Abstract

Optical losses of dissimilar fiber fusion splices are modeled using a combination of diffusion simulation and beam propagation method; open-source codes are provided. It is demonstrated that an optimal amount of diffusion is required to achieve the minimum splice loss. Additional annealing beyond the optimal level is detrimental. Furthermore, oscillation of splice loss with the geometrical parameters of the heat zone due to an optical interference effect is revealed, which can be intentionally utilized to reduce dissimilar fiber splice losses. Understanding these diffusion-related splice loss mechanisms is important for splicing process optimization, as well as design of fusion splicers and novel postsplicing heat treatment devices.

© 2007 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Nakano, H. C. Chandan, J. Luo, L. R. Pritchett, T. Ellithi, T. Veng, A. D. Yablon, J. F. Ryan, "Improvements in splicing dissimilar fibers," Proc. 51st Int. Wire Cable Symp. (2001) pp. 687-695.
  2. A. D. Yablon, Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing (Springer-Verlag, 2005).
  3. D. B. Mortimore, J. V. Wright, "Low-loss joints between dissimilar fibres by tapering fusion splices," Electron. Lett. 22, 318-319 (1986).
  4. J. T. Krause, W. A. Reed, K. L. Walker, "Splice loss of single-mode fiber as related to fusion time, temperature, and index profile alteration," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 837-840 (1986).
  5. H. Y. Tam, "Simple fusion splicing technique for reducing splicing loss between standard singlemode fibers and erbium-doped fiber," Electron. Lett. 27, 1597-1599 (1991).
  6. W. Zell, J. A. Becker, P. K. Bachmann, W. G. Hermann, "Low-loss fusion splicing of PCVD-DFSM fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 1192-1195 (1987).
  7. W. X. Zheng, O. Hulten, R. Rylander, "Erbium-doped fiber splicing and splice loss estimation," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 430-435 (1994).
  8. T. Veng, B. Palsdottir, Erbium-Doped Fiber Design for Improved Splicing Performance (SPIE, 2004) pp. 438-446.
  9. S. Pradhan, J. Arbulich, K. Srihari, Splice Loss Optimization of Single Mode Fiber and Erbium Doped Fiber-Experiments and Issues (Amer. Soc. Mech. Eng., 2003) pp. 479-486.
  10. Q. Yu, P. H. Zongo, P. Facq, "Refractive-index profile influences on mode-coupling effects at optical-fiber splices and connectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1270-1273 (1993).
  11. G. Kweon, I. Park, "Splicing losses between dissimilar optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 690-703 (1999).
  12. Y. Ohtera, O. Hanaizumi, S. Kawakami, "Numerical analysis of eigenmodes and splice losses of thermally diffused expanded core fibers ," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2675-2682 (1999).
  13. B. Zamzow, G. Ruegenberg, M. Anderson, W. Knop, "Numerical simulation of high quality fiber optic splices for high precision loss evaluation ," Proc. Int. Wire Cable Symp. (1999) pp. 621-628.
  14. J. Yamauchi, Y. Akimoto, M. Nibe, H. Nakano, "Wide-angle propagating beam analysis for circularly symmetric waveguides: Comparison between FD-BPM and FD-TDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 236-238 (1996).
  15. J. Yamauchi, K. Nishio, K. Nakano, "Analysis of a lensed coreless fiber by a hybrid technique combining FD-BPM and FD-TDM ," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 465-471 (1998).
  16. D. Marcuse, "Mode conversion in optical fibers with monotonically increasing core radius," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 125-133 (1987).
  17. A. D. Yablon, M. Sumetsky, "Optimum intermediate fibers for reducing interconnection loss: Exact solution," Opt. Lett. 32, 617-619 (2007).

2007

1999

G. Kweon, I. Park, "Splicing losses between dissimilar optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 690-703 (1999).

Y. Ohtera, O. Hanaizumi, S. Kawakami, "Numerical analysis of eigenmodes and splice losses of thermally diffused expanded core fibers ," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2675-2682 (1999).

1998

J. Yamauchi, K. Nishio, K. Nakano, "Analysis of a lensed coreless fiber by a hybrid technique combining FD-BPM and FD-TDM ," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 465-471 (1998).

1996

J. Yamauchi, Y. Akimoto, M. Nibe, H. Nakano, "Wide-angle propagating beam analysis for circularly symmetric waveguides: Comparison between FD-BPM and FD-TDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 236-238 (1996).

1994

W. X. Zheng, O. Hulten, R. Rylander, "Erbium-doped fiber splicing and splice loss estimation," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 430-435 (1994).

1993

Q. Yu, P. H. Zongo, P. Facq, "Refractive-index profile influences on mode-coupling effects at optical-fiber splices and connectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1270-1273 (1993).

1991

H. Y. Tam, "Simple fusion splicing technique for reducing splicing loss between standard singlemode fibers and erbium-doped fiber," Electron. Lett. 27, 1597-1599 (1991).

1987

W. Zell, J. A. Becker, P. K. Bachmann, W. G. Hermann, "Low-loss fusion splicing of PCVD-DFSM fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 1192-1195 (1987).

D. Marcuse, "Mode conversion in optical fibers with monotonically increasing core radius," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 125-133 (1987).

1986

D. B. Mortimore, J. V. Wright, "Low-loss joints between dissimilar fibres by tapering fusion splices," Electron. Lett. 22, 318-319 (1986).

J. T. Krause, W. A. Reed, K. L. Walker, "Splice loss of single-mode fiber as related to fusion time, temperature, and index profile alteration," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 837-840 (1986).

Electron. Lett.

D. B. Mortimore, J. V. Wright, "Low-loss joints between dissimilar fibres by tapering fusion splices," Electron. Lett. 22, 318-319 (1986).

H. Y. Tam, "Simple fusion splicing technique for reducing splicing loss between standard singlemode fibers and erbium-doped fiber," Electron. Lett. 27, 1597-1599 (1991).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Yamauchi, Y. Akimoto, M. Nibe, H. Nakano, "Wide-angle propagating beam analysis for circularly symmetric waveguides: Comparison between FD-BPM and FD-TDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 236-238 (1996).

J. Lightw. Technol.

J. Yamauchi, K. Nishio, K. Nakano, "Analysis of a lensed coreless fiber by a hybrid technique combining FD-BPM and FD-TDM ," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 465-471 (1998).

D. Marcuse, "Mode conversion in optical fibers with monotonically increasing core radius," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 125-133 (1987).

Q. Yu, P. H. Zongo, P. Facq, "Refractive-index profile influences on mode-coupling effects at optical-fiber splices and connectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1270-1273 (1993).

G. Kweon, I. Park, "Splicing losses between dissimilar optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 690-703 (1999).

Y. Ohtera, O. Hanaizumi, S. Kawakami, "Numerical analysis of eigenmodes and splice losses of thermally diffused expanded core fibers ," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2675-2682 (1999).

W. Zell, J. A. Becker, P. K. Bachmann, W. G. Hermann, "Low-loss fusion splicing of PCVD-DFSM fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 1192-1195 (1987).

W. X. Zheng, O. Hulten, R. Rylander, "Erbium-doped fiber splicing and splice loss estimation," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 430-435 (1994).

J. T. Krause, W. A. Reed, K. L. Walker, "Splice loss of single-mode fiber as related to fusion time, temperature, and index profile alteration," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 837-840 (1986).

Opt. Lett.

Other

B. Zamzow, G. Ruegenberg, M. Anderson, W. Knop, "Numerical simulation of high quality fiber optic splices for high precision loss evaluation ," Proc. Int. Wire Cable Symp. (1999) pp. 621-628.

M. Nakano, H. C. Chandan, J. Luo, L. R. Pritchett, T. Ellithi, T. Veng, A. D. Yablon, J. F. Ryan, "Improvements in splicing dissimilar fibers," Proc. 51st Int. Wire Cable Symp. (2001) pp. 687-695.

A. D. Yablon, Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing (Springer-Verlag, 2005).

T. Veng, B. Palsdottir, Erbium-Doped Fiber Design for Improved Splicing Performance (SPIE, 2004) pp. 438-446.

S. Pradhan, J. Arbulich, K. Srihari, Splice Loss Optimization of Single Mode Fiber and Erbium Doped Fiber-Experiments and Issues (Amer. Soc. Mech. Eng., 2003) pp. 479-486.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.