Abstract

In this paper, high-accuracy measurements of ultraviolet (UV)-induced refractive-index changes (±3×10<sup>-7</sup>) in germanosilicate optical fiber as a function of intensity and exposure time are presented. To examine the early growth characteristics of the fiber, samples are irradiated with 244-nm light for 100 s at relatively low intensities (0.007–2.7 W/cm<sup>2</sup>). The combined growth data is then interpolated to generate a 3-D “index growth surface” of photo-induced index. An empirically derived mathematical expression relates the index growth to the exposure time and intensity. Evidence is presented that, after exposing the fiber at one intensity, additional growth at a different intensity is dictated by the final index change of the first exposure and the intensity of the second exposure. This “compound growth rule” permits the complete calculation of induced-grating structures produced by such a complex exposure history. Using the index-growth surface and the compound-growth rule, the growth and UV erasure of a fiber Bragg grating is successfully predicted using a modified F-matrix algorithm.

© 2007 IEEE

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2006 (1)

G. A. Miller, C. G. Askins, E. J. Friebele, "Modified F-matrix calculation of Bragg grating spectra and its use with a nonlinear index growth law," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2416-2427 (2006).

2002 (2)

A. Carballar, M. A. Muriel, "Growth modeling of fiber gratings: A numerical investigation," Fiber Integr. Opt. 21, 451-463 (2002).

P. L. Swart, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, V. V. Spirin, "Photosensitivity measurement in optical fibre with Bragg grating interferometers," Electron. Lett. 38, 1508-1510 (2002).

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

B. Poumellec, "Links between writing and erasure (or stability) of Bragg gratings in disordered media ," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 108-115 (1998).

1997 (2)

P. Cordier, S. Dupont, M. Douay, G. Marinelli, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, L. Dong, "Evidence by transmission electron microscopy of densification associated to Bragg grating photoimprinting in germanosilicate optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1204-1206 (1997).

B. Leconte, W. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, E. Delevaque, H. Poignant, "Analysis of color-center-related contribution to Bragg grating formation in Ge:SiO2 fiber based on a local Kramers–Kronig transformation of excess loss spectra," Appl. Opt. 36, 5923-5930 (1997).

1996 (4)

M. J. F. Digonnet, "A Kramers–Kronig analysis of the absorption change in fiber gratings," Proc. SPIE 2841, 109-120 (1996).

H. G. Limberger, P.-Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, "Compaction- and photoelastic-induced index changes in fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069-3071 (1996).

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, "The UV-induced refractive index grating in Ge:SiO2 preforms: Additional CW experiments and the macroscopic origin of the change in index ," J. Phys. D, Appl. Phys. 29, 1842-1856 (1996).

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, "Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers ," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1329-1342 (1996).

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

P. Cordier, J. C. Doukhan, E. Fertein, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, "TEM characterization of structural changes in glass associated to Bragg grating inscription in a germanosilicate optical fibre preform," Opt. Commun. 111, 269-275 (1994).

1993 (4)

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, "248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: Support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity," Electron. Lett. 29, 385-387 (1993).

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, "Production of in-fibre gratings using a diffractive optical element," Electron. Lett. 29, 566-568 (1993).

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, "Growth of Bragg gratings produced by continuous-wave ultraviolet light in optical fiber ," Opt. Lett. 18, 1484-1486 (1993).

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer, H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by optical low-coherence reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565-567 (1993).

1992 (3)

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, "Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240 nm absorption band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 369-371 (1992).

Y. Duval, R. Kashyap, S. Fleming, F. Ouellette, "Correlation between ultraviolet-induced refractive index change and photoluminescence in Ge-doped fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2955-2957 (1992).

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, "Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240 nm absorption band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass fibers," Electron. Lett. 28, 369-371 (1992).

1990 (2)

1976 (1)

H. Kogelnik, "Filter response of nonuniform almost-periodic structures," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 109-126 (1976).

1910 (1)

A. V. Hill, "The possible effects of the aggregation of the molecules of haemoglobin on its oxygen dissociation curve," J. Physiol. (London) 40, iv-vii (1910).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. G. Limberger, P.-Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, "Compaction- and photoelastic-induced index changes in fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069-3071 (1996).

P. Cordier, S. Dupont, M. Douay, G. Marinelli, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, L. Dong, "Evidence by transmission electron microscopy of densification associated to Bragg grating photoimprinting in germanosilicate optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1204-1206 (1997).

Y. Duval, R. Kashyap, S. Fleming, F. Ouellette, "Correlation between ultraviolet-induced refractive index change and photoluminescence in Ge-doped fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2955-2957 (1992).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, "Filter response of nonuniform almost-periodic structures," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 109-126 (1976).

Electron. Lett. (5)

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, "Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240 nm absorption band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass fibers," Electron. Lett. 28, 369-371 (1992).

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, "248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: Support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity," Electron. Lett. 29, 385-387 (1993).

P. L. Swart, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, V. V. Spirin, "Photosensitivity measurement in optical fibre with Bragg grating interferometers," Electron. Lett. 38, 1508-1510 (2002).

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, "Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240 nm absorption band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 369-371 (1992).

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, "Production of in-fibre gratings using a diffractive optical element," Electron. Lett. 29, 566-568 (1993).

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

A. Carballar, M. A. Muriel, "Growth modeling of fiber gratings: A numerical investigation," Fiber Integr. Opt. 21, 451-463 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer, H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by optical low-coherence reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565-567 (1993).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

G. A. Miller, C. G. Askins, E. J. Friebele, "Modified F-matrix calculation of Bragg grating spectra and its use with a nonlinear index growth law," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2416-2427 (2006).

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, "Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers ," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1329-1342 (1996).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

B. Poumellec, "Links between writing and erasure (or stability) of Bragg gratings in disordered media ," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 108-115 (1998).

J. Phys. D, Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, "The UV-induced refractive index grating in Ge:SiO2 preforms: Additional CW experiments and the macroscopic origin of the change in index ," J. Phys. D, Appl. Phys. 29, 1842-1856 (1996).

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

A. V. Hill, "The possible effects of the aggregation of the molecules of haemoglobin on its oxygen dissociation curve," J. Physiol. (London) 40, iv-vii (1910).

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Cordier, J. C. Doukhan, E. Fertein, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, "TEM characterization of structural changes in glass associated to Bragg grating inscription in a germanosilicate optical fibre preform," Opt. Commun. 111, 269-275 (1994).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. J. F. Digonnet, "A Kramers–Kronig analysis of the absorption change in fiber gratings," Proc. SPIE 2841, 109-120 (1996).

Other (4)

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, T. E. Tsai, C. G. Askins, E. J. Friebele, "Growth dynamics of fiber Bragg gratings written with a KrF excimer laser," Proc. Tech. Dig. BGPP (1995) Paper SuA5.

T. A. Strasser, "Photosensitivity in phosphorus fibers," Proc. Tech. Dig. OFC (1996) Paper TuO1.

J. Echevarria, A. Quintela, C. Jauregui, A. Cobo, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, "Efficient temperature and strain discrimination with a single type I fiber Bragg grating transducer," Proc. Tech. Dig. LEOS (2000) Paper WH2.

G. A. Miller, C. G. Askins, P. Skeath, C. C. Wang, E. J. Friebele, "Fabricating fiber Bragg gratings with tailored spectral properties for strain sensor arrays using a post-exposure rescan technique," Proc. 15th Opt. Fiber Sens. Conf. Tech. Dig. and Postdeadline Papers (2002) Paper PD1.

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