Abstract

The temporal evolution of the α-factor during pump-probe experiments in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) is not constant but varies strongly with time. It even takes on negative values for short periods of time. As a consequence, cross-phase modulation (XPM) effects usually lag behind cross-gain modulation effects by several picoseconds. This delay has important consequences for ultrafast operation of all-optical devices based on SOAs. It actually means that not every scheme will be suited for ultrafast operation. In order to properly model the XPM and phase variations within an SOA during a pump-probe experiment, a new parameterization for the α-factor is introduced. Inclusion of this model leads to an excellent agreement with the recent 160-Gb/s experiments for both phase and amplitude evolutions of the respective signals with time.

© 2007 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. C. H. Henry, "Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259-264 (1982).
  2. G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).
  3. S. Randel, A. M. de Melo, K. Petermann, V. Marembert, C. Schubert, "Novel scheme for ultrafast all-optical XOR operation," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2808-2815 (2004).
  4. M. Osinski, J. Buus, "Linewidth broadening factor in semiconductor lasers—An overview," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 9-28 (1987).
  5. J. Leuthold, L. Moller, J. Jaques, S. Cabot, L. Zhang, P. Bernasconi, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, A. Griffin, "160 Gb/s SOA all-optical wavelength converter and assessment of its regenerative properties ," Electron. Lett. 40, 554-555 (2004).
  6. C. Dorrer, I. Kang, "Simultaneous temporal characterization of telecommunication optical pulses and modulators by use of spectrograms," Opt. Lett. 27, 1315-1317 (2002).
  7. R. Giller, R. J. Manning, D. Cotter, "Gain and phase recovery of optically excited semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1061-1063 (2006).
  8. A. Mecozzi, J. Mork, "Saturation effects in nondegenerate four-wave mixing between short optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1190-1207 (1997).
  9. I. Kang, C. Dorrer, "Measurements of gain and phase dynamics of a semiconductor optical amplifier using spectrograms ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper MF43.
  10. J. Mork, A. Mecozzi, "Theory of the ultrafast optical response of active semiconductor waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 13, 1802-1816 (1996).
  11. L. D. Westbrook, M. J. Adams, "Simple expressions for the linewidth enhancement factor in direct-gap semiconductors ," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 134, 209-214 (1987).
  12. J. Leuthold, Advanced Indium-Phosphide Waveguide Mach-Zehnder Interferometer All-Optical Switches and Wavelength Converters (Hartung-Gorre, 1999).
  13. J. Leuthold, M. Mayer, J. Eckner, G. Guekos, H. Melchior, C. Zellweger, "Material gain of bulk 1.55 μm InGaAsP/InP semiconductor optical amplifiers approximated by a polynomial model," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 618-620 (2000).
  14. J. Mork, J. Mark, C. P. Seltzer, "Carrier heating in InGasAsP laser amplifier due to two-photon absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2206-2208 (1994).
  15. M. J. Connelly, Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (Kluwer, 2002).
  16. M. Kot, K. Zdansky, "Measurement of radiative and nonradiative recombination rate inInGaAsP-InP LED's," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1746-1750 (1992).
  17. J. Leulthold, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, H. Joyner, J. L. Pleumeekers, B. I. Miller, K. Dreyer, R. Behringer, "All-optical wavelength conversion between 10 and 100 Gb/s with SOA delayed-interference configuration," Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 939-952 (2001).
  18. M. Willatzen, A. Uskov, J. Mork, H. Olesen, B. Tromborg, A. P. Jauho, "Nonlinear gain suppression in semiconductor lasers due to carrier heating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 606-609 (1991).
  19. K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, "Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers," Opt. Commun. 111, 589-612 (1994).

2006 (1)

R. Giller, R. J. Manning, D. Cotter, "Gain and phase recovery of optically excited semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1061-1063 (2006).

2004 (2)

S. Randel, A. M. de Melo, K. Petermann, V. Marembert, C. Schubert, "Novel scheme for ultrafast all-optical XOR operation," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2808-2815 (2004).

J. Leuthold, L. Moller, J. Jaques, S. Cabot, L. Zhang, P. Bernasconi, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, A. Griffin, "160 Gb/s SOA all-optical wavelength converter and assessment of its regenerative properties ," Electron. Lett. 40, 554-555 (2004).

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

J. Leulthold, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, H. Joyner, J. L. Pleumeekers, B. I. Miller, K. Dreyer, R. Behringer, "All-optical wavelength conversion between 10 and 100 Gb/s with SOA delayed-interference configuration," Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 939-952 (2001).

2000 (1)

J. Leuthold, M. Mayer, J. Eckner, G. Guekos, H. Melchior, C. Zellweger, "Material gain of bulk 1.55 μm InGaAsP/InP semiconductor optical amplifiers approximated by a polynomial model," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 618-620 (2000).

1997 (1)

A. Mecozzi, J. Mork, "Saturation effects in nondegenerate four-wave mixing between short optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1190-1207 (1997).

1996 (1)

J. Mork, A. Mecozzi, "Theory of the ultrafast optical response of active semiconductor waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 13, 1802-1816 (1996).

1994 (2)

J. Mork, J. Mark, C. P. Seltzer, "Carrier heating in InGasAsP laser amplifier due to two-photon absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2206-2208 (1994).

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, "Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers," Opt. Commun. 111, 589-612 (1994).

1992 (1)

M. Kot, K. Zdansky, "Measurement of radiative and nonradiative recombination rate inInGaAsP-InP LED's," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1746-1750 (1992).

1991 (1)

M. Willatzen, A. Uskov, J. Mork, H. Olesen, B. Tromborg, A. P. Jauho, "Nonlinear gain suppression in semiconductor lasers due to carrier heating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 606-609 (1991).

1989 (1)

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).

1987 (2)

M. Osinski, J. Buus, "Linewidth broadening factor in semiconductor lasers—An overview," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 9-28 (1987).

L. D. Westbrook, M. J. Adams, "Simple expressions for the linewidth enhancement factor in direct-gap semiconductors ," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 134, 209-214 (1987).

1982 (1)

C. H. Henry, "Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259-264 (1982).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Mork, J. Mark, C. P. Seltzer, "Carrier heating in InGasAsP laser amplifier due to two-photon absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2206-2208 (1994).

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Leuthold, L. Moller, J. Jaques, S. Cabot, L. Zhang, P. Bernasconi, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, A. Griffin, "160 Gb/s SOA all-optical wavelength converter and assessment of its regenerative properties ," Electron. Lett. 40, 554-555 (2004).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

C. H. Henry, "Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259-264 (1982).

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).

M. Osinski, J. Buus, "Linewidth broadening factor in semiconductor lasers—An overview," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 9-28 (1987).

M. Kot, K. Zdansky, "Measurement of radiative and nonradiative recombination rate inInGaAsP-InP LED's," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1746-1750 (1992).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Mecozzi, J. Mork, "Saturation effects in nondegenerate four-wave mixing between short optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1190-1207 (1997).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

R. Giller, R. J. Manning, D. Cotter, "Gain and phase recovery of optically excited semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1061-1063 (2006).

M. Willatzen, A. Uskov, J. Mork, H. Olesen, B. Tromborg, A. P. Jauho, "Nonlinear gain suppression in semiconductor lasers due to carrier heating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 606-609 (1991).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Leuthold, M. Mayer, J. Eckner, G. Guekos, H. Melchior, C. Zellweger, "Material gain of bulk 1.55 μm InGaAsP/InP semiconductor optical amplifiers approximated by a polynomial model," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 618-620 (2000).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

S. Randel, A. M. de Melo, K. Petermann, V. Marembert, C. Schubert, "Novel scheme for ultrafast all-optical XOR operation," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2808-2815 (2004).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. (1)

J. Mork, A. Mecozzi, "Theory of the ultrafast optical response of active semiconductor waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 13, 1802-1816 (1996).

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, "Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers," Opt. Commun. 111, 589-612 (1994).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Leulthold, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, H. Joyner, J. L. Pleumeekers, B. I. Miller, K. Dreyer, R. Behringer, "All-optical wavelength conversion between 10 and 100 Gb/s with SOA delayed-interference configuration," Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 939-952 (2001).

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. (1)

L. D. Westbrook, M. J. Adams, "Simple expressions for the linewidth enhancement factor in direct-gap semiconductors ," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 134, 209-214 (1987).

Other (3)

J. Leuthold, Advanced Indium-Phosphide Waveguide Mach-Zehnder Interferometer All-Optical Switches and Wavelength Converters (Hartung-Gorre, 1999).

M. J. Connelly, Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (Kluwer, 2002).

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, "Measurements of gain and phase dynamics of a semiconductor optical amplifier using spectrograms ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper MF43.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.