Abstract

In this paper, two photonic vector modulator (PVM) architectures are presented, and their use in generating multi-gigabit-per-second M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation/M-ary phase shift keying modulated RF carriers in the millimeter-wave frequency regime is experimentally demonstrated. First, a highly scalable photonic quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) architecture based on vector summation and dispersive delay lines, which directly generate multilevel signals from parallel in-phase and quadrature components, is proposed and experimentally demonstrated by generating up to 3-Gb/s quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), four-level amplitude shift keying, and eight-level QAM at 39-GHz-modulated carriers. The possibility of also detecting the baseband components is shown, which allows the simultaneous feeding of baseband/RF signals over the same infrastructure. This architecture is limited to a certain length of fiber, as the quadrature condition is obtained for a certain aggregated dispersion. To overcome this limitation, a second PVM architecture is proposed, which is based on the use of two Mach–Zehnder modulators in parallel and an optical delay line to obtain the quadrature condition. The generation of a 2-Gb/s QPSK signal is experimentally demonstrated, including a 1-km standard single-mode-fiber transmission.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. IEEE Std. 802.3TM—2002 IEEE Computer Society http://www.ieee802.org/3/hssg/index.html.
  2. F.-T. An, D. Gutierrez, K. K. Soo, L. J. Woo, G. Kazovsky, "SUCCESS-HPON: A next-generation optical access architecture for smooth migration from TDM-PON to WDM-PON," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, S40-S47 (2005).
  3. A. J. Seeds, J. K. Williams, "Microwave photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4628-4641 (2006).
  4. M. Á. Piqueras, B. Vidal, H. Pfrommer, V. Polo, A. Ramírez, J. Martí, "Radio-over-fiber multi-service MM-wave interconnection with photonic up-conversion, dual band remote delivery and photonic envelop detection," Proc. IEEE MTT-S, Intl. Microwave Symp. (2006) pp. 2035-2038.
  5. A. Hirata, M. Harada, T. Nagatsuma, "120-GHz wireless link using photonic techniques for generation, modulation, and emission of millimeter-wave signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2145-2153 (2003).
  6. K. Ohata, K. Maruhasi, M. Ito, S. Kishimoto, K. Ikuina, T. Hashiguchi, K. Ikeda, N. Takahashi, "1.25 Gbps wireless gigabit Ethernet link at 60 GHz-band," Proc. IEEE Int. Microw. Symp. (2003) pp. 373-376.
  7. T. Nagatsuma, A. Hirata, M. Harada, H. Ishii, K. Machida, T. Minotani, H. Ito, T. Kosugi, T. Shibata, "Millimeter-wave photonic integrated circuit technologies for high-speed wireless communications applications," Proc. IEEE ISSCC (2004) pp. 448-449.
  8. P. Candelas, J. M. Fuster, J. Martí, J. C. Roig, "Optically generated electrical-modulation formats in digital-microwave link applications ," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 496-499 (2003).
  9. A. Wiberg, P. Perez-Milan, M. V. Andres, P. A. Andrekson, P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-optic 40-GHz mm-wave link with 2.5-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1938-1940 (2005).
  10. J. F. Coward, C. H. Chalfant, P. H. Chang, "A photonic integrated-optic RF phase shifter for phased array antenna beam-forming applications ," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 2201-2205 (1993).
  11. W. D. Jemison, A. J. Kreuzberger, E. Funk, "Microwave photonic vector modulator for high-speed wireless digital communications," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 12, 125-127 (2002).
  12. M. Á. Piqueras, B. Vidal, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, J. Martí, "Direct photonic generation of electrical vector modulations at microwave/millimeter-wave frequencies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1947-1949 (2005).
  13. M. Á. Piqueras, B. Vidal, J. L. Corral, V. Polo, H. Pfrommer, A. Martínez, J. Martí, "Photonic vector modulation Tx/Rx architecture for generation, remote delivery and detection of M-QAM signals," Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. (2005) pp. 27-30.
  14. M. Á. Piqueras, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, B. Vidal, A. Martínez, J. Martí, "Radio-over-fibre broadband quadrature amplitude modulator," Proc. ECOC (2006) pp. 43.
  15. C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, G. Yoffe, "Millimeter-wave broad-band fiber-wireless system incorporating baseband data transmission over fiber and remote LO delivery," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1355-1363 (2000).
  16. K. Ikeda, T. Kuri, K. Kitayama, "Simultaneous three-band modulation and fiber-optic transmission of 2.5-Gb/s baseband, microwave-, and 60-GHz-band signals on a single wavelength," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3194-3202 (2003).
  17. C. P. Liu, V. Polo, F. Van Dijk, H. Pfrommer, M. Á. Piqueras, J. Herrera, A. Martinez, S. Karlsson, O. Kjebon, R. Schatz, A. Enard, Y. Yu, T. Tsegaye, C. H. Chuang, A. J. Seeds, J. Martí, "Full-duplex DOCSIS/wireless DOCSIS fiber-radio network employing packaged AFPMs as optical/electrical transducers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 673-684 (2007).
  18. M. Á. Piqueras, V. Polo, J. Martí, "Simultaneous base-band and mm-wave delivery of Gbps data employing photonic vector modulators ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2007) Paper JThA60.
  19. G. J. Meslener, "Chromatic dispersion induced distortion of modulated monochromatic light employing direct detection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1208-1216 (1984).

2007 (1)

C. P. Liu, V. Polo, F. Van Dijk, H. Pfrommer, M. Á. Piqueras, J. Herrera, A. Martinez, S. Karlsson, O. Kjebon, R. Schatz, A. Enard, Y. Yu, T. Tsegaye, C. H. Chuang, A. J. Seeds, J. Martí, "Full-duplex DOCSIS/wireless DOCSIS fiber-radio network employing packaged AFPMs as optical/electrical transducers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 673-684 (2007).

2006 (1)

A. J. Seeds, J. K. Williams, "Microwave photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4628-4641 (2006).

2005 (3)

A. Wiberg, P. Perez-Milan, M. V. Andres, P. A. Andrekson, P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-optic 40-GHz mm-wave link with 2.5-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1938-1940 (2005).

F.-T. An, D. Gutierrez, K. K. Soo, L. J. Woo, G. Kazovsky, "SUCCESS-HPON: A next-generation optical access architecture for smooth migration from TDM-PON to WDM-PON," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, S40-S47 (2005).

M. Á. Piqueras, B. Vidal, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, J. Martí, "Direct photonic generation of electrical vector modulations at microwave/millimeter-wave frequencies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1947-1949 (2005).

2003 (3)

A. Hirata, M. Harada, T. Nagatsuma, "120-GHz wireless link using photonic techniques for generation, modulation, and emission of millimeter-wave signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2145-2153 (2003).

P. Candelas, J. M. Fuster, J. Martí, J. C. Roig, "Optically generated electrical-modulation formats in digital-microwave link applications ," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 496-499 (2003).

K. Ikeda, T. Kuri, K. Kitayama, "Simultaneous three-band modulation and fiber-optic transmission of 2.5-Gb/s baseband, microwave-, and 60-GHz-band signals on a single wavelength," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3194-3202 (2003).

2002 (1)

W. D. Jemison, A. J. Kreuzberger, E. Funk, "Microwave photonic vector modulator for high-speed wireless digital communications," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 12, 125-127 (2002).

2000 (1)

C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, G. Yoffe, "Millimeter-wave broad-band fiber-wireless system incorporating baseband data transmission over fiber and remote LO delivery," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1355-1363 (2000).

1993 (1)

J. F. Coward, C. H. Chalfant, P. H. Chang, "A photonic integrated-optic RF phase shifter for phased array antenna beam-forming applications ," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 2201-2205 (1993).

1984 (1)

G. J. Meslener, "Chromatic dispersion induced distortion of modulated monochromatic light employing direct detection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1208-1216 (1984).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

F.-T. An, D. Gutierrez, K. K. Soo, L. J. Woo, G. Kazovsky, "SUCCESS-HPON: A next-generation optical access architecture for smooth migration from TDM-PON to WDM-PON," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, S40-S47 (2005).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. J. Meslener, "Chromatic dispersion induced distortion of modulated monochromatic light employing direct detection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1208-1216 (1984).

IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. (1)

W. D. Jemison, A. J. Kreuzberger, E. Funk, "Microwave photonic vector modulator for high-speed wireless digital communications," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 12, 125-127 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Á. Piqueras, B. Vidal, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, J. Martí, "Direct photonic generation of electrical vector modulations at microwave/millimeter-wave frequencies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1947-1949 (2005).

A. Wiberg, P. Perez-Milan, M. V. Andres, P. A. Andrekson, P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-optic 40-GHz mm-wave link with 2.5-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1938-1940 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (7)

J. F. Coward, C. H. Chalfant, P. H. Chang, "A photonic integrated-optic RF phase shifter for phased array antenna beam-forming applications ," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 2201-2205 (1993).

P. Candelas, J. M. Fuster, J. Martí, J. C. Roig, "Optically generated electrical-modulation formats in digital-microwave link applications ," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 496-499 (2003).

A. J. Seeds, J. K. Williams, "Microwave photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4628-4641 (2006).

A. Hirata, M. Harada, T. Nagatsuma, "120-GHz wireless link using photonic techniques for generation, modulation, and emission of millimeter-wave signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2145-2153 (2003).

C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, G. Yoffe, "Millimeter-wave broad-band fiber-wireless system incorporating baseband data transmission over fiber and remote LO delivery," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1355-1363 (2000).

K. Ikeda, T. Kuri, K. Kitayama, "Simultaneous three-band modulation and fiber-optic transmission of 2.5-Gb/s baseband, microwave-, and 60-GHz-band signals on a single wavelength," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3194-3202 (2003).

C. P. Liu, V. Polo, F. Van Dijk, H. Pfrommer, M. Á. Piqueras, J. Herrera, A. Martinez, S. Karlsson, O. Kjebon, R. Schatz, A. Enard, Y. Yu, T. Tsegaye, C. H. Chuang, A. J. Seeds, J. Martí, "Full-duplex DOCSIS/wireless DOCSIS fiber-radio network employing packaged AFPMs as optical/electrical transducers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 673-684 (2007).

Other (7)

M. Á. Piqueras, V. Polo, J. Martí, "Simultaneous base-band and mm-wave delivery of Gbps data employing photonic vector modulators ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2007) Paper JThA60.

M. Á. Piqueras, B. Vidal, J. L. Corral, V. Polo, H. Pfrommer, A. Martínez, J. Martí, "Photonic vector modulation Tx/Rx architecture for generation, remote delivery and detection of M-QAM signals," Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. (2005) pp. 27-30.

M. Á. Piqueras, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, B. Vidal, A. Martínez, J. Martí, "Radio-over-fibre broadband quadrature amplitude modulator," Proc. ECOC (2006) pp. 43.

K. Ohata, K. Maruhasi, M. Ito, S. Kishimoto, K. Ikuina, T. Hashiguchi, K. Ikeda, N. Takahashi, "1.25 Gbps wireless gigabit Ethernet link at 60 GHz-band," Proc. IEEE Int. Microw. Symp. (2003) pp. 373-376.

T. Nagatsuma, A. Hirata, M. Harada, H. Ishii, K. Machida, T. Minotani, H. Ito, T. Kosugi, T. Shibata, "Millimeter-wave photonic integrated circuit technologies for high-speed wireless communications applications," Proc. IEEE ISSCC (2004) pp. 448-449.

M. Á. Piqueras, B. Vidal, H. Pfrommer, V. Polo, A. Ramírez, J. Martí, "Radio-over-fiber multi-service MM-wave interconnection with photonic up-conversion, dual band remote delivery and photonic envelop detection," Proc. IEEE MTT-S, Intl. Microwave Symp. (2006) pp. 2035-2038.

IEEE Std. 802.3TM—2002 IEEE Computer Society http://www.ieee802.org/3/hssg/index.html.

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