-assisted InP-to-Si low temperature wafer bonding," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 118-131 (2002).

S. W. Seo, S. Y. Cho, S. Huang, J. J. Shin, N. M. Jokerst, A. S. Brown, M. A. Brooke, "High-speed large-area inverted InGaAs thin-film metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 686-693 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

Y. Ma, G. Chang, S. Park, L. W. Wang, S. T. Ho, "InGaAsP thin-film microdisk resonators fabricated by polymer wafer bonding for wavelength add–drop filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1495-1497 (2000).

Y. Kang, P. Mages, A. R. Clawson, P. K. L. Yu, M. Bitter, Z. Pan, A. Pauchard, S. Hummel, Y. H. Lo, "Fused InGaAs–Si avalanche photodiodes with low-noise performances," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1593-1595 (2002).

A. Splett, T. Zinke, K. Petermann, E. Kasper, H. Kibbel, H. J. Herzog, H. Presting, "Integration of wave-guides and photodetectors in SiGe for 1.3 µm operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 59-61 (1994).

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, L. C. Kimerling, M. S. Unlu, "High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 175-177 (2005).

W. A. Wohlmuth, P. Fay, K. Vaccaro, E. A. Martin, I. Adesida, "High-speed InGaAs metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors with thin absorption layers ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 654-656 (1997).

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, R. Baets, "A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249-1251 (2003).

Intel Technol. J. (1)

M. Salib, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Alduino, M. Paniccia, "Silicon photonics," Intel Technol. J. 8, 143-160 (2004) http://developer.intel.com/technology/itj.

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

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