Abstract

We present a theoretical model of a multi-input arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) based on Fourier optics and apply the model to the design of a flattened passband response. This modeling makes it possible to systematically analyze spectral performance and to clarify the physical mechanisms of the multi-input AWG. The model suggested that the width of an input/output mode-field function and the number of waveguides in the array are important factors to flatten the response. We also developed a model for a novel AWG employing cascaded Mach–Zehnder interferometers connected to the AWG input ports and numerically analyzed its optical performance to achieve low-loss, low-crosstalk, and flat-passband response. We demonstrated the usability of this model through investigations of filter performance. We also compared the filter spectrum given by this model with that given by simulation using the beam propagation method.

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  2. M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, "Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers," Electron. Lett. 32, 449-451 (1996).
  3. K. Okamoto, A. Sugita, "Flat spectral response arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with parabolic waveguide horns," Electron. Lett. 32, 1661-1662 (1996).
  4. C. Dragone, "Efficient techniques for widening the passband of a wavelength router," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1895-1906 (1998).
  5. T. Kamalakis, T. Sphicopoulos, "An efficient technique for the design of an arrayed-waveguide grating with flat spectral response," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1716-1725 (2001).
  6. J.-J. He, "Phase-dithered waveguide grating with flat passband and sharp transitions," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1186-1193 (2002).
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  8. G. H. B. Thompson, R. Epworth, C. Rogers, S. Day, S. Ojha, "An original low-loss and pass-band flattened $\hbox{SiO}_{2}$ on Si planar wavelength demultiplexer," Proc. OFC (1998) pp. 77.
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  16. P. Muñoz, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, "Modeling and design of arrayed waveguide gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 661-674 (2002).
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  21. K. Maru, Y. Abe, M. Ito, H. Ishikawa, S. Himi, H. Uetsuka, T. Mizumoto, "2.5%-$\Delta$ silica-based athermal arrayed waveguide grating employing spot-size converters based on segmented core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2325-2327 (2005).
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  23. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1968).
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  25. H. Dym, H. P. McKean, Fourier Series and Integrals (Academic, 1972) pp. 31-32.
  26. C.-T. Chen, Digital Signal Processing: Spectral Computation and Filter Design (Oxford Univ. Press, 2001).
  27. N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, H. Toba, M. Kawachi, "Silica-based single-mode waveguides on silicon and their application to guided-wave optical interferometers," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1003-1010 (1988).
  28. B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, "Integrated four-channel Mach–Zehnder multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO_2 waveguides on Si," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1011-1015 (1988).
  29. C. K. Madsen, J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis (Wiley, 1999) pp. 171-177.
  30. A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, I. T. Young, Signal and Systems (Prentice-Hall, 1983).
  31. F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, Silica-Based Buried Channel Waveguides and Devices (Chapman & Hall, 1996).
  32. G. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

2005 (2)

C. R. Doerr, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, "Low-loss rectangular-passband multiplexer consisting of a waveguide grating router synchronized to a three-arm interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2334-2336 (2005).

K. Maru, Y. Abe, M. Ito, H. Ishikawa, S. Himi, H. Uetsuka, T. Mizumoto, "2.5%-$\Delta$ silica-based athermal arrayed waveguide grating employing spot-size converters based on segmented core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2325-2327 (2005).

2003 (1)

C. R. Doerr, R. Pafchek, L. W. Stulz, "Integrated band demultiplexer using waveguide grating routers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1088-1090 (2003).

2002 (4)

J.-J. He, "Phase-dithered waveguide grating with flat passband and sharp transitions," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1186-1193 (2002).

C. R. Doerr, W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, S. Shunk, "Compact and low-loss manner of waveguide grating router passband flattening and demonstration in a 64-channel blocker/multiplexer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 56-58 (2002).

C. Dragone, "Theory of wavelength multiplexing with rectangular transfer functions," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1168-1178 (2002).

P. Muñoz, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, "Modeling and design of arrayed waveguide gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 661-674 (2002).

2001 (1)

T. Kamalakis, T. Sphicopoulos, "An efficient technique for the design of an arrayed-waveguide grating with flat spectral response," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1716-1725 (2001).

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Laskowski, A. Paunescu, L. Gomez, W. Stulz, J. Gates, "Dynamic wavelength equalizer in silica using the single-filtered-arm interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 581-583 (1999).

1998 (1)

C. Dragone, "Efficient techniques for widening the passband of a wavelength router," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1895-1906 (1998).

1996 (2)

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, "Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers," Electron. Lett. 32, 449-451 (1996).

K. Okamoto, A. Sugita, "Flat spectral response arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with parabolic waveguide horns," Electron. Lett. 32, 1661-1662 (1996).

1990 (1)

M. Kawachi, "Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components," Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391-416 (1990).

1989 (1)

C. Dragone, "Efficient N x N star couplers using Fourier optics," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 479-489 (1989).

1988 (2)

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, H. Toba, M. Kawachi, "Silica-based single-mode waveguides on silicon and their application to guided-wave optical interferometers," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1003-1010 (1988).

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, "Integrated four-channel Mach–Zehnder multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO_2 waveguides on Si," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1011-1015 (1988).

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, "Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers," Electron. Lett. 32, 449-451 (1996).

K. Okamoto, A. Sugita, "Flat spectral response arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with parabolic waveguide horns," Electron. Lett. 32, 1661-1662 (1996).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

J.-J. He, "Phase-dithered waveguide grating with flat passband and sharp transitions," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1186-1193 (2002).

C. Dragone, "Theory of wavelength multiplexing with rectangular transfer functions," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1168-1178 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

C. R. Doerr, R. Pafchek, L. W. Stulz, "Integrated band demultiplexer using waveguide grating routers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1088-1090 (2003).

C. R. Doerr, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, "Low-loss rectangular-passband multiplexer consisting of a waveguide grating router synchronized to a three-arm interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2334-2336 (2005).

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Laskowski, A. Paunescu, L. Gomez, W. Stulz, J. Gates, "Dynamic wavelength equalizer in silica using the single-filtered-arm interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 581-583 (1999).

C. R. Doerr, W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, S. Shunk, "Compact and low-loss manner of waveguide grating router passband flattening and demonstration in a 64-channel blocker/multiplexer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 56-58 (2002).

K. Maru, Y. Abe, M. Ito, H. Ishikawa, S. Himi, H. Uetsuka, T. Mizumoto, "2.5%-$\Delta$ silica-based athermal arrayed waveguide grating employing spot-size converters based on segmented core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2325-2327 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, H. Toba, M. Kawachi, "Silica-based single-mode waveguides on silicon and their application to guided-wave optical interferometers," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1003-1010 (1988).

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, B. H. Johnson, "Integrated four-channel Mach–Zehnder multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO_2 waveguides on Si," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1011-1015 (1988).

C. Dragone, "Efficient techniques for widening the passband of a wavelength router," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1895-1906 (1998).

T. Kamalakis, T. Sphicopoulos, "An efficient technique for the design of an arrayed-waveguide grating with flat spectral response," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1716-1725 (2001).

C. Dragone, "Efficient N x N star couplers using Fourier optics," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 479-489 (1989).

P. Muñoz, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, "Modeling and design of arrayed waveguide gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 661-674 (2002).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Kawachi, "Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components," Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391-416 (1990).

Other (15)

C. Dragone, Frequency routing device having a wide and substantially flat passband U.S. Patent 5 488 680 (1996).

G. H. B. Thompson, R. Epworth, C. Rogers, S. Day, S. Ojha, "An original low-loss and pass-band flattened $\hbox{SiO}_{2}$ on Si planar wavelength demultiplexer," Proc. OFC (1998) pp. 77.

I. Kaminow, T. Li, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVA (Academic, 2002) pp. 424-427.

Y. Hibino, Y. Hida, A. Kaneko, M. Ishii, M. Itoh, T. Goh, A. Sugita, T. Saida, A. Himeno, Y. Ohmori, "Fabrication of silica-on-Si waveguide with higher index difference and its application to 256 channel arrayed-waveguide multi/demultiplexer," Proc. OFC (2000) pp. 127-129.

T. Shimoda, K. Suzuki, S. Takaesu, M. Horie, A. Furukawa, "A low-loss, compact wide-FSR-AWG using SiON planar lightwave circuit technology," Optical Fiber Conf. (2003) Paper FJ1.

K. Maru, H. Ishikawa, H. Komano, N. Kitano, Y. Abe, K. Matsui, S. Kashimura, S. Himi, H. Uetsuka, "2.5%-$\Delta$ silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer with low crosstalk," OECC/COIN (2004) Paper 15F1-4.

C. K. Madsen, J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis (Wiley, 1999) pp. 171-177.

A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, I. T. Young, Signal and Systems (Prentice-Hall, 1983).

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, Silica-Based Buried Channel Waveguides and Devices (Chapman & Hall, 1996).

G. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

G. O. Reynolds, J. B. DeVelis, G. B. ParrentJr., B. J. Thompson, The New Physical Optics Notebook: Tutorials in Fourier Optics (SPIE, 1989).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1968).

A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, I. T. Young, Signal and Systems (Prentice-Hall, 1983) pp. 217-219.

H. Dym, H. P. McKean, Fourier Series and Integrals (Academic, 1972) pp. 31-32.

C.-T. Chen, Digital Signal Processing: Spectral Computation and Filter Design (Oxford Univ. Press, 2001).

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