Abstract

We have studied RF transmission over various multimode fibers (MMFs) and a standard single-mode fiber, targeting picocellular networks for voice, data, and video applications. Bandwidth requirements of MMF links that are based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) have been extensively studied. The performance of the radio-over-fiber link is assessed in terms of the error vector magnitude. Also conducted was a full system analysis, including the investigation of an achievable dynamic range and a noise figure for different low-cost architectures. This was compared to coax-based RF transmission. The IEEE 802.11 a/b/g standard, as well as other applications like radio frequency identification tracking, was considered. For experimental investigations, we have used both commercial wireless access points and a vector signal generator as a signal source, with two types of directly modulated VCSELs—850-nm sources and 1310-nm high-speed uncooled single-mode AlGaInAs/InP VCSELs. A robust system performance was demonstrated in both 2.4- and 5-GHz RF bands, and record multimode and standard single-mode fiber transmission distances were achieved. A transponder design that can meet system requirements in terms of sensitivity (< -90 dBm) and spurious-free dynamic range (> 95 dB · Hz<sup>2/3</sup>) for a dual-band wireless LAN (WLAN) fiber-radio picocellular network was developed. A full 14-cell experimental WLAN system with cells of 4-m radius was implemented to study networking issues such as handoff and cochannel interference.

© 2007 IEEE

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2006 (10)

A. Das, A. Nkansah, N. J. Gomes, I. J. Garcia, J. C. Batchelor, D. Wake, "Design of low-cost multimode fiber-fed indoor wireless networks," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 3426-3432 (2006).

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M. G. Larrode, A. M. J. Koonen, J. J. V. Olmos, "Fiber-based broadband wireless access employing optical frequency multiplication," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 875-881 (2006).

J. X. Ma, C. X. Yu, Z. Zhou, J. Yu, "Optical mm-wave generation by using external modulator based on optical carrier suppression ," Opt. Commun. 268, 51-57 (2006).

J. Yu, Z. S. Jia, L. Xu, L. Chen, T. Wang, G. K. Chang, "DWDM optical millimeter-wave generation for radio-over-fiber using an optical phase modulator and an optical interleaver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1418-1420 (2006).

A. Nkansah, A. Das, C. Lethien, J.-P. Vilcot, N. J. Gomes, I. J. Garcia, J. C. Batchelor, D. Wake, "Simultaneous dual band transmission over multimode fiber-fed indoor wireless network ," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 16, 627-629 (2006).

M. G. Larrode, A. M. Koonen, J. J. V. Olmos, "Overcoming modal bandwidth limitation in radio-over-multimode fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2428-2430 (2006).

J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "Bidirectional multimode-fiber communication links using dual-purpose vertical-cavity devices ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1283-1294 (2006).

K.-A. Persson, C. Carlsson, A. Alping, A. Haglund, J. S. Gustavson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, "WCDMA radio-over-fibre transmission experiment using singlemode VCSEL and multimode fibre ," Electron. Lett. 42, 372-374 (2006).

T. Niiho, M. Nakaso, K. Masuda, H. Sasai, K. Utsumi, M. Fuse, "Transmission performance of multichannel wireless LAN system based on radio-over-fiber techniques ," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 980-989 (2006).

2005 (3)

C. Lethien, C. Loyez, J. -P. Vilcot, "Potentials of radio over multimode fiber systems for the in-buildings coverage of mobile and wireless LAN applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2793-2795 (2005).

N. Nishiyama, C. Caneau, B. Hall, G. Guryanov, M. H. Hu, X. S. Liu, M.-J. Li, R. Bhat, C. E. Zah, "Long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers on InP with lattice matched AlGaInAs–InP DBR grown by MOCVD," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 990-998 (2005).

F. Sagnard, G. E. Zein, "In situ characterization of building materials for propagation modeling: Frequency and time responses," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 3166-3173 (2005).

2004 (3)

C. Carlsson, A. Larsson, A. Alping, "RF transmission over multimode fibers using VCSELs—Comparing standard and high-bandwidth multimode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1694-1700 (2004).

P. K. Tang, L. C. Ong, A. Alphones, B. Luo, M. Fujise, "PER and EVM measurements of a radio-over-fiber network for cellular and WLAN system applications ," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2370-2376 (2004).

A. J. Paulraj, D. A. Gore, R. U. Nabar, H. Boelcskei, "An overview of MIMO communications—A key to gigabit wireless," Proc. IEEE 92, 198-218 (2004).

2003 (3)

M. Y. W. Chia, B. Luo, M. L. Yee, E. J. Z. Hao, "Radio over multimode fibre transmission for wireless LAN using VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 39, 1143-1144 (2003).

R. E. Schuh, A. Alping, E. Sundberg, "Penalty-free GSM-1800 and WCDMA radio-over-fibre transmission using multimode fibre and 850 nm VCSEL," Electron. Lett. 39, 512-514 (2003).

P. Pepeljugoski, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, A. Risteski, "Modeling and simulation of next generation multimode fiber links," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1242-1255 (2003).

2002 (2)

A. J. Seeds, "Microwave photonics," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 877-887 (2002).

M. Hassan-Ali, K. Pahlavan, "A new statistical model for site-specific indoor radio propagation prediction based on geometric optic and geometric probability," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 1, 112-124 (2002).

2001 (1)

D. Wake, S. Dupont, C. Lethien, J.-P. Vilcot, D. Decoster, "Radiofrequency transmission of 32-QAM signals over multimode fibre for distributed antenna system applications," Electron. Lett. 37, 1087-1089 (2001).

2000 (1)

M. Sauer, K. Kojucharow, H. Kaluzni, D. Sommer, W. Nowak, A. Finger, "Radio-optical system design and transmission experiments for a mobile broadband communications system at 60 GHz," Wireless Pers. Commun.—Special Issue Radio Over Fibre-Systems, Technologies Applications 14, 147-163 (2000).

1999 (2)

A. Stoehr, T. Kuri, K. Kitayama, R. Heinzelmann, D. Jaeger, "Full-duplex 60 GHz fibre optic transmission," Electron. Lett. 35, 1653-1655 (1999).

K. Kojucharow, M. Sauer, H. Kaluzni, D. Sommer, F. Poegel, W. Nowak, A. Finger, D. Ferling, "Simultaneous electro-optical upconversion, remote oscillator generation and air transmission of multiple optical WDM channels for a 60 GHz high capacity indoor system," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 2249-2256 (1999).

1998 (2)

S. Hunziker, W. Baechtold, "Cellular remote antenna feeding: Optical fibre or coaxial cable?," Electron. Lett. 34, 1038-1040 (1998).

C. F. Yang, B. C. Wu, C. J. Ko, "A ray-tracing method for modeling indoor wave propagation and penetration," IEEE Trans. Antenna Propag. 46, 907-919 (1998).

1997 (1)

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Techniques for optical SSB generation to over-come dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems ," Electron. Lett. 33, 74-75 (1997).

1996 (2)

D. Wake, C. R. Lima, P. A. Davis, "Transmission of 60-GHz signals over 100 km of optical fiber using a dual-mode semiconductor laser source," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 578-580 (1996).

H. Jung, O. K. Tonguz, "Comparison of fibre and coaxial link for access network in microcellular PCS," Electron. Lett. 32, 425-426 (1996).

1995 (2)

H. Schmuck, "Comparison of optical millimetre-wave system concepts with regard to chromatic dispersion ," Electron. Lett. 31, 1848-1849 (1995).

D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, R. B. Waterhouse, R. S. Tucker, "Signal generation using pulsed semiconductor lasers for application in millimeter-wave wireless links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2257-2262 (1995).

1994 (1)

J. B. Georges, M.-H. Kiang, K. Heppell, M. Sayed, K. Y. Lau, "Optical transmission of narrow-band millimeter-wave signals by resonant modulation of monolithic semiconductor lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 568-570 (1994).

1993 (1)

J. H. Schaffner, W. B. Bridges, "Intermodulation distortion in high dynamic range microwave fiber-optic links with linearized modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 3-6 (1993).

1992 (1)

R. T. Ramos, A. J. Seeds, "Fast heterodyne optical phase-locked loop using double quantum well laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 28, 82-83 (1992).

1990 (1)

J. M. Keenan, A. J. Motley, "Radio coverage in buildings," Br. Telecom Technol. J. 8, 19-24 (1990).

1988 (1)

N. Kanaglekar, R. E. Mcintosh, W. E. Bryant, "Analysis of two-tone, third-order distortion in cascaded two-ports," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 36, 701-705 (1988).

Br. Telecom Technol. J. (1)

J. M. Keenan, A. J. Motley, "Radio coverage in buildings," Br. Telecom Technol. J. 8, 19-24 (1990).

Electron. Lett. (10)

K.-A. Persson, C. Carlsson, A. Alping, A. Haglund, J. S. Gustavson, P. Modh, A. Larsson, "WCDMA radio-over-fibre transmission experiment using singlemode VCSEL and multimode fibre ," Electron. Lett. 42, 372-374 (2006).

H. Jung, O. K. Tonguz, "Comparison of fibre and coaxial link for access network in microcellular PCS," Electron. Lett. 32, 425-426 (1996).

S. Hunziker, W. Baechtold, "Cellular remote antenna feeding: Optical fibre or coaxial cable?," Electron. Lett. 34, 1038-1040 (1998).

H. Schmuck, "Comparison of optical millimetre-wave system concepts with regard to chromatic dispersion ," Electron. Lett. 31, 1848-1849 (1995).

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Techniques for optical SSB generation to over-come dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems ," Electron. Lett. 33, 74-75 (1997).

R. T. Ramos, A. J. Seeds, "Fast heterodyne optical phase-locked loop using double quantum well laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 28, 82-83 (1992).

A. Stoehr, T. Kuri, K. Kitayama, R. Heinzelmann, D. Jaeger, "Full-duplex 60 GHz fibre optic transmission," Electron. Lett. 35, 1653-1655 (1999).

D. Wake, S. Dupont, C. Lethien, J.-P. Vilcot, D. Decoster, "Radiofrequency transmission of 32-QAM signals over multimode fibre for distributed antenna system applications," Electron. Lett. 37, 1087-1089 (2001).

M. Y. W. Chia, B. Luo, M. L. Yee, E. J. Z. Hao, "Radio over multimode fibre transmission for wireless LAN using VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 39, 1143-1144 (2003).

R. E. Schuh, A. Alping, E. Sundberg, "Penalty-free GSM-1800 and WCDMA radio-over-fibre transmission using multimode fibre and 850 nm VCSEL," Electron. Lett. 39, 512-514 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

M. G. Larrode, A. M. J. Koonen, J. J. V. Olmos, "Fiber-based broadband wireless access employing optical frequency multiplication," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 875-881 (2006).

N. Nishiyama, C. Caneau, B. Hall, G. Guryanov, M. H. Hu, X. S. Liu, M.-J. Li, R. Bhat, C. E. Zah, "Long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers on InP with lattice matched AlGaInAs–InP DBR grown by MOCVD," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 990-998 (2005).

IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. (1)

A. Nkansah, A. Das, C. Lethien, J.-P. Vilcot, N. J. Gomes, I. J. Garcia, J. C. Batchelor, D. Wake, "Simultaneous dual band transmission over multimode fiber-fed indoor wireless network ," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 16, 627-629 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

M. G. Larrode, A. M. Koonen, J. J. V. Olmos, "Overcoming modal bandwidth limitation in radio-over-multimode fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2428-2430 (2006).

C. Lethien, C. Loyez, J. -P. Vilcot, "Potentials of radio over multimode fiber systems for the in-buildings coverage of mobile and wireless LAN applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2793-2795 (2005).

J. Yu, Z. S. Jia, L. Xu, L. Chen, T. Wang, G. K. Chang, "DWDM optical millimeter-wave generation for radio-over-fiber using an optical phase modulator and an optical interleaver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1418-1420 (2006).

J. B. Georges, M.-H. Kiang, K. Heppell, M. Sayed, K. Y. Lau, "Optical transmission of narrow-band millimeter-wave signals by resonant modulation of monolithic semiconductor lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 568-570 (1994).

D. Wake, C. R. Lima, P. A. Davis, "Transmission of 60-GHz signals over 100 km of optical fiber using a dual-mode semiconductor laser source," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 578-580 (1996).

IEEE Trans. Antenna Propag. (1)

C. F. Yang, B. C. Wu, C. J. Ko, "A ray-tracing method for modeling indoor wave propagation and penetration," IEEE Trans. Antenna Propag. 46, 907-919 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

F. Sagnard, G. E. Zein, "In situ characterization of building materials for propagation modeling: Frequency and time responses," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 3166-3173 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (7)

T. Niiho, M. Nakaso, K. Masuda, H. Sasai, K. Utsumi, M. Fuse, "Transmission performance of multichannel wireless LAN system based on radio-over-fiber techniques ," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 980-989 (2006).

N. Kanaglekar, R. E. Mcintosh, W. E. Bryant, "Analysis of two-tone, third-order distortion in cascaded two-ports," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 36, 701-705 (1988).

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