Abstract

A highly accurate fiber-optic current sensor for direct currents up to 500 kA is presented. Applications include the control of the electrolysis process for the production of metals such as aluminum, copper, zinc, magnesium, and others. The sensor offers significant advantages with regard to performance and ease of use compared to state-of-the-art Hall-effect-based current transducers. The sensor makes use of the Faraday effect in an optical fiber loop around the current-carrying bus bars. A novel scheme of a polarization-rotated reflection interferometer and fiber gyroscope technology is used to measure the magneto-optic phase shifts. An appropriate technique has been developed for packaging the sensing fiber in a flexible strip of fiber-reinforced epoxy for loop diameters of up to several meters. Sensor accuracy and repeatability are well within ±0.1% over a wide range of currents and temperatures. The sensor calibration is valid, regardless of the given magnetic field distribution, and remains stable under repeated manipulation of the flexible sensing strip.

© 2007 IEEE

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2002 (1)

K. Bohnert, P. Gabus, J. Nehring, H. Brändle, "Temperature and vibration insensitive fiber-optic current sensor," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 267-276 (2002).

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

S. X. Short, J. U. de Arruda, A. A. Tselikov, J. N. Blake, "Elimination of birefringence induced scale factor errors in the in-line Sagnac interferometer current sensor," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1844-1850 (1998).

1997 (1)

A. H. Rose, S. M. Etzel, C. M. Wang, "Verdet constant dispersion in annealed optical fiber current sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 803-807 (1997).

1996 (2)

H. Rose, Z. B. Ren, G. W. Day, "Twisting and annealing of optical fiber for current sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2492-2498 (1996).

J. Blake, P. Tantaswadi, R. T. de Carvalho, "In-line Sagnac interferometer current sensor," IEEE Trans. Power Del. 11, 116-121 (1996).

1995 (3)

Y. N. Ning, Z. P. Wang, A. W. Palmer, K. T. V. Grattan, D. A. Jackson, "Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3097-3111 (1995).

P. Menke, T. Bosselmann, "Temperature compensation in magneto-optic ac current sensors using an intelligent ac–dc signal evaluation," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1362-1370 (1995).

K. Kurosawa, S. Yoshida, K. Sakamoto, "Polarization properties of the flint glass fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1378-1383 (1995).

1994 (2)

G. Frosio, R. Dändliker, "Reciprocal reflection interferometer for a fiber-optic Faraday current sensor," Appl. Opt. 33, 6111-6122 (1994).

X. Fang, A. Wang, R. G. May, R. O. Claus, "A reciprocal-compensated fiber-optic electric current sensor," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1882-1890 (1994).

1991 (1)

D. Tang, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day, S. M. Etzel, "Annealing of linear birefringence in single-mode fiber coils: Applications to optical fiber current sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1031-1037 (1991).

1989 (1)

R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, "Electric current sensors employing spun highly birefringent optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 2084-2094 (1989).

1988 (2)

P.-A. Nicati, P. Robert, "Stabilized current sensor using a Sagnac interferometer," J. Phys. E, Sci. Instrum. 21, 791-796 (1988).

S. Donati, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, T. Tambasso, "Magneto-optical fiber sensor for electrical industry: Analysis of performance," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 135, 372-382 (1988).

1987 (1)

A. Enokihara, M. Izutsu, T. Sueta, "Optical fiber sensors using the method of polarization-rotated reflection," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 1584-1590 (1987).

1984 (1)

R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, "An overview of fiber-optic gyroscopes," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-2, 91-107 (1984).

1983 (1)

Y. Namihira, "Opto-elastic constant in single-mode optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 1078-1083 (1983).

1980 (3)

1979 (1)

1941 (1)

R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems. I. Description and discussion of the calculus ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 31, 488-493 (1941).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. C. Lefevre, "Single-mode fibre fractional wave devices and polarisation controllers," Electron. Lett. 16, 778-780 (1980).

IEEE Trans. Power Del. (1)

J. Blake, P. Tantaswadi, R. T. de Carvalho, "In-line Sagnac interferometer current sensor," IEEE Trans. Power Del. 11, 116-121 (1996).

J. Lightw. Technol. (12)

P. Menke, T. Bosselmann, "Temperature compensation in magneto-optic ac current sensors using an intelligent ac–dc signal evaluation," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1362-1370 (1995).

R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, "Electric current sensors employing spun highly birefringent optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 2084-2094 (1989).

K. Kurosawa, S. Yoshida, K. Sakamoto, "Polarization properties of the flint glass fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1378-1383 (1995).

D. Tang, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day, S. M. Etzel, "Annealing of linear birefringence in single-mode fiber coils: Applications to optical fiber current sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1031-1037 (1991).

Y. Namihira, "Opto-elastic constant in single-mode optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 1078-1083 (1983).

S. X. Short, J. U. de Arruda, A. A. Tselikov, J. N. Blake, "Elimination of birefringence induced scale factor errors in the in-line Sagnac interferometer current sensor," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1844-1850 (1998).

H. Rose, Z. B. Ren, G. W. Day, "Twisting and annealing of optical fiber for current sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2492-2498 (1996).

A. H. Rose, S. M. Etzel, C. M. Wang, "Verdet constant dispersion in annealed optical fiber current sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 803-807 (1997).

X. Fang, A. Wang, R. G. May, R. O. Claus, "A reciprocal-compensated fiber-optic electric current sensor," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1882-1890 (1994).

K. Bohnert, P. Gabus, J. Nehring, H. Brändle, "Temperature and vibration insensitive fiber-optic current sensor," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 267-276 (2002).

A. Enokihara, M. Izutsu, T. Sueta, "Optical fiber sensors using the method of polarization-rotated reflection," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 1584-1590 (1987).

R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, "An overview of fiber-optic gyroscopes," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-2, 91-107 (1984).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems. I. Description and discussion of the calculus ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 31, 488-493 (1941).

J. Phys. E, Sci. Instrum. (1)

P.-A. Nicati, P. Robert, "Stabilized current sensor using a Sagnac interferometer," J. Phys. E, Sci. Instrum. 21, 791-796 (1988).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. (1)

S. Donati, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, T. Tambasso, "Magneto-optical fiber sensor for electrical industry: Analysis of performance," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 135, 372-382 (1988).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

Y. N. Ning, Z. P. Wang, A. W. Palmer, K. T. V. Grattan, D. A. Jackson, "Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3097-3111 (1995).

Other (6)

F. Brifford, L. Thevenaz, P. Robert, "Performance and stability of a field fibre optics current sensor," Tech. Dig. 14th Opt. Fiber Sensors Conf. (2000) pp. 344-347.

H. Lefevre, The Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (Artech House, 1993).

G. Frosio, Reciprocal interferometers for fiber-optic Faraday current sensors Ph.D. dissertation Univ. NeuchatelNeuchatelSwitzerland (1992).

K. Kurosawa, Y. Tashiro, N. Ochi, K. Kishimoto, H. Okada, W. Kayamori, "Development of optical current transducer using flint glass fiber for digital substation system ," Tech. Dig. 16th Opt. Fiber Sensors Conf. (2003) pp. 324-327.

M. Takahashi, K. Sasaki, A. Ohno, Y. Hirata, K. Terai, "Sagnac interferometer-type fiber-optic current sensor using single-mode fiber down leads ," Tech. Dig. 16th Opt. Fiber Sensors Conf. (2003) pp. 756-759.

J. Haywood, I. Bassett, M. Martar, "Application of the NIMI technique to the 3 × 3 Sagnac fibre optical current sensor—Experimental results," Tech. Dig. 15th Opt. Fiber Sensors Conf. (2002) pp. 553-556.

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