Abstract

We have studied the wavefront matching (WFM) method, which synthesizes optimum waveguide patterns from the desired characteristics, and demonstrated its feasibility. In this paper, we expand this method to create optimum waveguide shapes with low-loss and low-wavelength dependence in waveguide lenses, Y-branches, and waveguide crossings. We describe the design procedures for each waveguide element and report the experimental results as proof of concept. The measured results agree well with our design requirements, and the waveguide patterns designed by the WFM method exhibit better characteristics than the reference patterns.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. A. Himeno, K. Kato, T. Miya, "Silica-based planar lightwave circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 913-924 (1998).
  2. M. M. Spuhler, B. J. Offrein, G. L. Bona, R. Germann, I. Massarek, D. Erni, "A very short planar silica spot-size converter using a nonperiodic segmented waveguide ," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1680-1685 (1998).
  3. T. Yabu, M. Geshiro, S. Sawa, "New design method for low-loss Y-branch waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1376-1384 (2001).
  4. D. Correia, J. P. da Silva, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, "Genetic algorithm and finite-element design of short single-section passive polarization converter ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 915-917 (2003).
  5. B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, P. Dumon, R. Baets, "Efficient nonadiabatic planar waveguide tapers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2462-2468 (2005).
  6. M. Yang, H. Chen, K. J. Webb, S. Minin, S. L. Chuang, G. R. Cueva, "Demonstration of mode conversion in an irregular waveguide," Opt. Lett. 31, 383-385 (2006).
  7. T. Hashimoto, T. Saida, I. Ogawa, M. Kohtoku, T. Shibata, H. Takahashi, "Optical circuit design based on a wavefront-matching method," Opt. Lett. 30, 2560-2562 (2005).
  8. T. Saida, T. Hashimoto, I. Ogawa, M. Kohtoku, T. Shibata, H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, "Fabrication of wavelength splitter designed by wavefront matching method," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2005) Paper OThV2.
  9. Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, T. Shibata, Y. Hida, T. Hashimoto, M. Tamura, H. Takahashi, "Y-branch waveguides with stabilized splitting ratio designed by wavefront matching method ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 817-819 (2006).
  10. Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, T. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, "Low loss and low crosstalk waveguide crossings designed by wavefront matching method ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2005-2007 (2006).
  11. H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahony, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, J. Erickson, "Deployment status and common technical specifications for a B-PON system," IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 134-141 (2001).
  12. T. Yamada, Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, A. Kaneko, A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, "86-Gb/s differential quadrature phase-shift-keying modulator using hybrid assembly technique with planar lightwave circuit and $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ devices," Proc. LEOS (2006) pp. 963-964.
  13. Q. Wang, S. He, L. Wang, "A low-loss Y-branch with a multimode waveguide transition section," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1124-1126 (2002).
  14. J. Gamet, G. Pandraud, "Ultralow-loss 1 × 8 splitter based on field matching Y junction," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2060-2062 (2004).
  15. Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, T. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, "Low-loss Y-branch waveguides designed by wavefront matching method and their application to a compact 1 × 32 splitter," Electron Lett. 43, 217-219 (2007).
  16. A. Kaneko, Y. Doi, Y. Hashizume, S. Kamei, Y. Tamura, I. Ogawa, T. Kominato, S. Suzuki, "Ultra small 16ch variable optical attenuator multiplexer (V-AWG) using multi-chip PLC integration technology for ROADM," Proc. ECOC (2005) pp. 987-990.
  17. T. Goh, M. Yasu, K. Hattori, A. Himeno, M. Okuno, Y. Ohmori, "Low loss and high extinction ratio strictly nonblocking 16 × 16 thermooptic matrix switch on 6-in wafer using silica-based planar lightwave circuit technology ," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 371-379 (2001).
  18. K. Aretz, H. Bulow, "Reduction of crosstalk and losses of intersecting waveguide," Electron. Lett. 25, 730-731 (1989).
  19. M. G. Daly, P. E. Jessop, D. Yevick, "Crosstalk reduction in intersecting rib waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1695-1698 (1996).
  20. G. Przyrembel, B. Kuhlow, "Waveguide crossings with low crosstalk at small angles," Electron. Lett. 38, 1533-1535 (2002).

2007 (1)

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, T. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, "Low-loss Y-branch waveguides designed by wavefront matching method and their application to a compact 1 × 32 splitter," Electron Lett. 43, 217-219 (2007).

2006 (3)

M. Yang, H. Chen, K. J. Webb, S. Minin, S. L. Chuang, G. R. Cueva, "Demonstration of mode conversion in an irregular waveguide," Opt. Lett. 31, 383-385 (2006).

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, T. Shibata, Y. Hida, T. Hashimoto, M. Tamura, H. Takahashi, "Y-branch waveguides with stabilized splitting ratio designed by wavefront matching method ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 817-819 (2006).

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, T. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, "Low loss and low crosstalk waveguide crossings designed by wavefront matching method ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2005-2007 (2006).

2005 (2)

T. Hashimoto, T. Saida, I. Ogawa, M. Kohtoku, T. Shibata, H. Takahashi, "Optical circuit design based on a wavefront-matching method," Opt. Lett. 30, 2560-2562 (2005).

B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, P. Dumon, R. Baets, "Efficient nonadiabatic planar waveguide tapers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2462-2468 (2005).

2004 (1)

J. Gamet, G. Pandraud, "Ultralow-loss 1 × 8 splitter based on field matching Y junction," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2060-2062 (2004).

2003 (1)

D. Correia, J. P. da Silva, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, "Genetic algorithm and finite-element design of short single-section passive polarization converter ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 915-917 (2003).

2002 (2)

G. Przyrembel, B. Kuhlow, "Waveguide crossings with low crosstalk at small angles," Electron. Lett. 38, 1533-1535 (2002).

Q. Wang, S. He, L. Wang, "A low-loss Y-branch with a multimode waveguide transition section," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1124-1126 (2002).

2001 (3)

T. Goh, M. Yasu, K. Hattori, A. Himeno, M. Okuno, Y. Ohmori, "Low loss and high extinction ratio strictly nonblocking 16 × 16 thermooptic matrix switch on 6-in wafer using silica-based planar lightwave circuit technology ," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 371-379 (2001).

T. Yabu, M. Geshiro, S. Sawa, "New design method for low-loss Y-branch waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1376-1384 (2001).

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahony, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, J. Erickson, "Deployment status and common technical specifications for a B-PON system," IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 134-141 (2001).

1998 (2)

A. Himeno, K. Kato, T. Miya, "Silica-based planar lightwave circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 913-924 (1998).

M. M. Spuhler, B. J. Offrein, G. L. Bona, R. Germann, I. Massarek, D. Erni, "A very short planar silica spot-size converter using a nonperiodic segmented waveguide ," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1680-1685 (1998).

1996 (1)

M. G. Daly, P. E. Jessop, D. Yevick, "Crosstalk reduction in intersecting rib waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1695-1698 (1996).

1989 (1)

K. Aretz, H. Bulow, "Reduction of crosstalk and losses of intersecting waveguide," Electron. Lett. 25, 730-731 (1989).

Electron Lett. (1)

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, T. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, "Low-loss Y-branch waveguides designed by wavefront matching method and their application to a compact 1 × 32 splitter," Electron Lett. 43, 217-219 (2007).

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. Aretz, H. Bulow, "Reduction of crosstalk and losses of intersecting waveguide," Electron. Lett. 25, 730-731 (1989).

G. Przyrembel, B. Kuhlow, "Waveguide crossings with low crosstalk at small angles," Electron. Lett. 38, 1533-1535 (2002).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahony, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, J. Erickson, "Deployment status and common technical specifications for a B-PON system," IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 134-141 (2001).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Himeno, K. Kato, T. Miya, "Silica-based planar lightwave circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 913-924 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, T. Shibata, Y. Hida, T. Hashimoto, M. Tamura, H. Takahashi, "Y-branch waveguides with stabilized splitting ratio designed by wavefront matching method ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 817-819 (2006).

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, T. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, "Low loss and low crosstalk waveguide crossings designed by wavefront matching method ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2005-2007 (2006).

D. Correia, J. P. da Silva, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, "Genetic algorithm and finite-element design of short single-section passive polarization converter ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 915-917 (2003).

Q. Wang, S. He, L. Wang, "A low-loss Y-branch with a multimode waveguide transition section," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1124-1126 (2002).

J. Gamet, G. Pandraud, "Ultralow-loss 1 × 8 splitter based on field matching Y junction," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2060-2062 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

M. G. Daly, P. E. Jessop, D. Yevick, "Crosstalk reduction in intersecting rib waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1695-1698 (1996).

B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, P. Dumon, R. Baets, "Efficient nonadiabatic planar waveguide tapers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2462-2468 (2005).

M. M. Spuhler, B. J. Offrein, G. L. Bona, R. Germann, I. Massarek, D. Erni, "A very short planar silica spot-size converter using a nonperiodic segmented waveguide ," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1680-1685 (1998).

T. Yabu, M. Geshiro, S. Sawa, "New design method for low-loss Y-branch waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1376-1384 (2001).

T. Goh, M. Yasu, K. Hattori, A. Himeno, M. Okuno, Y. Ohmori, "Low loss and high extinction ratio strictly nonblocking 16 × 16 thermooptic matrix switch on 6-in wafer using silica-based planar lightwave circuit technology ," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 371-379 (2001).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

T. Saida, T. Hashimoto, I. Ogawa, M. Kohtoku, T. Shibata, H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, "Fabrication of wavelength splitter designed by wavefront matching method," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2005) Paper OThV2.

A. Kaneko, Y. Doi, Y. Hashizume, S. Kamei, Y. Tamura, I. Ogawa, T. Kominato, S. Suzuki, "Ultra small 16ch variable optical attenuator multiplexer (V-AWG) using multi-chip PLC integration technology for ROADM," Proc. ECOC (2005) pp. 987-990.

T. Yamada, Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, A. Kaneko, A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, "86-Gb/s differential quadrature phase-shift-keying modulator using hybrid assembly technique with planar lightwave circuit and $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ devices," Proc. LEOS (2006) pp. 963-964.

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