Abstract

The hybrid wireless-optical broadband-access network (WOBAN) is a promising architecture for future access networks. Recently, the wireless part of WOBAN has been gaining increasing attention, and early versions are being deployed as municipal access solutions to eliminate the wired drop to every wireless router at customer premises. This architecture saves on network deployment cost because the fiber need not penetrate each end-user, and it extends the reach of emerging optical-access solutions, such as passive optical networks. This paper first presents an architecture and a vision for the WOBAN and articulates why the combination of wireless and optical presents a compelling solution that optimizes the best of both worlds. While this discussion briefly touches upon the business drivers, the main arguments are based on technical and deployment considerations. Consequently, the rest of this paper reviews a variety of relevant research challenges, namely, network setup, network connectivity, and fault-tolerant behavior of the WOBAN. In the network setup, we review the design of a WOBAN where the back end is a wired optical network, the front end is managed by a wireless connectivity, and, in between, the tail ends of the optical part [known as optical network unit (ONU)] communicate directly with wireless base stations (known as “gateway routers”). We outline algorithms to optimize the placement of ONUs in a WOBAN and report on a survey that we conducted on the distribution and types of wireless routers in the Wildhorse residential neighborhood of North Davis, CA. Then, we examine the WOBAN's routing properties (network connectivity), discuss the pros and cons of various routing algorithms, and summarize the idea behind fault-tolerant design of such hybrid networks.

© 2007 IEEE

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2006 (4)

T. Nakasyotani, H. Toda, T. Kuri, K. Kitayama, "Wavelength-division-multiplexed millimeter-waveband radio-on-fiber system using a supercontinuum light source," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 404-410 (2006).

H. Pfrommer, M. A. Piqueras, J. Herrera, V. Polo, A. Martinez, S. Karlsson, O. Kjebon, R. Schatz, Y. Yu, T. Tsegaye, C. P. Liu, C. H. Chuang, A. Enard, F. VanDijk, A. J. Seeds, J. Marti, "Full-duplex DOCSIS/WirelessDOCSIS fiber-radio network employing packaged AFPM-based base-stations ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 406-408 (2006).

C. P. Liu, T. Ismail, A. J. Seeds, "Broadband access using wireless-over-fibre technologies," Springer BT Technol. J. 24, 130-143 (2006).

S. Dixit, "On fixed-mobile convergence," J. Wireless Pers. Commun. 38, 55-65 (2006).

2005 (2)

W.-P. Lin, "A robust fiber-radio architecture for wavelength-division-multiplexing ring-access networks ," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2610-2620 (2005).

A. Banerjee, "Wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access—A review [Invited]," OSA J. Opt. Netw.—Special Issue Optical Access Networks 4, 737-758 (2005).

2001 (1)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, "Ethernet PON (ePON): Design and analysis of an optical access network," Photon. Netw. Commun. 3, 307-319 (2001).

2000 (1)

G. Maier, M. Martinelli, A. Pattavina, E. Salvadori, "Design and cost performance of the multistage WDM-PON access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 125-143 (2000).

1983 (1)

S. Kirkpatrick, C. Gelatt, Jr.M. Vecchi, "Optimization by simulated annealing," Science 220, 671-680 (1983).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Pfrommer, M. A. Piqueras, J. Herrera, V. Polo, A. Martinez, S. Karlsson, O. Kjebon, R. Schatz, Y. Yu, T. Tsegaye, C. P. Liu, C. H. Chuang, A. Enard, F. VanDijk, A. J. Seeds, J. Marti, "Full-duplex DOCSIS/WirelessDOCSIS fiber-radio network employing packaged AFPM-based base-stations ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 406-408 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

W.-P. Lin, "A robust fiber-radio architecture for wavelength-division-multiplexing ring-access networks ," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2610-2620 (2005).

T. Nakasyotani, H. Toda, T. Kuri, K. Kitayama, "Wavelength-division-multiplexed millimeter-waveband radio-on-fiber system using a supercontinuum light source," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 404-410 (2006).

G. Maier, M. Martinelli, A. Pattavina, E. Salvadori, "Design and cost performance of the multistage WDM-PON access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 125-143 (2000).

J. Wireless Pers. Commun. (1)

S. Dixit, "On fixed-mobile convergence," J. Wireless Pers. Commun. 38, 55-65 (2006).

OSA J. Opt. Netw.—Special Issue Optical Access Networks (1)

A. Banerjee, "Wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access—A review [Invited]," OSA J. Opt. Netw.—Special Issue Optical Access Networks 4, 737-758 (2005).

Photon. Netw. Commun. (1)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, "Ethernet PON (ePON): Design and analysis of an optical access network," Photon. Netw. Commun. 3, 307-319 (2001).

Science (1)

S. Kirkpatrick, C. Gelatt, Jr.M. Vecchi, "Optimization by simulated annealing," Science 220, 671-680 (1983).

Springer BT Technol. J. (1)

C. P. Liu, T. Ismail, A. J. Seeds, "Broadband access using wireless-over-fibre technologies," Springer BT Technol. J. 24, 130-143 (2006).

Other (27)

S. Sarkar, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, "Optimum placement of multiple optical network units (ONUs) in optical-wireless hybrid access networks," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OFM6.

S. Sarkar, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, "Towards global optimization of multiple ONUs placement in hybrid optical-wireless broadband access networks," Proc. COIN (2006).

S. Sarkar, H. Yen, S. Dixit, B. Mukherjee, "A mixed integer programming model for optimum placement of base stations and optical network units in a hybrid wireless-optical broadband access network (WOBAN)," Proc. IEEE WCNC (2007) pp. 3907-3911.

S. Sarkar, H. Yen, S. Dixit, B. Mukherjee, "DARA: Delay-aware routing algorithm in a hybrid wireless-optical broadband access network (WOBAN) ," Proc. IEEE ICC (2007) pp. 2480-2484.

S. Sarkar, H. Yen, S. Dixit, B. Mukherjee, "RADAR: Risk-and-delay aware routing algorithm in a hybrid wireless-optical broadband access network (WOBAN)," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2007) Paper OThM4.

P. Lin, C. Qiao, T. Wang, J. Hu, "Optimal utility-based bandwidth allocation over integrated optical and WiMAX networks ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OThM2.

S. Yang, (2006) Personal Communication, Based on Traffic and Services Projection by ETRI, Daejeon, Korea.

L. Kleinrock, Queueing Systems (Wiley, 1975).

Tropos Netwoks http://tropos.com.

Firetide Networks http://www.firetide.com.

BelAir Networks http://www.belairnetworks.com.

NeoReach Networks http://www.neoreach.com.

Pronto Networks http://www.prontonetworks.com.

Strix Networks http://www.strixsystems.com.

Wavion Networks http://www.wavionnetworks.com.

Earthlink Networks http://www.earthlink.net.

http://www.cs.sandia.gov/opt/survey/.

G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (McGraw-Hill, 2005).

J. Yu, G. K. Chang, Z. Jia, L. Yi, Y. Su, T. Wang, "A ROF downstream link with optical mm-wave generation using optical phase modulator for providing broadband optical-wireless access service," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OFM3.

S. Ray, M. Medard, L. Zheng, "A SIMO fiber aided wireless network architecture," Proc. ISIT (2006) pp. 2904-2908.

Verizon http://www22.verizon.com.

Novera Optics http://www.noveraoptics.com/.

J.-J. Yoo, H.-H. Yun, T.-Y. Kim, K.-B. Lee, M.-Y. Park, B.-W. Kim, B.-T. Kim, "A WDM-ethernet hybrid passive optical network architecture," Proc. ICACT (2006).

Sprint http://www2.sprint.com/mr/news\_dtl.do?id=12960.

Towerstream http://www.towerstream.com/content.asp?home.

Intel http://www.intel.com/netcomms/technologies/wimax/index.htm/.

G. K. Chang, J. Yu, Z. Jia, J. Yu, "Novel optical-wireless access network architecture for simultaneously providing broadband wireless and wired services," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OFM1.

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