Abstract

The changes of birefringence in Type I-infrared (Type I-IR) and Type II-IR fiber Bragg gratings induced by an ultrafast-IR laser in SMF-28 fibers are examined after and/or during grating inscription. The gratings are then annealed at increased temperatures up to 800 °C, and their polarization properties are monitored. It is shown that the birefringence in Type I-IR gratings inscribed in hydrogen (H<sub>2</sub>)-loaded fibers is small (~10<sup>-6</sup>) and can be decayed at room temperature, while the birefringence in Type I-IR gratings inscribed in non-(H<sub>2</sub>)-loaded fibers is relatively higher (~10<sup>-5</sup>) and shows strong dependence on the polarization of the IR laser beam. It has the same annealing resistance as the induced index. For Type II-IR gratings, the birefringence is an order of magnitude higher than in Type I-IR gratings (~10<sup>-4</sup>) and shows strong temperature variation during annealing.

© 2007 IEEE

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  18. Y. Lai, A. Martinez, I. Khrushchev, I. Bennion, "Distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription ," Opt. Lett. 31, 1672-1674 (2006).
  19. A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, I. Bennion, "Photoinduced modifications in fiber gratings inscribed directly by infrared femtosecond irradiation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2266-2268 (2006).
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2006 (2)

Y. Lai, A. Martinez, I. Khrushchev, I. Bennion, "Distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription ," Opt. Lett. 31, 1672-1674 (2006).

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, I. Bennion, "Photoinduced modifications in fiber gratings inscribed directly by infrared femtosecond irradiation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2266-2268 (2006).

2005 (3)

P. Lu, D. S. Waddy, S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, "Characterization of the growths of UV-induced birefringence in effective mode index and index modulation in fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2337-2339 (2005).

J. Canning, H. J. Deyerl, H. R. Sørensen, M. Kristensen, "Ultraviolet-induced birefringence in hydrogen-loaded optical fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053 104-1-053 104-11 (2005).

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, "Formation of Type I-IR and Type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask ," Opt. Express 13, 5377-5386 (2005).

2004 (4)

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, P. Lu, "Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864-1866 (2004).

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, I. Bennion, "Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 1170-1172 (2004).

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, P. G. Kazansky, "Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 29, 119-121 (2004).

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, H. Ding, X. Dai, "Multiple-beam interference patterns in optical fiber generated with ultrafast pulses and a phase mask," Opt. Lett. 29, 1458-1460 (2004).

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

K. Dossou, S. LaRochelle, M. Fontaine, "Numerical analysis of the contribution of the transverse asymmetry in the photo-induced index change profile to the birefringence of optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1463-1470 (2002).

2001 (1)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191, 333-339 (2001).

2000 (2)

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, C. P. Grover, "A comparison of wavelength dependent polarization dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings ," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231-1239 (2000).

H. Renner, D. Johlen, E. Brinkmeyer, "Modal field deformation and transition losses in UV side-written optical fibers," Appl. Opt. 39, 933-940 (2000).

1999 (1)

E. Simova, P. Berini, C. P. Grover, "Characterization of chromatic dispersion and polarization sensitivity in fiber gratings ," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 939-943 (1999).

1997 (1)

K. O. Hill, G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).

1994 (2)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, "Characterization of UV-induced birefringence in photosensitive Ge-doped silica optical fibers ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 11, 2100-2105 (1994).

A. M. Vengsarkar, Q. Zhong, D. Inniss, W. A. Reed, P. J. Lemaire, S. G. Kosinski, "Birefringence reduction in side-written photoinduced fiber devices by a dual-exposure method ," Opt. Lett. 19, 1260-1262 (1994).

1993 (1)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, "High pressure (H2) loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).

1991 (1)

F. Ouellette, D. Gagnon, M. Poirier, "Permanent photoinduced birefringence in a Ge-doped fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1813-1815 (1991).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Ouellette, D. Gagnon, M. Poirier, "Permanent photoinduced birefringence in a Ge-doped fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1813-1815 (1991).

Electron. Lett. (2)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, "High pressure (H2) loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, I. Bennion, "Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 1170-1172 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, I. Bennion, "Photoinduced modifications in fiber gratings inscribed directly by infrared femtosecond irradiation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2266-2268 (2006).

P. Lu, D. S. Waddy, S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, "Characterization of the growths of UV-induced birefringence in effective mode index and index modulation in fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2337-2339 (2005).

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, P. Lu, "Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864-1866 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (2)

E. Simova, P. Berini, C. P. Grover, "Characterization of chromatic dispersion and polarization sensitivity in fiber gratings ," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 939-943 (1999).

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, C. P. Grover, "A comparison of wavelength dependent polarization dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings ," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231-1239 (2000).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Canning, H. J. Deyerl, H. R. Sørensen, M. Kristensen, "Ultraviolet-induced birefringence in hydrogen-loaded optical fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053 104-1-053 104-11 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

K. O. Hill, G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).

K. Dossou, S. LaRochelle, M. Fontaine, "Numerical analysis of the contribution of the transverse asymmetry in the photo-induced index change profile to the birefringence of optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1463-1470 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. (1)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, "Characterization of UV-induced birefringence in photosensitive Ge-doped silica optical fibers ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 11, 2100-2105 (1994).

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191, 333-339 (2001).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (1)

J. Canning, H. J. Deyerl, H. R. Sørensen, M. Kristensen, "Annealing of UV-induced birefringence in hydrogen loaded germanosilicate fibres," Proc. Bragg Gratings, Poling & Photosensitivity (2005) pp. 253-254.

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