Abstract

A bidirectional data signal input scheme of a semiconductor optical amplifier––Mach–Zehnder interferometer (SOA–MZI) wavelength converter was proposed and experimentally verified for a nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ)-format signal. Theoretical analyses reveal that it is possible to mitigate the patterning effect induced by cross-gain modulation (XGM) by utilizing the difference of the ratio between the XGM and cross-phase modulation on the injection directions of data signals. A hybrid integrated SOA–MZI all-optical wavelength converter, in which the coupling loss between the SOA and the silica waveguide was as small as 1 dB owing to a unique active alignment technique, was used for the experiment. We have verified the superior characteristics of the proposed operation scheme for the first time. Error-free wavelength-conversion operation for an NRZ signal at 40 Gb/s was confirmed.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. R. Sato, T. Ito, K. Magari, I. Ogawa, Y. Inoue, R. Kasahara, M. Okamoto, Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzuki, "10-Gb/s low-input-power SOA-PLC hybrid integrated wavelength converter and its 8-slot unit," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1331 (2004).
  2. L. Armstrong, L. Andonovic, J. Bebbington, C. Michie, C. Tombling, S. Fasham, "Hybridisation platform demonstrating all optical wavelength conversion at 10 and 20 Gb/s," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper ThS3.
  3. G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Harlow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, D. Scrase, "Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. CopenhagenDenmark (2002) Paper PD3.5.
  4. T. Miyahara, A. Sugitatsu, T. Hatta, K. Takagi, K. Matsumoto, T. Aoyagi, S. Nishikawa, T. Nishimura, K. Motoshima, "Monolithically integrated SOA–MZI wavelength converter with assist DFB-LD," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper ThS4.
  5. S. Nakamura, "High-speed all-optical switching experiment in Mach–Zehnder configuration using GaAs waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 925 (1993).
  6. S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, "Bit-rate-transparent non-return-to-zero all-optical wavelength conversion at up to 42 Gb/s by operating symmetric-Mach–Zehnder switch with new scheme," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper FD3.
  7. M. L. Masanovic, V. Lal, J. A. Summers, J. S. Barton, E. J. Skogen, L. G. Rau, L. A. Coldren, D. J. Blumenthal, "Widely tunable monolithically integrated all-optical wavelength converters in InP," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1350-1362 (2005).
  8. R. Inohara, M. Tsurusawa, K. Nishimura, M. Usami, "Experimental verification for cascadability of all-optical 3R regenerator utilizing two-stage SOA-based polarization discriminated switches with estimated $Q$-factor over 20 dB at 40 Gb/s transmission," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. RiminiItaly (2003) Paper Mo4.3.2.
  9. J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, M. Dulk, H. Melchior, "All-optical space switches with gain and principally ideal extinction ratios," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 622-633 (1998).
  10. J. Leuthold, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, C. H. Joyner, J. L. Pleumeekers, B. I. Miller, K. Dreyer, R. Behringer, "All-optical wavelength conversion between 10 and 100 Gb/s with SOA delayed-interference configuration," Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 939-952 (2001).
  11. K. Otsubo, S. Tanaka, S. Tomabechi, K. Morito, H. Kuwatsuka, "High efficiency, wide range and completely transparent wavelength conversion method using replicas generated by dual pump nearly-degenerated four-wave mixing in a Mach–Zehnder interferometer SOA," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OWS7.
  12. B. Mikkelsen, T. Durhuus, C. Joergensen, J. S. Pedersen, C. Braagaard, K. E. Stubkjaer, "Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s signals with SOAs in a Michelson interferometer," Electron. Lett. 36, 260-261 (1994).
  13. M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, H. G. Weber, "SLALOM: Semiconductor laser amplifier in a loop mirror," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2099 (1995).
  14. P. S. Devgan, M. Shin, V. S. Grigoryan, J. Lasri, P. Kumar, "SOA-based regenerative amplification of phase noise degraded DPSK signals," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2005) Paper PDP34.
  15. K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, M. Usami, "All-optical wavelength conversion by electroabsorption modulator," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 278-284 (2005).
  16. A. Poustie, R. Wyatt, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, B. R. Hemenway, "Optical timing jitter transfer characteristics of a 40 Gb/s hybrid integrated SOA-Mach–Zehnder interferometer all-optical regenerator," ECOC Conf. (2005) Paper We 2.4.6.
  17. S. H. Chung, R. Inohara, K. Nishimura, M. Usami, "Transparent interconnection between metro-core and metro-access network by using SOA-MZI based 2R wavelength converter," ECOC Conf. (2005) Paper We 4 pp. 034.
  18. A. Matsumoto, K. Nishimura, K. Utaka, M. Usami, "Operation design on high-speed semiconductor optical amplifier with assist light for application to wavelength converters using cross-phase modulation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 313-323 (2006).
  19. M. G. Davis, R. F. O'Dowd, "A transfer matrix method based large-signal dynamic model for multielectrode DFB lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2458-2466 (1994).
  20. H. Lee, H. Yoon, Y. Kim, J. Jeong, "Theoretical study of frequency chirping and extinction ratio of wavelength-converted optical signals by XGM and XPM using SOA's," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1213-1219 (1999).
  21. R. Inohara, K. Nishimura, M. Tsurusawa, M. Usami, "Experimental analysis of cross-phase modulation and cross-gain modulation in SOA-injecting CW assist light," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1192-1194 (2003).
  22. K. Nishimura, T. Asai, T. Yazaki, R. Inohara, M. Usami, "Control pulse propagation direction dependence of cross-gain and cross-phase modulation induced in semiconductor optical amplifier," IPRM Conf. (2004) Paper WP-27.
  23. K. Nishimura, M. Usami, T. Asai, K. Utaka, "Dependence of efficiency ratio of XPM to XGM on control pulse propagation direction in SOA," Optical Amplifiers Applications Conf. San FranciscoCA (2005) Paper WD4.

2006 (1)

A. Matsumoto, K. Nishimura, K. Utaka, M. Usami, "Operation design on high-speed semiconductor optical amplifier with assist light for application to wavelength converters using cross-phase modulation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 313-323 (2006).

2005 (2)

M. L. Masanovic, V. Lal, J. A. Summers, J. S. Barton, E. J. Skogen, L. G. Rau, L. A. Coldren, D. J. Blumenthal, "Widely tunable monolithically integrated all-optical wavelength converters in InP," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1350-1362 (2005).

K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, M. Usami, "All-optical wavelength conversion by electroabsorption modulator," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 278-284 (2005).

2004 (1)

R. Sato, T. Ito, K. Magari, I. Ogawa, Y. Inoue, R. Kasahara, M. Okamoto, Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzuki, "10-Gb/s low-input-power SOA-PLC hybrid integrated wavelength converter and its 8-slot unit," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1331 (2004).

2003 (1)

R. Inohara, K. Nishimura, M. Tsurusawa, M. Usami, "Experimental analysis of cross-phase modulation and cross-gain modulation in SOA-injecting CW assist light," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1192-1194 (2003).

2001 (1)

J. Leuthold, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, C. H. Joyner, J. L. Pleumeekers, B. I. Miller, K. Dreyer, R. Behringer, "All-optical wavelength conversion between 10 and 100 Gb/s with SOA delayed-interference configuration," Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 939-952 (2001).

1999 (1)

H. Lee, H. Yoon, Y. Kim, J. Jeong, "Theoretical study of frequency chirping and extinction ratio of wavelength-converted optical signals by XGM and XPM using SOA's," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1213-1219 (1999).

1998 (1)

J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, M. Dulk, H. Melchior, "All-optical space switches with gain and principally ideal extinction ratios," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 622-633 (1998).

1995 (1)

M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, H. G. Weber, "SLALOM: Semiconductor laser amplifier in a loop mirror," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2099 (1995).

1994 (2)

B. Mikkelsen, T. Durhuus, C. Joergensen, J. S. Pedersen, C. Braagaard, K. E. Stubkjaer, "Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s signals with SOAs in a Michelson interferometer," Electron. Lett. 36, 260-261 (1994).

M. G. Davis, R. F. O'Dowd, "A transfer matrix method based large-signal dynamic model for multielectrode DFB lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2458-2466 (1994).

1993 (1)

S. Nakamura, "High-speed all-optical switching experiment in Mach–Zehnder configuration using GaAs waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 925 (1993).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Nakamura, "High-speed all-optical switching experiment in Mach–Zehnder configuration using GaAs waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 925 (1993).

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Mikkelsen, T. Durhuus, C. Joergensen, J. S. Pedersen, C. Braagaard, K. E. Stubkjaer, "Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s signals with SOAs in a Michelson interferometer," Electron. Lett. 36, 260-261 (1994).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, M. Dulk, H. Melchior, "All-optical space switches with gain and principally ideal extinction ratios," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 622-633 (1998).

A. Matsumoto, K. Nishimura, K. Utaka, M. Usami, "Operation design on high-speed semiconductor optical amplifier with assist light for application to wavelength converters using cross-phase modulation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 313-323 (2006).

M. G. Davis, R. F. O'Dowd, "A transfer matrix method based large-signal dynamic model for multielectrode DFB lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2458-2466 (1994).

H. Lee, H. Yoon, Y. Kim, J. Jeong, "Theoretical study of frequency chirping and extinction ratio of wavelength-converted optical signals by XGM and XPM using SOA's," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1213-1219 (1999).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, M. Usami, "All-optical wavelength conversion by electroabsorption modulator," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 278-284 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Inohara, K. Nishimura, M. Tsurusawa, M. Usami, "Experimental analysis of cross-phase modulation and cross-gain modulation in SOA-injecting CW assist light," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1192-1194 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, H. G. Weber, "SLALOM: Semiconductor laser amplifier in a loop mirror," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2099 (1995).

M. L. Masanovic, V. Lal, J. A. Summers, J. S. Barton, E. J. Skogen, L. G. Rau, L. A. Coldren, D. J. Blumenthal, "Widely tunable monolithically integrated all-optical wavelength converters in InP," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1350-1362 (2005).

R. Sato, T. Ito, K. Magari, I. Ogawa, Y. Inoue, R. Kasahara, M. Okamoto, Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzuki, "10-Gb/s low-input-power SOA-PLC hybrid integrated wavelength converter and its 8-slot unit," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1331 (2004).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Leuthold, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, C. H. Joyner, J. L. Pleumeekers, B. I. Miller, K. Dreyer, R. Behringer, "All-optical wavelength conversion between 10 and 100 Gb/s with SOA delayed-interference configuration," Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 939-952 (2001).

Other (11)

K. Otsubo, S. Tanaka, S. Tomabechi, K. Morito, H. Kuwatsuka, "High efficiency, wide range and completely transparent wavelength conversion method using replicas generated by dual pump nearly-degenerated four-wave mixing in a Mach–Zehnder interferometer SOA," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OWS7.

P. S. Devgan, M. Shin, V. S. Grigoryan, J. Lasri, P. Kumar, "SOA-based regenerative amplification of phase noise degraded DPSK signals," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2005) Paper PDP34.

K. Nishimura, T. Asai, T. Yazaki, R. Inohara, M. Usami, "Control pulse propagation direction dependence of cross-gain and cross-phase modulation induced in semiconductor optical amplifier," IPRM Conf. (2004) Paper WP-27.

K. Nishimura, M. Usami, T. Asai, K. Utaka, "Dependence of efficiency ratio of XPM to XGM on control pulse propagation direction in SOA," Optical Amplifiers Applications Conf. San FranciscoCA (2005) Paper WD4.

L. Armstrong, L. Andonovic, J. Bebbington, C. Michie, C. Tombling, S. Fasham, "Hybridisation platform demonstrating all optical wavelength conversion at 10 and 20 Gb/s," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper ThS3.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Harlow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, D. Scrase, "Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. CopenhagenDenmark (2002) Paper PD3.5.

T. Miyahara, A. Sugitatsu, T. Hatta, K. Takagi, K. Matsumoto, T. Aoyagi, S. Nishikawa, T. Nishimura, K. Motoshima, "Monolithically integrated SOA–MZI wavelength converter with assist DFB-LD," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper ThS4.

R. Inohara, M. Tsurusawa, K. Nishimura, M. Usami, "Experimental verification for cascadability of all-optical 3R regenerator utilizing two-stage SOA-based polarization discriminated switches with estimated $Q$-factor over 20 dB at 40 Gb/s transmission," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. RiminiItaly (2003) Paper Mo4.3.2.

S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, "Bit-rate-transparent non-return-to-zero all-optical wavelength conversion at up to 42 Gb/s by operating symmetric-Mach–Zehnder switch with new scheme," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper FD3.

A. Poustie, R. Wyatt, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, B. R. Hemenway, "Optical timing jitter transfer characteristics of a 40 Gb/s hybrid integrated SOA-Mach–Zehnder interferometer all-optical regenerator," ECOC Conf. (2005) Paper We 2.4.6.

S. H. Chung, R. Inohara, K. Nishimura, M. Usami, "Transparent interconnection between metro-core and metro-access network by using SOA-MZI based 2R wavelength converter," ECOC Conf. (2005) Paper We 4 pp. 034.

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