Abstract

In this paper, we present a steady-state theoretical and experimental analysis of the noise resulting from spontaneous and stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber. Wave equations are derived and solved that describe the evolution of the pump and Stokes waves along the fiber. Experiments and numerical results demonstrate the validity of the theory, either when a Stokes wave is launched at the end of the fiber or when the noise in the Stokes wave is spontaneously generated.

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  1. E. P. Ippen, R. H. Stolen, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 539-541 (1972).
  2. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).
  3. C. L. Tang, "Saturation and spectral characteristics of the Stokes emission in the stimulated Brillouin process ," J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2945-2955 (1966).
  4. L. Chen, X. Bao, "Analytical and numerical solutions for steady state stimulated Brillouin scattering in a single-mode fiber," J. Opt. Commun. 152, 65-70 (1998).
  5. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2003).
  6. S. Sternklar, Y. Glick, S. Jackel, "Noise limitations of Brillouin two-beam coupling: Theory and experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 9, 391-397 (1992).
  7. R. G. Smith, "Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering," Appl. Opt. 11, 2489-2494 (1972).
  8. Y. Aoki, K. Tajima, I. Mito, "Input power limits of single-mode optical fibers due to stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 710-719 (1988).
  9. D. A. Fishman, J. A. Nagel, "Degradations due to stimulated Brillouin scattering in multigigabit intensity-modulated fiber-optic systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1721-1728 (1993).
  10. N. A. Olsson, J. P. Van Der Ziel, "Characteristics of a semiconductor laser pumped Brillouin amplifier with electronically controlled bandwidth," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 147-153 (1987).
  11. D. L. Butler, J. S. Wey, M. W. Chbat, G. L. Burdge, J. Goldhar, "Optical clock recovery from a data stream of an arbitrary bit rate by use of stimulated Brillouin scattering," Opt. Lett. 20, 560-562 (1995).
  12. R. W. Boyd, K. Rzazewski, P. Narum, "Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering," Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys. 42, 5514-5521 (1990).
  13. A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, "Stochastic dynamics of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys. 44, 3205-3209 (1991).
  14. H. Li, K. Ogusu, "Dynamic behavior of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a single-mode optical fiber," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6309-6315 (1999).
  15. S. Le Floch, P. Cambon, "Theoretical evaluation of the Brillouin threshold and the steady-state Brillouin equations in standard single-mode optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci. 20, 1132-1137 (2003).
  16. P. Yeh, "Two-wave mixing in nonlinear media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 484-519 (1989).
  17. A. Melloni, M. Frasca, A. Garavaglia, A. Tonini, M. Martinelli, "Direct measurement of electrostriction in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 23, 691-693 (1998).
  18. R. M. Sova, R. I. Joseph, R. B. Jenkins, private communication manuscript in preparation.
  19. S. Afshaarvahid, V. Devrelis, J. Munch, "Nature of intensity and phase modulations in stimulated Brillouin scattering," Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys. 52, 3961-3971 (1998).
  20. M. O. van Deventer, A. J. Boot, "Polarization properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 585-590 (1994).
  21. A. B. Ruffin, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering: An overview of measurements, system impairments, and applications ," Proc. Symp. Opt. Fiber Meas. (2004) pp. 23-28.
  22. A. Djupsjobacka, G. Jacobsen, B. Tromborg, "Dynamic stimulated Brillouin scattering analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 416-424 (2000).
  23. K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, "CW generation of multiple Stokes and anti-stokes Brillouin-shifted frequencies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 185-187 (1976).
  24. G. J. Cowle, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, D. Y. Stepanov, "Multiwavelength operation of Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers with injection-locked seeding ," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (1997) pp. 34-35.
  25. K. Ogusu, "Analysis of steady-state cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering in a fiber Fabry–Pérot resonator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 947-949 (2002).
  26. A. A. Fotiadi, P. Megret, M. Blondel, "Generation of second-order SBS in optical fibers through Rayleigh-SBS cooperative process ," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) BaltimoreMD (2003) Paper CTuM11.
  27. B. Y. Zel'dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, Principles of Phase Conjugation (Springer-Verlag, 1985).
  28. M. S. Mangir, J. J. Ottusch, D. C. Jones, D. A. Rockwell, "Time-resolved measurements of stimulated-Brillouin-scattering phase jumps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1702-1705 (1992).
  29. R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, P. W. Bayer, "Guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 31, 5244-5252 (1985).

2003 (1)

S. Le Floch, P. Cambon, "Theoretical evaluation of the Brillouin threshold and the steady-state Brillouin equations in standard single-mode optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci. 20, 1132-1137 (2003).

2002 (1)

K. Ogusu, "Analysis of steady-state cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering in a fiber Fabry–Pérot resonator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 947-949 (2002).

2000 (1)

A. Djupsjobacka, G. Jacobsen, B. Tromborg, "Dynamic stimulated Brillouin scattering analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 416-424 (2000).

1999 (1)

H. Li, K. Ogusu, "Dynamic behavior of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a single-mode optical fiber," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6309-6315 (1999).

1998 (3)

A. Melloni, M. Frasca, A. Garavaglia, A. Tonini, M. Martinelli, "Direct measurement of electrostriction in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 23, 691-693 (1998).

S. Afshaarvahid, V. Devrelis, J. Munch, "Nature of intensity and phase modulations in stimulated Brillouin scattering," Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys. 52, 3961-3971 (1998).

L. Chen, X. Bao, "Analytical and numerical solutions for steady state stimulated Brillouin scattering in a single-mode fiber," J. Opt. Commun. 152, 65-70 (1998).

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

M. O. van Deventer, A. J. Boot, "Polarization properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 585-590 (1994).

1993 (1)

D. A. Fishman, J. A. Nagel, "Degradations due to stimulated Brillouin scattering in multigigabit intensity-modulated fiber-optic systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1721-1728 (1993).

1992 (2)

S. Sternklar, Y. Glick, S. Jackel, "Noise limitations of Brillouin two-beam coupling: Theory and experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 9, 391-397 (1992).

M. S. Mangir, J. J. Ottusch, D. C. Jones, D. A. Rockwell, "Time-resolved measurements of stimulated-Brillouin-scattering phase jumps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1702-1705 (1992).

1991 (1)

A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, "Stochastic dynamics of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys. 44, 3205-3209 (1991).

1990 (1)

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzazewski, P. Narum, "Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering," Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys. 42, 5514-5521 (1990).

1989 (1)

P. Yeh, "Two-wave mixing in nonlinear media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 484-519 (1989).

1988 (1)

Y. Aoki, K. Tajima, I. Mito, "Input power limits of single-mode optical fibers due to stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 710-719 (1988).

1987 (1)

N. A. Olsson, J. P. Van Der Ziel, "Characteristics of a semiconductor laser pumped Brillouin amplifier with electronically controlled bandwidth," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 147-153 (1987).

1985 (1)

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, P. W. Bayer, "Guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 31, 5244-5252 (1985).

1976 (1)

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, "CW generation of multiple Stokes and anti-stokes Brillouin-shifted frequencies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 185-187 (1976).

1972 (2)

R. G. Smith, "Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering," Appl. Opt. 11, 2489-2494 (1972).

E. P. Ippen, R. H. Stolen, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 539-541 (1972).

1966 (1)

C. L. Tang, "Saturation and spectral characteristics of the Stokes emission in the stimulated Brillouin process ," J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2945-2955 (1966).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. P. Ippen, R. H. Stolen, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 539-541 (1972).

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, "CW generation of multiple Stokes and anti-stokes Brillouin-shifted frequencies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 185-187 (1976).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Yeh, "Two-wave mixing in nonlinear media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 484-519 (1989).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Ogusu, "Analysis of steady-state cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering in a fiber Fabry–Pérot resonator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 947-949 (2002).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. L. Tang, "Saturation and spectral characteristics of the Stokes emission in the stimulated Brillouin process ," J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2945-2955 (1966).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

Y. Aoki, K. Tajima, I. Mito, "Input power limits of single-mode optical fibers due to stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 710-719 (1988).

D. A. Fishman, J. A. Nagel, "Degradations due to stimulated Brillouin scattering in multigigabit intensity-modulated fiber-optic systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1721-1728 (1993).

N. A. Olsson, J. P. Van Der Ziel, "Characteristics of a semiconductor laser pumped Brillouin amplifier with electronically controlled bandwidth," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 147-153 (1987).

M. O. van Deventer, A. J. Boot, "Polarization properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 585-590 (1994).

A. Djupsjobacka, G. Jacobsen, B. Tromborg, "Dynamic stimulated Brillouin scattering analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 416-424 (2000).

J. Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Chen, X. Bao, "Analytical and numerical solutions for steady state stimulated Brillouin scattering in a single-mode fiber," J. Opt. Commun. 152, 65-70 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci. (1)

S. Le Floch, P. Cambon, "Theoretical evaluation of the Brillouin threshold and the steady-state Brillouin equations in standard single-mode optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci. 20, 1132-1137 (2003).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. (1)

S. Sternklar, Y. Glick, S. Jackel, "Noise limitations of Brillouin two-beam coupling: Theory and experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 9, 391-397 (1992).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Li, K. Ogusu, "Dynamic behavior of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a single-mode optical fiber," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6309-6315 (1999).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys. (3)

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzazewski, P. Narum, "Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering," Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys. 42, 5514-5521 (1990).

A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, "Stochastic dynamics of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys. 44, 3205-3209 (1991).

S. Afshaarvahid, V. Devrelis, J. Munch, "Nature of intensity and phase modulations in stimulated Brillouin scattering," Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys. 52, 3961-3971 (1998).

Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter (1)

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, P. W. Bayer, "Guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 31, 5244-5252 (1985).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. S. Mangir, J. J. Ottusch, D. C. Jones, D. A. Rockwell, "Time-resolved measurements of stimulated-Brillouin-scattering phase jumps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1702-1705 (1992).

Other (7)

A. A. Fotiadi, P. Megret, M. Blondel, "Generation of second-order SBS in optical fibers through Rayleigh-SBS cooperative process ," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) BaltimoreMD (2003) Paper CTuM11.

B. Y. Zel'dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, Principles of Phase Conjugation (Springer-Verlag, 1985).

G. J. Cowle, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, D. Y. Stepanov, "Multiwavelength operation of Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers with injection-locked seeding ," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (1997) pp. 34-35.

A. B. Ruffin, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering: An overview of measurements, system impairments, and applications ," Proc. Symp. Opt. Fiber Meas. (2004) pp. 23-28.

R. M. Sova, R. I. Joseph, R. B. Jenkins, private communication manuscript in preparation.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2003).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

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