The integration of optical and wireless systems is considered to be one of the most promising solutions for increasing the existing capacity and mobility as well as decreasing the costs in next-generation optical access networks. In this paper, several key enabling technologies for hybrid optical–wireless access networks are described, including optical millimeter-wave (mm-wave) generation, upconversion, and transmission in a downlink direction, and full-duplex operation based on wavelength reuse by using a centralized light source in an uplink direction. By employing these enabling technologies, we design and experimentally demonstrate an optical–wireless testbed that is simultaneously delivering wired and wireless services in the integrated optical–wireless and wavelength-division-multiplexing passive-optical-network access networks. The actual applications consisting of 270-Mb/s uncompressed standard-definition TV signal and 2.5-Gb/s data channels for downstream are successfully transmitted over a 25-km fiber and a 10.2-m indoor wireless link with less than a 1.5-dB power penalty. The results show that this integrated system is a practical solution to deliver superbroadband information services to both stationary and mobile users.
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