Abstract

The main bandwidth bottleneck in today's networks is in the access segment. To address that bottleneck, broadband fiber access technologies such as passive optical networks (PONs) are an indispensable solution. The industry has selected time-division multiplexing (TDM) for current PON deployments. To satisfy future bandwidth demands, however, next-generation PON systems are being investigated to provide even higher performance. In this paper, we first review current TDM-PONs; we designate them as generation C. Next, we review next-generation PON systems, which we categorize into C+1 and C +2 generations. We expect C +1 systems to provide economic near-term bandwidth upgrade by overlaying new services on current TDM-PONs. For the long term, C+2 systems will provide more dramatic system improvement using wavelength division multiplexing technologies. Some C+2 architectures require new infrastructures and/or equipment, whereas others employ a more evolutionary approach. We also review key enabling components and technologies for C+1 and C+2 generations and point out important topics for future research.

© 2007 IEEE

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2006

J.-M. Kang, S.-K. Han, "A novel hybrid WDM/SCM-PON sharing wavelength for up- and down-link using reflective semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 502-504 (2006).

J.-S. Baik, C.-H. Lee, "Hybrid WDM/SCMA-PON using wavelength-locked Fabry–Pérot laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1585-1587 (2006).

R. Bavey, J. Kani, F. Bourgart, K. McCammon, "Options for future optical access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 50-56 (2006).

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, D. B. Payne, "DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 29-32 (2006).

P. Chanclou, S. Gosselin, J. F. Palacios, V. L. Alvarez, E. Zouganeli, "Overview of the optical broadband access evolution: A joint article by operators in the IST network of excellence e-Photon/One," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 29-35 (2006).

D. J. Shin, Y. C. Keh, J. W. Kwon, E. H. Lee, J. K. Lee, M. K. Park, J. W. Park, Y. K. Oh, S. W. Kim, I. K. Yun, H. C. Shin, D. Heo, J. S. Lee, H. S. Shin, H. S. Kim, S. B. Park, D. K. Jung, S. Hwang, Y. J. Oh, D. H. Jang, C. S. Shim, "Low-cost WDM-PON with colorless bidirectional transceivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 158-165 (2006).

2005

S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, J.-H. Moon, C.-H. Lee, "Dense WDM-PON based on wavelength-locked Fabry–Pérot laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1579-1581 (2005).

J. Prat, C. Arellano, V. Polo, C. Bock, "Optical network unit based on a bidirectional reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for fiber-to-the-home networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 250-252 (2005).

Y.-L. Hsueh, M. S. Rogge, S. Yamamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, "A highly flexible and efficient passive optical network employing dynamic wavelength allocation ," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 277-286 (2005).

Y.-L. Hsueh, W.-T. Shaw, L. G. Kazovsky, A. Agata, S. Yamamoto, "SUCCESS PON demonstrator: Experimental exploration of next-generation optical access networks ," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, S26-S33 (2005).

K. S. Kim, D. Gutierrez, F.-T. An, L. G. Kazovsky, "Design and performance analysis of scheduling algorithms for WDM-PON under SUCCESS-HPON architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3716-3731 (2005).

J. Bauwelinck, W. Chen, D. Verhulst, Y. Martens, P. Ossieur, X.-Z. Qiu, J. Vandewege, "A high-resolution burst-mode laser transmitter with fast and accurate level monitoring for 1.25 Gb/s upstream GPONs," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1322-1330 (2005).

R. Chen, H. Chin, D. A. B. Miller, K. Ma, J. S. Harris, Jr."MSM-based integrated CMOS wavelength-tunable optical receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1271-1273 (2005).

Y.-L. Hsueh, M. S. Rogge, W.-T. Shaw, J. Kim, S. Yamamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, "Smooth upgrade of existing passive optical networks with spectral-shaping line coding service overlay," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2629-2637 (2005).

M. Nakamura, Y. Imai, Y. Umeda, J. Endo, Y. Akatsu, "1.25-Gb/s burst-mode receiver ICs with quick response for PON systems," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 2680-2688 (2005).

S. Vatannia, P.-H. Yeung, C. Ju, "A fast response 155-Mb/s burst-mode optical receiver for PON," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1067-1069 (2005).

Y. Meng, T. Jiang, D. Xiao, "Analysis and solutions of security issue in Ethernet PON," Proc. SPIE 5626, 391-399 (2005).

P. D. Kumavor, A. C. Beal, S. Yelin, E. Donkor, B. C. Wang, "Comparison of four multi-user quantum key distribution schemes over passive optical networks ," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 268-276 (2005).

2004

F.-T. An, K. S. Kim, D. Gutierrez, S. Yam, E. Hu, K. Shrikhande, L. G. Kazovsky, "SUCCESS: A next-generation hybrid WDM/TDM optical access network architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2557-2569 (2004).

P. E. Green, Jr."Fiber to the home: The next big broadband thing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, 100-106 (2004).

X.-Z. Qiu, P. Ossieur, J. Bauwelinck, Y. Yi, D. Verhulst, J. Vandewege, B. De Vos, P. Solina, "Development of GPON upstream physical-media-dependent prototypes," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2498-2508 (2004).

2003

J. Kani, M. Teshima, K. Akimoto, N. Takachio, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, M. Ishii, "A WDM-based optical access network for wide-area gigabit access services," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, S43-S48 (2003).

H. Takesue, T. Sugie, "Wavelength channel data rewrite using saturated SOA modulator for WDM networks with centralized light sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2546-2556 (2003).

2002

B. Ahn, Y. Park, "A symmetric-structure CDMA-PON system and its implementation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1381-1383 (2002).

S. Brigati, P. Colombara, L. D'Ascoli, U. Gatti, T. Kerekes, P. Malcovati, "A SiGe BiCMOS burst-mode 155 Mb/s receiver for PON," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 887-893 (2002).

L. Y. Chan, C. K. Chan, D. T. K. Tong, F. Tong, L. K. Chen, "Upstream traffic transmitter using injection-locked Fabry–Pérot laser diode as modulator for WDM access networks," Electron. Lett. 38, 43-44 (2002).

2001

D. K. Jung, H. Kim, K. H. Han, Y. C. Chung, "Spectrum-sliced bidirectional passive optical network for simultaneous transmission of WDM and digital broadcast video signals," Electron. Lett. 37, 308-309 (2001).

2000

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Tunable VCSEL," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 978-987 (2000).

G. Maier, M. Martinelli, A. Pattavina, E. Salvadori, "Design and cost performance of the multistage WDM-PON access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 125-143 (2000).

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewedge, X. Z. Qiu, "The superPON demonstrator: An exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks ," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 74-82 (2000).

H. D. Kim, S.-G. Kang, C.-H. Lee, "A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry–Perot semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1607-1069 (2000).

1998

R. D. Feldman, T. H. Wood, J. P. Meester, R. F. Austin, "Broadband update of an operating narrowband single-fiber passive optical network using coarse wavelength division multiplexing and sub-carrier multiple access," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1-8 (1998).

D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C.-H. Lee, Y. C. Chung, "Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network based on spectrum-slicing techniques ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1334-1336 (1998).

1997

R. D. Feldman, "Crosstalk and loss in wavelength division multiplexed systems employing spectral slicing ," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1823-1831 (1997).

S. L. Woodward, P. P. Iannone, K. C. Reichmann, N. J. Frigo, "A spectrally sliced PON employing Fabry–Pérot lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 818-820 (1997).

C. C. Hsiao, "Multiple access in the presence of optical-beat and co-channel interference using Walsh-code-based synchronized CDMA technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1173-1175 (1997).

1996

R. D. Feldman, "Reduction of optical beat interference in a subcarrier multiple-access passive optical network through the use of an amplified light-emitting diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 116-118 (1996).

1995

P.-J. Rigole, S. Nilsson, L. Backbom, T. Klinga, J. Wallin, B. Stalnacke, E. Berglind, B. Stoltz, "Access to 20 evenly distributed wavelengths over 100 nm using only a single current tuning in a four-electrode monolithic semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1249-1251 (1995).

S. L. Woodward, "Reduction of optical-beat interference in subcarrier networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 694-696 (1995).

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, I. P. Kaminow, "LARnet, a local access router network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 215-217 (1995).

1994

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, "A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365-1367 (1994).

M. M. Banat, M. Kavehrad, "Reduction of optical beat interference in SCM/WDMA networks using pseudorandom phase modulation ," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1863-1868 (1994).

1993

T. H. Wood, N. K. Shankaranarayanan, "Operation of a passive optical network with subcarrier multiplexing in the presence of optical beat interference," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1632-1640 (1993).

1990

S. S. Wagner, T. E. Chapuran, "Broadband high-density WDM transmission using superluminescent diodes," Electron. Lett. 26, 696-697 (1990).

1988

M. H. Reeve, A. R. Hunwicks, W. Zhao, S. G. Methley, L. Bickers, S. Hornung, "LED spectral slicing for single-mode local loop applications," Electron. Lett. 24, 389-390 (1988).

1984

G. L. Pierobon, "Codes for zero spectral density at zero frequency," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-30, 435-439 (1984).

1983

A. X. Widmer, P. A. Franaszek, "A DC-balanced, portioned lock, 8B/10B transmission code," IBM J. Res. Develop. 27, 440-451 (1983).

1980

S. Kobayashi, J. Yamada, S. Machida, T. Kimura, "Single-mode operation of 500 Mb/s modulated AlGaAs semiconductor laser by injection locking ," Electron. Lett. 16, 746-748 (1980).

Electron. Lett.

S. S. Wagner, T. E. Chapuran, "Broadband high-density WDM transmission using superluminescent diodes," Electron. Lett. 26, 696-697 (1990).

D. K. Jung, H. Kim, K. H. Han, Y. C. Chung, "Spectrum-sliced bidirectional passive optical network for simultaneous transmission of WDM and digital broadcast video signals," Electron. Lett. 37, 308-309 (2001).

M. H. Reeve, A. R. Hunwicks, W. Zhao, S. G. Methley, L. Bickers, S. Hornung, "LED spectral slicing for single-mode local loop applications," Electron. Lett. 24, 389-390 (1988).

S. Kobayashi, J. Yamada, S. Machida, T. Kimura, "Single-mode operation of 500 Mb/s modulated AlGaAs semiconductor laser by injection locking ," Electron. Lett. 16, 746-748 (1980).

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