Abstract

The passband frequency response of an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) is improved for better performance in wavelength-division multiplexing applications. Using the lengths of array arms as optimization variables, an optimization method is employed to obtain an ideal flat-top transfer function. Two different definitions of the desired transfer function to achieve the ideal flat-top response are given, and their results are compared. Rigorous mathematical derivation of the transfer function and definition of suitable objective functions generate closed-form expressions for the gradient vector of the objective function with respect to the optimization variables, thus enabling the implementation of a robust quasi-Newton optimization algorithm. This, in turn, provides accurate results and fast convergence, despite a large number of optimizing variables. It is shown that the optimized nonuniform AWG will have a flat passband with a broad bandwidth that is 2.3 times larger than that of an ordinary uniform AWG.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. M. K. Smit, C. Van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
  2. H. Uetsuka, "AWG technologies for dense WDM applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 393-402 (2004).
  3. H. Tsuda, K. Okamoto, T. Ishii, K. Naganuma, Y. Inoue, H. Takenouchi, T. Kurokawa, "Second- and third-order dispersion compensator using a high-resolution arrayed-waveguide grating ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 569-571 (1999).
  4. Y. Tanaka, Y. Itoh, K. Aizawa, T. Kurokawa, H. Tsuda, "Optical spectrum analyzer based on arrayed waveguide grating for high-speed optical communication systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 432-434 (2005).
  5. M. Kohtoku, H. Takahashi, T. Kitoh, T. Shibata, Y. lnoue, Y. Hibino, "Low-loss flat-top passband arrayed waveguide gratings realized by first-order mode assistance method," Electron. Lett. 38, 792-794 (2002).
  6. C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, "Double-chirping of the waveguide grating router," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 776-778 (1997).
  7. M. C. Parker, S. D. Walker, "A Fourier-Fresnel integral-based transfer function model for a near-parabolic phase profile arrayed-waveguide grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1018-1020 (1999).
  8. A. Shah Mansouri, R. Faraji-Dana, "Arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers with flat spectral response using non-uniform arrays ," Proc. 12th Int. Conf. Microelectron. (2000) pp. 307-310.
  9. T. Kamalakis, T. Sphicopoulos, "An efficient technique for the design of an arrayed-waveguide grating with flat spectral response ," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1716-1725 (2001).
  10. H. Takenouchi, H. Tesuda, "Analysis of optical-signal processing using an arrayed-waveguide grating," Opt. Express 6, 124-135 (2000).
  11. P. Munoz, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, "Modeling and design of arrayed waveguide gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 661-674 (2002).
  12. S. Kamei, A. Kaneko, M. Ishii, A. Himeno, M. Itoh, Y. Hibino, "Very low crosstalk arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer using cascade connection technique," Electron. Lett. 36, 823-824 (2000).
  13. S. Kamei, M. Ishii, T. Kitagawa, M. Itoh, Y. Hibino, "64-channel ultra-low crosstalk arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer module using cascade connection technique," Electron. Lett. 39, 81-82 (2003).
  14. A. Gholipour, R. Faraji-Dana, "Band pass improvement in the frequency response of arrayed waveguide grating devices ," Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw. (2005) pp. 359-362.
  15. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997).
  16. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

2005 (1)

Y. Tanaka, Y. Itoh, K. Aizawa, T. Kurokawa, H. Tsuda, "Optical spectrum analyzer based on arrayed waveguide grating for high-speed optical communication systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 432-434 (2005).

2004 (1)

H. Uetsuka, "AWG technologies for dense WDM applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 393-402 (2004).

2003 (1)

S. Kamei, M. Ishii, T. Kitagawa, M. Itoh, Y. Hibino, "64-channel ultra-low crosstalk arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer module using cascade connection technique," Electron. Lett. 39, 81-82 (2003).

2002 (2)

P. Munoz, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, "Modeling and design of arrayed waveguide gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 661-674 (2002).

M. Kohtoku, H. Takahashi, T. Kitoh, T. Shibata, Y. lnoue, Y. Hibino, "Low-loss flat-top passband arrayed waveguide gratings realized by first-order mode assistance method," Electron. Lett. 38, 792-794 (2002).

2001 (1)

T. Kamalakis, T. Sphicopoulos, "An efficient technique for the design of an arrayed-waveguide grating with flat spectral response ," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1716-1725 (2001).

2000 (2)

H. Takenouchi, H. Tesuda, "Analysis of optical-signal processing using an arrayed-waveguide grating," Opt. Express 6, 124-135 (2000).

S. Kamei, A. Kaneko, M. Ishii, A. Himeno, M. Itoh, Y. Hibino, "Very low crosstalk arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer using cascade connection technique," Electron. Lett. 36, 823-824 (2000).

1999 (2)

M. C. Parker, S. D. Walker, "A Fourier-Fresnel integral-based transfer function model for a near-parabolic phase profile arrayed-waveguide grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1018-1020 (1999).

H. Tsuda, K. Okamoto, T. Ishii, K. Naganuma, Y. Inoue, H. Takenouchi, T. Kurokawa, "Second- and third-order dispersion compensator using a high-resolution arrayed-waveguide grating ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 569-571 (1999).

1997 (1)

C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, "Double-chirping of the waveguide grating router," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 776-778 (1997).

1996 (1)

M. K. Smit, C. Van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).

Electron. Lett. (3)

M. Kohtoku, H. Takahashi, T. Kitoh, T. Shibata, Y. lnoue, Y. Hibino, "Low-loss flat-top passband arrayed waveguide gratings realized by first-order mode assistance method," Electron. Lett. 38, 792-794 (2002).

S. Kamei, A. Kaneko, M. Ishii, A. Himeno, M. Itoh, Y. Hibino, "Very low crosstalk arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer using cascade connection technique," Electron. Lett. 36, 823-824 (2000).

S. Kamei, M. Ishii, T. Kitagawa, M. Itoh, Y. Hibino, "64-channel ultra-low crosstalk arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer module using cascade connection technique," Electron. Lett. 39, 81-82 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

M. K. Smit, C. Van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).

H. Uetsuka, "AWG technologies for dense WDM applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 393-402 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

H. Tsuda, K. Okamoto, T. Ishii, K. Naganuma, Y. Inoue, H. Takenouchi, T. Kurokawa, "Second- and third-order dispersion compensator using a high-resolution arrayed-waveguide grating ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 569-571 (1999).

Y. Tanaka, Y. Itoh, K. Aizawa, T. Kurokawa, H. Tsuda, "Optical spectrum analyzer based on arrayed waveguide grating for high-speed optical communication systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 432-434 (2005).

C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, "Double-chirping of the waveguide grating router," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 776-778 (1997).

M. C. Parker, S. D. Walker, "A Fourier-Fresnel integral-based transfer function model for a near-parabolic phase profile arrayed-waveguide grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1018-1020 (1999).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

T. Kamalakis, T. Sphicopoulos, "An efficient technique for the design of an arrayed-waveguide grating with flat spectral response ," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1716-1725 (2001).

P. Munoz, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, "Modeling and design of arrayed waveguide gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 661-674 (2002).

Opt. Express (1)

Other (4)

A. Gholipour, R. Faraji-Dana, "Band pass improvement in the frequency response of arrayed waveguide grating devices ," Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw. (2005) pp. 359-362.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

A. Shah Mansouri, R. Faraji-Dana, "Arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers with flat spectral response using non-uniform arrays ," Proc. 12th Int. Conf. Microelectron. (2000) pp. 307-310.

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