Abstract

We compare standard fiber Raman laser and new high-power- and low relative-intensity-noise (RIN)-copumping technologies for long-span unrepeated wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transmission systems. We show that, by using enhanced forward-error-correction techniques and by optimizing the transmission-system parameters in terms of signal power per channel, dispersion map, and copropagating on–off Raman gain, both copumping technologies allow successful transmission of 8 × 10-Gb/s WDM channels over more than 70 dB of standard single-mode fiber. However, transmission experiments point out that only the newly proposed high-power and low-RIN lasers can guarantee realistic system margins and can potentially provide further span-reach enhancement when used in optimized higher order copumping configurations.

© 2007 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. O. A. Sab, "FEC techniques in submarine transmission systems," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2001) Paper TuF1-3.
  2. P. J. Winzer, R. J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 956-985 (2006).
  3. V. Karpov, S. Papernyi, V. Ivanov, W. Clements, "Cascaded pump delivery for remotely pumped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," Suboptic Monaco (2004) Paper We 8.8.
  4. M. N. Islam, Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications (Springer-Verlag, 2003).
  5. S. Faralli, G. Bolognini, G. Sacchi, S. Sugliani, F. Di Pasquale, "Bi-directional higher-order cascaded Raman amplification benefits for 10 Gb/s WDM unrepeated transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2427-2433 (2005).
  6. P. M. Krummrich, R. E. Neuhauser, H. Bock, W. Fischler, C. Glingener, "System performance improvements by co-directional Raman pumping of the transmission fiber ," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) AmsterdamThe Netherlands (2001) Paper Tu.A.1.4.
  7. G. Bolognini, S. Faralli, A. Chiuchiarelli, F. Falconi, F. Di Pasquale, "High-power and low-RIN lasers for advanced first- and higher-order Raman co-pumping ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1591-1593 (2006).
  8. C. Cantini, S. Faralli, G. Sacchi, G. Bolognini, F. Falconi, F. Di Pasquale, G. Prati, "Transmission of 8 × 10 Gb/s WDM channels over 70 dB of standard SMF based on advanced first-order Raman co-pumping," Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (CLEO) Long BeachCA (2006) Paper CThP5.
  9. S. Faralli, G. Bolognini, A. Chiuchiarelli, R. Magri, F. Falconi, F. Di Pasquale, "Advanced first- and second-order Raman co-pumping schemes for improved performance in unrepeated WDM transmission systems," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) CannesFrance (2006) Paper Th.2.3.5.
  10. C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1140-1148 (2001).
  11. R. H. Wentworth, G. E. Bodeep, T. E. Darcie, "Laser mode partition noise in lightwave system using dispersive optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 84-89 (1992).
  12. S. Faralli, G. Bolognini, F. Di Pasquale, "Design optimization of high power and low RIN lasers for efficient Raman co-pumping ," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2007) Paper Th. JThA13.
  13. M. D. Mermelstein, C. Headley, J.-C. Bouteiller, "RIN transfer analysis in pump depletion regime for Raman fiber amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 38, 403-405 (2002).
  14. C. Martinelli, L. Lorcy, A. Durécu-Legrand, D. Mongardien, S. Borne, D. Bayart, "RIN transfer in copumped Raman amplifiers using polarization-combined diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1836-1838 (2006).
  15. S. Faralli, F. Di Pasquale, "Impact of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed higher order Raman pumping schemes ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 804-806 (2003).
  16. X. Zhou, M. Birk, "Performance limitation due to statistical Raman crosstalk in a WDM system with multiple-wavelength bidirectionally pumped Raman amplification," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2194-2202 (2003).
  17. S. Faralli, S. Sugliani, G. Sacchi, F. Di Pasquale, S. B. Papernyi, "Third-order cascaded Raman amplification benefits for 10 Gb/s WDM unrepeated transmission systems ," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2005) Paper OThF3.
  18. J. Park, J. Park, D. Lee, H. Lee, N. Park, "Nonlinear phase shift scanning method for the optimal design of Raman transmission systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1257-1268 (2006).
  19. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1995).
  20. N. Takachio, H. Suzuki, "Application of Raman distributed amplification to WDM transmission systems using 1.55 $\mu\hbox{m}$ dispersion-shifted fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 60-69 (2001).
  21. W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in Fortran: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990).

2006 (4)

P. J. Winzer, R. J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 956-985 (2006).

G. Bolognini, S. Faralli, A. Chiuchiarelli, F. Falconi, F. Di Pasquale, "High-power and low-RIN lasers for advanced first- and higher-order Raman co-pumping ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1591-1593 (2006).

C. Martinelli, L. Lorcy, A. Durécu-Legrand, D. Mongardien, S. Borne, D. Bayart, "RIN transfer in copumped Raman amplifiers using polarization-combined diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1836-1838 (2006).

J. Park, J. Park, D. Lee, H. Lee, N. Park, "Nonlinear phase shift scanning method for the optimal design of Raman transmission systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1257-1268 (2006).

2005 (1)

S. Faralli, G. Bolognini, G. Sacchi, S. Sugliani, F. Di Pasquale, "Bi-directional higher-order cascaded Raman amplification benefits for 10 Gb/s WDM unrepeated transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2427-2433 (2005).

2003 (2)

S. Faralli, F. Di Pasquale, "Impact of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed higher order Raman pumping schemes ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 804-806 (2003).

X. Zhou, M. Birk, "Performance limitation due to statistical Raman crosstalk in a WDM system with multiple-wavelength bidirectionally pumped Raman amplification," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2194-2202 (2003).

2002 (1)

M. D. Mermelstein, C. Headley, J.-C. Bouteiller, "RIN transfer analysis in pump depletion regime for Raman fiber amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 38, 403-405 (2002).

2001 (2)

N. Takachio, H. Suzuki, "Application of Raman distributed amplification to WDM transmission systems using 1.55 $\mu\hbox{m}$ dispersion-shifted fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 60-69 (2001).

C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1140-1148 (2001).

1992 (1)

R. H. Wentworth, G. E. Bodeep, T. E. Darcie, "Laser mode partition noise in lightwave system using dispersive optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 84-89 (1992).

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. D. Mermelstein, C. Headley, J.-C. Bouteiller, "RIN transfer analysis in pump depletion regime for Raman fiber amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 38, 403-405 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

C. Martinelli, L. Lorcy, A. Durécu-Legrand, D. Mongardien, S. Borne, D. Bayart, "RIN transfer in copumped Raman amplifiers using polarization-combined diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1836-1838 (2006).

S. Faralli, F. Di Pasquale, "Impact of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed higher order Raman pumping schemes ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 804-806 (2003).

G. Bolognini, S. Faralli, A. Chiuchiarelli, F. Falconi, F. Di Pasquale, "High-power and low-RIN lasers for advanced first- and higher-order Raman co-pumping ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1591-1593 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1140-1148 (2001).

R. H. Wentworth, G. E. Bodeep, T. E. Darcie, "Laser mode partition noise in lightwave system using dispersive optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 84-89 (1992).

S. Faralli, G. Bolognini, G. Sacchi, S. Sugliani, F. Di Pasquale, "Bi-directional higher-order cascaded Raman amplification benefits for 10 Gb/s WDM unrepeated transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2427-2433 (2005).

X. Zhou, M. Birk, "Performance limitation due to statistical Raman crosstalk in a WDM system with multiple-wavelength bidirectionally pumped Raman amplification," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2194-2202 (2003).

J. Park, J. Park, D. Lee, H. Lee, N. Park, "Nonlinear phase shift scanning method for the optimal design of Raman transmission systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1257-1268 (2006).

N. Takachio, H. Suzuki, "Application of Raman distributed amplification to WDM transmission systems using 1.55 $\mu\hbox{m}$ dispersion-shifted fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 60-69 (2001).

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. J. Winzer, R. J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 956-985 (2006).

Other (10)

V. Karpov, S. Papernyi, V. Ivanov, W. Clements, "Cascaded pump delivery for remotely pumped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," Suboptic Monaco (2004) Paper We 8.8.

M. N. Islam, Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

P. M. Krummrich, R. E. Neuhauser, H. Bock, W. Fischler, C. Glingener, "System performance improvements by co-directional Raman pumping of the transmission fiber ," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) AmsterdamThe Netherlands (2001) Paper Tu.A.1.4.

S. Faralli, G. Bolognini, F. Di Pasquale, "Design optimization of high power and low RIN lasers for efficient Raman co-pumping ," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2007) Paper Th. JThA13.

C. Cantini, S. Faralli, G. Sacchi, G. Bolognini, F. Falconi, F. Di Pasquale, G. Prati, "Transmission of 8 × 10 Gb/s WDM channels over 70 dB of standard SMF based on advanced first-order Raman co-pumping," Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (CLEO) Long BeachCA (2006) Paper CThP5.

S. Faralli, G. Bolognini, A. Chiuchiarelli, R. Magri, F. Falconi, F. Di Pasquale, "Advanced first- and second-order Raman co-pumping schemes for improved performance in unrepeated WDM transmission systems," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) CannesFrance (2006) Paper Th.2.3.5.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in Fortran: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1995).

S. Faralli, S. Sugliani, G. Sacchi, F. Di Pasquale, S. B. Papernyi, "Third-order cascaded Raman amplification benefits for 10 Gb/s WDM unrepeated transmission systems ," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2005) Paper OThF3.

O. A. Sab, "FEC techniques in submarine transmission systems," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2001) Paper TuF1-3.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.