Abstract

The integration of optical and wireless systems is considered to be one of the most promising solutions for increasing the existing capacity and mobility as well as decreasing the costs in next-generation optical access networks. In this paper, several key enabling technologies for hybrid optical–wireless access networks are described, including optical millimeter-wave (mm-wave) generation, upconversion, and transmission in a downlink direction, and full-duplex operation based on wavelength reuse by using a centralized light source in an uplink direction. By employing these enabling technologies, we design and experimentally demonstrate an optical–wireless testbed that is simultaneously delivering wired and wireless services in the integrated optical–wireless and wavelength-division-multiplexing passive-optical-network access networks. The actual applications consisting of 270-Mb/s uncompressed standard-definition TV signal and 2.5-Gb/s data channels for downstream are successfully transmitted over a 25-km fiber and a 10.2-m indoor wireless link with less than a 1.5-dB power penalty. The results show that this integrated system is a practical solution to deliver superbroadband information services to both stationary and mobile users.

© 2007 IEEE

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2006 (10)

C. Lee, W. V. Sorin, B. Y. Kim, "Fiber to the home using a PON infrastructure," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4568-4582 (2006).

T. Koonen, "Fiber to the home/fiber to the premises: What, where and when?," Proc. IEEE 94, 911-934 (2006).

J. Ma, J. Yu, C. Yu, Z. Jia, X. Sang, Z. Zhou, T. Wang, G. K. Chang, "Wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing in high-nonlinear dispersion shifted fiber using a dual-pump configuration," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2851-2858 (2006).

C. Lim, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, "Analysis of optical carrier-to-sideband ratio for improving transmission performance in fiber-radio links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 2181-2187 (2006).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, L. Yi, Y. Su, G.-K. Chang, T. Wang, "Optical millimeter-wave generation or up-conversion using external modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 265-267 (2006).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, L. Xu, L. Chen, T. Wang, G.-K. Chang, "DWDM optical millimeter-wave generation for radio-over-fiber using an optical phase modulator and an optical interleaver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1418-1420 (2006).

M. G. Larrode, A. M. J. Koonen, J. J. V. Olmos, A. Ng'Oma, "Bidirectional radio-over-fiber link employing optical frequency multiplication," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 265-267 (2006).

J.-H. Seo, C.-S. Choi, Y.-S. Kang, Y.-D. Chung, J. Kim, W.-Y. Choi, "SOA-EAM frequency up/down-converters for 60-GHz bi-directional radio-on-fiber systems ," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 959-966 (2006).

P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation format," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).

Z. Jia, J. Yu, G.-K. Chang, "A full-duplex radio-over-fiber system based on optical carrier suppression and reuse ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1726-1728 (2006).

2005 (12)

H. Shinohara, "Broadband access in Japan: Rapidly growing FTTH market," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, 72-78 (2005).

G. Qi, J. Yao, "Optical generation and distribution of continuously tunable millimeter-wave signals using an optical phase modulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2687-2695 (2005).

W. Huang, C.-K. Chan, L.-K. Chen, F. Tong, "An optical network unit for WDM access networks with downstream DPSK and upstream remodulated OOK data using injection-locked FP laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1476-1478 (2005).

K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, M. Usami, S. Akiba, "All-optical wavelength conversion by electroabsorption modulator," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 278-284 (2005).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, G.-K. Chang, "All-optical mixer based on cross-absorption modulation in electroabsorption modulator ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2421-2423 (2005).

M. Attygalle, C. Lim, G. J. Pendock, A. Nirmalathas, G. Edvell, "Transmission improvement in fiber wireless links using fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 190-192 (2005).

A. Wiberg, P. Perez-Millan, M. V. Andres, P. A. Andrekson, P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-optic 40-GHz mm-wave link with 2.5-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1938-1940 (2005).

W. Wang, H. N. Poulsen, L. Rau, H.-F. Chou, J. E. Bowers, D. J. Blumenthal, "Raman-enhanced regenerative ultrafast all-optical fiber XPM wavelength converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1105-1115 (2005).

Z. Jia, J. Yu, G.-K. Chang, "All-optical 16 × 2.5 Gb/s WDM signals simultaneous up-conversion based on XPM in an NOLM in ROF systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 17, 2724-2726 (2005).

J. Yu, J. Gu, X. Liu, Z. Jia, G. K. Chang, "Seamless integration of an 8 × 2.5 Gb/s WDM-PON and radio-over-fiber using all-optical up-conversion based on Raman-assisted FWM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 17, 1986-1988 (2005).

C. Bock, J. Prat, S. D. Walker, "Hybrid WDM/TDM PON using the AWG FSR and featuring centralized light generation and dynamic bandwidth allocation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3981-3988 (2005).

B. Leesti, A. J. Zilkie, J. S. Aitchison, M. Mojahedi, R. H. Wang, T. J. Rotter, C. Yang, A. Stintz, K. J. Malloy, "Broad-band wavelength up-conversion of picosecond pulses via four-wave mixing in a quantum-dash waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1046-1048 (2005).

2004 (4)

H.-J. Song, J.-S. Lee, J.-I. Song, "Signal up-conversion by using a cross-phase-modulation in all-optical SOA-MZI wavelength converter ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 593-595 (2004).

B. Fong, N. Ansari, A. C. M. Fong, G. Y. Hong, P. B. Rapajic, "On the scalability of fixed broadband wireless access network deployment," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S12-S18 (2004).

S. J. Vaughan-Nichols, "Achieving wireless broadband with WiMax," Computer 37, 10-13 (2004).

S.-J. Park, C.-H. Lee, K.-T. Jeong, H.-J. Park, J.-G. Ahn, K.-H. Song, "Fiber-to-the-home services based on wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network ," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2582-2591 (2004).

2003 (1)

W. Wang, H. N. Poulsen, L. Rau, D. J. Blumenthal, "Regenerative 80-Gb/s fiber XPM wavelength converter using a hybrid Raman/EDFA gain-enhanced configuration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1416-1418 (2003).

2001 (1)

H. Bolcskei, A. J. Paulraj, K. V. S. Hari, R. U. Nabar, W. W. Lu, "Fixed broadband wireless access: State of the art, challenges, and future directions ," IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 100-108 (2001).

2000 (3)

K. Kitayama, "Architectural considerations of fiber radio millimeter wave wireless access systems ," Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 167-186 (2000).

J. Yu, X. Zheng, C. Peucheret, A. T. Clausen, H. N. Poulsen, P. Jeppesen, "All-optical wavelength conversion of short pulses and NRZ signals based on a nonlinear optical loop mirror," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1007-1017 (2000).

J. M. Fuster, J. Marti, J. L. Corral, V. Polo, F. Ramos, "Generalized study of dispersion-induced power penalty mitigation techniques in millimeter-wave fiber-optic links," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 933-940 (2000).

1999 (2)

P. S. Cho, D. Mahgerefteh, J. Goldhar, "All-optical 2R regeneration and wavelength conversion at 20 Gb/s using an electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1662-1664 (1999).

K. I. Kitayama, R. A. Grifin, "Optical downconversion from millimeter-wave to IF-band over 50-km-long optical fiber link using an electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 287-289 (1999).

1997 (1)

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Overcome chromatic-dispersion effects in fiber-wireless systems incorporating external modulators ," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1410-1415 (1997).

1996 (3)

C. K. Sun, R. J. Orazi, S. A. Pappert, "Efficient microwave frequency conversion using photonic link signal mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 154-156 (1996).

D. Wake, C. R. Lima, P. A. Davies, "Transmission of 60-GHz signals over 100 km of optical fiber using a dual-mode semiconductor laser ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 578-580 (1996).

U. Gliese, S. Norskov, T. N. Nielsen, "Chromatic dispersion in fiber-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 44, 1716-1724 (1996).

Computer (1)

S. J. Vaughan-Nichols, "Achieving wireless broadband with WiMax," Computer 37, 10-13 (2004).

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

K. Kitayama, "Architectural considerations of fiber radio millimeter wave wireless access systems ," Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 167-186 (2000).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

H. Bolcskei, A. J. Paulraj, K. V. S. Hari, R. U. Nabar, W. W. Lu, "Fixed broadband wireless access: State of the art, challenges, and future directions ," IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 100-108 (2001).

B. Fong, N. Ansari, A. C. M. Fong, G. Y. Hong, P. B. Rapajic, "On the scalability of fixed broadband wireless access network deployment," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S12-S18 (2004).

H. Shinohara, "Broadband access in Japan: Rapidly growing FTTH market," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, 72-78 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, M. Usami, S. Akiba, "All-optical wavelength conversion by electroabsorption modulator," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 278-284 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett (2)

Z. Jia, J. Yu, G.-K. Chang, "All-optical 16 × 2.5 Gb/s WDM signals simultaneous up-conversion based on XPM in an NOLM in ROF systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 17, 2724-2726 (2005).

J. Yu, J. Gu, X. Liu, Z. Jia, G. K. Chang, "Seamless integration of an 8 × 2.5 Gb/s WDM-PON and radio-over-fiber using all-optical up-conversion based on Raman-assisted FWM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 17, 1986-1988 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (15)

W. Wang, H. N. Poulsen, L. Rau, D. J. Blumenthal, "Regenerative 80-Gb/s fiber XPM wavelength converter using a hybrid Raman/EDFA gain-enhanced configuration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1416-1418 (2003).

B. Leesti, A. J. Zilkie, J. S. Aitchison, M. Mojahedi, R. H. Wang, T. J. Rotter, C. Yang, A. Stintz, K. J. Malloy, "Broad-band wavelength up-conversion of picosecond pulses via four-wave mixing in a quantum-dash waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1046-1048 (2005).

H.-J. Song, J.-S. Lee, J.-I. Song, "Signal up-conversion by using a cross-phase-modulation in all-optical SOA-MZI wavelength converter ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 593-595 (2004).

P. S. Cho, D. Mahgerefteh, J. Goldhar, "All-optical 2R regeneration and wavelength conversion at 20 Gb/s using an electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1662-1664 (1999).

K. I. Kitayama, R. A. Grifin, "Optical downconversion from millimeter-wave to IF-band over 50-km-long optical fiber link using an electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 287-289 (1999).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, G.-K. Chang, "All-optical mixer based on cross-absorption modulation in electroabsorption modulator ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2421-2423 (2005).

M. Attygalle, C. Lim, G. J. Pendock, A. Nirmalathas, G. Edvell, "Transmission improvement in fiber wireless links using fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 190-192 (2005).

A. Wiberg, P. Perez-Millan, M. V. Andres, P. A. Andrekson, P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-optic 40-GHz mm-wave link with 2.5-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1938-1940 (2005).

W. Huang, C.-K. Chan, L.-K. Chen, F. Tong, "An optical network unit for WDM access networks with downstream DPSK and upstream remodulated OOK data using injection-locked FP laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1476-1478 (2005).

Z. Jia, J. Yu, G.-K. Chang, "A full-duplex radio-over-fiber system based on optical carrier suppression and reuse ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1726-1728 (2006).

C. K. Sun, R. J. Orazi, S. A. Pappert, "Efficient microwave frequency conversion using photonic link signal mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 154-156 (1996).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, L. Yi, Y. Su, G.-K. Chang, T. Wang, "Optical millimeter-wave generation or up-conversion using external modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 265-267 (2006).

D. Wake, C. R. Lima, P. A. Davies, "Transmission of 60-GHz signals over 100 km of optical fiber using a dual-mode semiconductor laser ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 578-580 (1996).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, L. Xu, L. Chen, T. Wang, G.-K. Chang, "DWDM optical millimeter-wave generation for radio-over-fiber using an optical phase modulator and an optical interleaver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1418-1420 (2006).

M. G. Larrode, A. M. J. Koonen, J. J. V. Olmos, A. Ng'Oma, "Bidirectional radio-over-fiber link employing optical frequency multiplication," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 265-267 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (4)

J.-H. Seo, C.-S. Choi, Y.-S. Kang, Y.-D. Chung, J. Kim, W.-Y. Choi, "SOA-EAM frequency up/down-converters for 60-GHz bi-directional radio-on-fiber systems ," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 959-966 (2006).

U. Gliese, S. Norskov, T. N. Nielsen, "Chromatic dispersion in fiber-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 44, 1716-1724 (1996).

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Overcome chromatic-dispersion effects in fiber-wireless systems incorporating external modulators ," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1410-1415 (1997).

C. Lim, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, "Analysis of optical carrier-to-sideband ratio for improving transmission performance in fiber-radio links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 2181-2187 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (8)

J. M. Fuster, J. Marti, J. L. Corral, V. Polo, F. Ramos, "Generalized study of dispersion-induced power penalty mitigation techniques in millimeter-wave fiber-optic links," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 933-940 (2000).

J. Ma, J. Yu, C. Yu, Z. Jia, X. Sang, Z. Zhou, T. Wang, G. K. Chang, "Wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing in high-nonlinear dispersion shifted fiber using a dual-pump configuration," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2851-2858 (2006).

J. Yu, X. Zheng, C. Peucheret, A. T. Clausen, H. N. Poulsen, P. Jeppesen, "All-optical wavelength conversion of short pulses and NRZ signals based on a nonlinear optical loop mirror," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1007-1017 (2000).

W. Wang, H. N. Poulsen, L. Rau, H.-F. Chou, J. E. Bowers, D. J. Blumenthal, "Raman-enhanced regenerative ultrafast all-optical fiber XPM wavelength converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1105-1115 (2005).

C. Lee, W. V. Sorin, B. Y. Kim, "Fiber to the home using a PON infrastructure," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4568-4582 (2006).

C. Bock, J. Prat, S. D. Walker, "Hybrid WDM/TDM PON using the AWG FSR and featuring centralized light generation and dynamic bandwidth allocation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3981-3988 (2005).

S.-J. Park, C.-H. Lee, K.-T. Jeong, H.-J. Park, J.-G. Ahn, K.-H. Song, "Fiber-to-the-home services based on wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network ," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2582-2591 (2004).

G. Qi, J. Yao, "Optical generation and distribution of continuously tunable millimeter-wave signals using an optical phase modulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2687-2695 (2005).

Proc. IEEE (2)

P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation format," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).

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J.-H. Seo, Y.-K. Seo, W.-Y. Choi, "Nonlinear characteristics of an SOA photonic frequency up-converter," Proc. Int. Topical Meeting Microw. Photon. (2003) pp. 109-112.

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