Abstract

We investigate the microhole collapse property of different photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) and its effect on the splice loss using an electric arc fusion splicer. The physical mechanism of the splice loss for different kinds of PCFs is studied, and a guideline for splicing these PCFs and conventional single-mode fibers (SMFs) is proposed. We demonstrate a low-loss fusion splicing of five different PCFs with SMFs, including large-mode PCF, hollow-core PCF, nonlinear PCFs, and polarization-maintaining PCF.

© 2007 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
  2. P. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
  3. P. Russell, "Photonic-crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).
  4. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).
  5. P. J. Bennett, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, "Toward practical holey fiber technology: Fabrication, splicing, modeling, and characterization ," Opt. Lett. 24, 1203-1205 (1999).
  6. J. T. Lizier, G. E. Town, "Splice losses in holey optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 794-796 (2001).
  7. Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. L. Ho, "Loss analysis of single-mode fiber/photonic-crystal fiber splice," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 40, 378-380 (2004).
  8. K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, I. Sankawa, "Hole-assisted fiber design for small bending and splice losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1737-1739 (2003).
  9. C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191-3193 (2001).
  10. B. Bourliaguet, C. Paré, F. Émond, A. Croteau, A. Proulx, R. Vallée, "Microstructured fiber splicing," Opt. Express 11, 3412-3417 (2003).
  11. B. H. Park, J. Kim, U. C. Paek, B. H. Lee, "The optimum fusion splicing conditions for a large mode area photonic crystal fiber ," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 883-888 (2005).
  12. J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, Y. Zhu, P. Shum, "An effective splicing method on photonic crystal fiber using $\hbox{CO}_{2}$ laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 942-944 (2003).
  13. J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, "Development of a system for laser splicing photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 11, 1365-1370 (2003).
  14. A. D. Yablon, R. T. Bise, "Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using GRIN fiber lenses ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 118-120 (2005).
  15. T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H. R. Simonsen, M. D. Nielsen, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. R. Folkenberg, A. Bjarklev, "Air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers: Spectral properties, macrobending loss, and practical handling," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 11-15 (2004).
  16. F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres ," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
  17. R. Thapa, K. Knabe, K. L. Corwin, B. R. Washburn, "Arc fusion splicing of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers for gas-filled fiber cells ," Opt. Express 14, 9576-9583 (2006).
  18. W. Wadsworth, A. Witkowska, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, "Hole inflation and tapering of stock photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 13, 6541-6549 (2005).
  19. J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, C. Xu, "Adiabatic coupling in tapered air–silica microstructured optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 52-54 (2001).
  20. S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, N. Y. Joly, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Kakarantzas, P. S. J. Russell, "Splice-free interfacing of photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1629-1631 (2005).
  21. L. M. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, H. L. Ho, H. Y. Tam, J. Ju, J. Yu, "Photopolymer microtips for efficient light coupling between single-mode fibers and photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 31, 1791-1793 (2006).
  22. L. M. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Fusion splicing small-core photonic crystal fibers and single-mode fibers by repeated arc discharges," Opt. Lett. 32, 115-117 (2007).
  23. A. D. Yablon, Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing (Springer-Verlag, 2005).
  24. J. C. Fajardo, M. T. Gallagher, Q. Wu, Splice joint and process for joining a microstructured optical fiber and a conventional optical fiber U.S. Patent 20 030 081 915 A1 (2003).
  25. User's Manual for the FSU 975 Single Fiber Fusion Splicer by Ericsson .
  26. L. M. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, H. L. Ho, Y. L. Hoo, C. L. Zhao, "Fabrication of selective injection microstructured optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer," Opt. Express 13, 9014-9022 (2005).
  27. O. Frazão, J. P. Carvalho, H. M. Salgado, "Low-loss splice in a microstructured fibre using a conventional fusion splicer," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 172-174 (2005).
  28. H. Y. Tam, "Simple fusion splicing technique for reducing splicing loss between standard single mode fibres and erbium-doped fibre," Electron. Lett. 27, 1597-1599 (1991).

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

2005 (7)

W. Wadsworth, A. Witkowska, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, "Hole inflation and tapering of stock photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 13, 6541-6549 (2005).

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres ," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).

B. H. Park, J. Kim, U. C. Paek, B. H. Lee, "The optimum fusion splicing conditions for a large mode area photonic crystal fiber ," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 883-888 (2005).

A. D. Yablon, R. T. Bise, "Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using GRIN fiber lenses ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 118-120 (2005).

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, N. Y. Joly, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Kakarantzas, P. S. J. Russell, "Splice-free interfacing of photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1629-1631 (2005).

L. M. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, H. L. Ho, Y. L. Hoo, C. L. Zhao, "Fabrication of selective injection microstructured optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer," Opt. Express 13, 9014-9022 (2005).

O. Frazão, J. P. Carvalho, H. M. Salgado, "Low-loss splice in a microstructured fibre using a conventional fusion splicer," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 172-174 (2005).

2004 (2)

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H. R. Simonsen, M. D. Nielsen, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. R. Folkenberg, A. Bjarklev, "Air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers: Spectral properties, macrobending loss, and practical handling," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 11-15 (2004).

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. L. Ho, "Loss analysis of single-mode fiber/photonic-crystal fiber splice," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 40, 378-380 (2004).

2003 (6)

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, I. Sankawa, "Hole-assisted fiber design for small bending and splice losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1737-1739 (2003).

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).

P. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, Y. Zhu, P. Shum, "An effective splicing method on photonic crystal fiber using $\hbox{CO}_{2}$ laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 942-944 (2003).

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, "Development of a system for laser splicing photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 11, 1365-1370 (2003).

B. Bourliaguet, C. Paré, F. Émond, A. Croteau, A. Proulx, R. Vallée, "Microstructured fiber splicing," Opt. Express 11, 3412-3417 (2003).

2001 (3)

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, C. Xu, "Adiabatic coupling in tapered air–silica microstructured optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 52-54 (2001).

C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191-3193 (2001).

J. T. Lizier, G. E. Town, "Splice losses in holey optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 794-796 (2001).

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

H. Y. Tam, "Simple fusion splicing technique for reducing splicing loss between standard single mode fibres and erbium-doped fibre," Electron. Lett. 27, 1597-1599 (1991).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191-3193 (2001).

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Y. Tam, "Simple fusion splicing technique for reducing splicing loss between standard single mode fibres and erbium-doped fibre," Electron. Lett. 27, 1597-1599 (1991).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, C. Xu, "Adiabatic coupling in tapered air–silica microstructured optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 52-54 (2001).

J. T. Lizier, G. E. Town, "Splice losses in holey optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 794-796 (2001).

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, I. Sankawa, "Hole-assisted fiber design for small bending and splice losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1737-1739 (2003).

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, Y. Zhu, P. Shum, "An effective splicing method on photonic crystal fiber using $\hbox{CO}_{2}$ laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 942-944 (2003).

A. D. Yablon, R. T. Bise, "Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using GRIN fiber lenses ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 118-120 (2005).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

B. H. Park, J. Kim, U. C. Paek, B. H. Lee, "The optimum fusion splicing conditions for a large mode area photonic crystal fiber ," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 883-888 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H. R. Simonsen, M. D. Nielsen, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. R. Folkenberg, A. Bjarklev, "Air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers: Spectral properties, macrobending loss, and practical handling," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 11-15 (2004).

P. Russell, "Photonic-crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. L. Ho, "Loss analysis of single-mode fiber/photonic-crystal fiber splice," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 40, 378-380 (2004).

O. Frazão, J. P. Carvalho, H. M. Salgado, "Low-loss splice in a microstructured fibre using a conventional fusion splicer," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 172-174 (2005).

Nature (2)

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres ," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Science (1)

P. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).

Other (3)

A. D. Yablon, Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing (Springer-Verlag, 2005).

J. C. Fajardo, M. T. Gallagher, Q. Wu, Splice joint and process for joining a microstructured optical fiber and a conventional optical fiber U.S. Patent 20 030 081 915 A1 (2003).

User's Manual for the FSU 975 Single Fiber Fusion Splicer by Ericsson .

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.