Abstract

We present SU-8 as an optical waveguide and its integration into a functional one- and two-dimensional (1-D and 2-D) scanning device. The waveguide is fabricated as a tapered structure and cantilever beam (100×85×2100 μm). It is mounted onto a 2-D coupled bimorph piezoelectric actuator and driven at resonant frequencies of 4.71 kHz in the vertical and 25 Hz in the horizontal. This raster motion allows for 2-D image scanning when in combination with a light source and detector. An analysis of the polymer's optical capabilities has shown mode coupling efficiencies of 96% and measured a total power output intensity of 20% with a 633-nm light source. The output power can be attributed to the butt-end coupling misalignment, scattering losses due to surface roughness, and absorption. The total vertical tip displacement is 669 μm with an angle of 25° when driven with a 47-μm base excitation. A specific application for the design is in the area of endoscopy, where there is a need for a minimally invasive device that reduces the discomfort experienced by the patient. SU-8 as the functional waveguide is the initial phase in creating a microfabricated endoscope system.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. E. J. Seibel, Q. J. Smithwick, C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, "Single fiber flexible endoscope: General design for small size, high resolution, and wide field of view," Proc. EOS/SPIE EUROPTO—Biomonitoring and Endoscopy Technologies pp. 29-39.
  2. E. J. Seibel, "Microfabricated optical fiber with microlens that produces large field-of-view video-rate optical beam scanning for microendoscopy applications," Proc. SPIE—Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 4957, 46-55 (2003).
  3. W.-C. Wang, M. Fauver, J. Ho, E. J. Seibel, P. G. Reinhall, "Micromachined optical waveguide cantilever as a resonant optical scanner," Sens. Actuators A, Phys. A102, 165-75 (2002).
  4. W.-C. Wang, R. Panergo, P. Reinhall, "Development of a microfabricated scanning endoscope using SU-8 based optical waveguide ," Proc. SPIE—Smart Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring Structural and Biological Systems II (2003) pp. 305-313.
  5. W.-C. Wang, R. R. Panergo, "Design and test of a microfabricated SU-8 optical scanner," Proc. SPIE—Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5394, 280-287 (2004).
  6. C. J. Kaufman, (1995)BoulderCO private communication.
  7. J.-W. Kang, E. Kim, M.-J. Kim, D. Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, "All-optical polymer waveguide devices," Proc. SPIE—Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 4905, 108-117 (2002).
  8. H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, N. Keil, M. Bauer, C. Dreyer, I. Schneider, "Polymer waveguide devices," Proc. Tech. Dig. Summaries Papers Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics Conf. Edition—(IEEE Cat. No. 02CH37337) (2002) pp. 489-490.
  9. Y. Ansel, F. Gindele, J. Scheurer, F. Schmitz, "Optical waveguide device realised using two SU-8 TM layers," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Opt. MEMS— (Cat. No. 02EX610) (2002) pp. 123-124.
  10. B. Beche, N. Pelletier, E. Gaviot, J. Zyss, "Single-mode TE/sub 00/-TM/sub 00/ optical waveguides on SU-8 polymer," Opt. Commun. 230, 91-94 (2004).
  11. MicroChem"MicroChem Product Data Sheet for SU-8 2007," NANOTM SU-8 2000 Negative Tone Photoresists Formulations 2002–2025 pp. 25-75 http://www.microchem.com/.
  12. R. Singiresu, Mechanical Vibrations (Prentice-Hall, 2004).
  13. M. Hopcroft, "Micromechanical testing of SU-8 cantilevers," Proc. JSME Adv. Technol. Exp. Mech. (2003) pp. 735-742.
  14. I. Roch, "Fabrication and characterization of an SU-8 gripper actuated by a shape memory alloy thin film ," J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 330-336 (2003).
  15. T. Tamir, Guided-Wave Optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, 1990).
  16. I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, P. M. Demeester, "A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III–V semiconductor devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1308-1320 (1997).

2004 (2)

W.-C. Wang, R. R. Panergo, "Design and test of a microfabricated SU-8 optical scanner," Proc. SPIE—Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5394, 280-287 (2004).

B. Beche, N. Pelletier, E. Gaviot, J. Zyss, "Single-mode TE/sub 00/-TM/sub 00/ optical waveguides on SU-8 polymer," Opt. Commun. 230, 91-94 (2004).

2003 (2)

I. Roch, "Fabrication and characterization of an SU-8 gripper actuated by a shape memory alloy thin film ," J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 330-336 (2003).

E. J. Seibel, "Microfabricated optical fiber with microlens that produces large field-of-view video-rate optical beam scanning for microendoscopy applications," Proc. SPIE—Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 4957, 46-55 (2003).

2002 (2)

W.-C. Wang, M. Fauver, J. Ho, E. J. Seibel, P. G. Reinhall, "Micromachined optical waveguide cantilever as a resonant optical scanner," Sens. Actuators A, Phys. A102, 165-75 (2002).

J.-W. Kang, E. Kim, M.-J. Kim, D. Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, "All-optical polymer waveguide devices," Proc. SPIE—Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 4905, 108-117 (2002).

1997 (1)

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, P. M. Demeester, "A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III–V semiconductor devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1308-1320 (1997).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, P. M. Demeester, "A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III–V semiconductor devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1308-1320 (1997).

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

I. Roch, "Fabrication and characterization of an SU-8 gripper actuated by a shape memory alloy thin film ," J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 330-336 (2003).

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Beche, N. Pelletier, E. Gaviot, J. Zyss, "Single-mode TE/sub 00/-TM/sub 00/ optical waveguides on SU-8 polymer," Opt. Commun. 230, 91-94 (2004).

Proc. SPIE—Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. (3)

E. J. Seibel, "Microfabricated optical fiber with microlens that produces large field-of-view video-rate optical beam scanning for microendoscopy applications," Proc. SPIE—Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 4957, 46-55 (2003).

W.-C. Wang, R. R. Panergo, "Design and test of a microfabricated SU-8 optical scanner," Proc. SPIE—Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5394, 280-287 (2004).

J.-W. Kang, E. Kim, M.-J. Kim, D. Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, "All-optical polymer waveguide devices," Proc. SPIE—Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 4905, 108-117 (2002).

Sens. Actuators A, Phys. (1)

W.-C. Wang, M. Fauver, J. Ho, E. J. Seibel, P. G. Reinhall, "Micromachined optical waveguide cantilever as a resonant optical scanner," Sens. Actuators A, Phys. A102, 165-75 (2002).

Other (9)

W.-C. Wang, R. Panergo, P. Reinhall, "Development of a microfabricated scanning endoscope using SU-8 based optical waveguide ," Proc. SPIE—Smart Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring Structural and Biological Systems II (2003) pp. 305-313.

C. J. Kaufman, (1995)BoulderCO private communication.

MicroChem"MicroChem Product Data Sheet for SU-8 2007," NANOTM SU-8 2000 Negative Tone Photoresists Formulations 2002–2025 pp. 25-75 http://www.microchem.com/.

R. Singiresu, Mechanical Vibrations (Prentice-Hall, 2004).

M. Hopcroft, "Micromechanical testing of SU-8 cantilevers," Proc. JSME Adv. Technol. Exp. Mech. (2003) pp. 735-742.

H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, N. Keil, M. Bauer, C. Dreyer, I. Schneider, "Polymer waveguide devices," Proc. Tech. Dig. Summaries Papers Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics Conf. Edition—(IEEE Cat. No. 02CH37337) (2002) pp. 489-490.

Y. Ansel, F. Gindele, J. Scheurer, F. Schmitz, "Optical waveguide device realised using two SU-8 TM layers," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Opt. MEMS— (Cat. No. 02EX610) (2002) pp. 123-124.

T. Tamir, Guided-Wave Optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, 1990).

E. J. Seibel, Q. J. Smithwick, C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, "Single fiber flexible endoscope: General design for small size, high resolution, and wide field of view," Proc. EOS/SPIE EUROPTO—Biomonitoring and Endoscopy Technologies pp. 29-39.

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