Abstract

We propose spectral phase-encoded optical atmospheric (OA) code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems with pulse-position modulation (PPM) and theoretically analyze the bit error rates (BERs). We compare the BERs of the proposed system to those of time-encoded OA-PPM-CDMA systems at the same bit rate and chip rate. We show that, even if the proposed spectral phase-encoded OA-PPM-CDMA system is equipped with no mitigation techniques of multiple access interference (MAI) and scintillation, the proposed system achieves lower BERs than both time-encoded OA-PPM-CDMA systems, both with and without a mitigation technique of MAI/scintillation, due to its higher code spreading gain and higher tolerance to noise.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. H. A. Willebrand, B. S. Ghuman, "Fiber optics without fiber," IEEE Spectr. 38, 40-45 (2001).
  2. X. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, "Mitigation of turbulence-induced scintillation noise in free-space optical links using temporal-domain detection techniques," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 623-625 (2003).
  3. X. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293-1300 (2002).
  4. E. J. Shin, V. W. S. Chan, "Optical communication over the turbulent atmospheric channel using spatial diversity ," Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM Conf. (2002) pp. 2055-2060.
  5. S. Karp, R. M. Gagliardi, S. E. Moran, L. B. Stotts, Optical Channels: Fibers, Clouds, Water, and the Atmosphere (Plenum, 1998).
  6. J. B. Abshire, "Performance of OOK and low-order PPM modulations in optical communications when using APD-based receivers," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-32, 1140-1143 (1984).
  7. T. Ohtsuki, "Performance analysis of atmospheric optical PPM CDMA systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 406-411 (2003).
  8. K. Ohba, T. Hirano, T. Miyazawa, I. Sasase, "A symbol decision scheme to mitigate effects of scintillations and MAIs in optical atmospheric PPM-CDMA systems," Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM Conf. (2005) pp. 1999-2003.
  9. M. Jazayerifar, J. A. Salehi, "Atmospheric optical CDMA communication systems via optical orthogonal codes," IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 1614-1623 (2006).
  10. P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro, T. R. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 547-554 (1986).
  11. J. A. Salehi, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber network—Part I: Fundamental principles," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824-833 (1989).
  12. J. A. Salehi, C. A. Brackett, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber network—Part II: Systems performance analysis," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 834-842 (1989).
  13. A. Stok, E. H. Sargent, "The role of optical CDMA in access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 83-87 (2002).
  14. H. M. Kwon, "Optical orthogonal code-division multiple-access system—Part I: APD noise and thermal noise ," IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2470-2479 (1994).
  15. F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, V. K. Wei, "Optical orthogonal codes: Design, analysis, and applications," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 35, 595-604 (1989).
  16. H. M. H. Shalaby, "Chip-level detection in optical code division multiple access," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1077-1087 (1998).
  17. H. M. H. Shalaby, "Optical OPPM-CDMA receivers with chip-level detectors," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.-Commun. 148, 31-37 (2001).
  18. J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, "Coherent ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple access communication systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 478-491 (1990).
  19. K. Kamakura, T. Ohtsuki, I. Sasase, "Optical spread time CDMA communication systems with PPM signaling," IEICE Trans. Commun. E82-B, 1038-1047 (1999).
  20. V. J. Hernandez, Y. Du, W. Cong, R. P. Scott, K. Li, J. P. Heritage, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, S. J. B. Yoo, "Spectral phase-encoded time-spreading (SPECTS) optical code-division multiple access for terabit optical access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2671-2679 (2004).
  21. K. S. Kim, D. M. Marom, L. B. Milstein, Y. Fainman, "Hybrid pulse position modulation/ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple-access systems—Part I: Fundamental analysis," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2018-2031 (2002).
  22. X. Wang, K. Kitayama, "Analysis of beat noise in coherent and incoherent time-spreading OCDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2226-2235 (2004).
  23. E. D. J. Smith, R. J. Blaikie, D. P. Taylor, "Performance enhancement of spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA using pulse-position modulation ," IEEE Trans. Commun. 46, 1176-1185 (1998).
  24. A. G. Al-Ghamdi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "Performance evaluation of a triangular pyramidal fly-eye diversity detector for optical wireless communications," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 80-86 (2003).
  25. A. G. Al-Ghamdi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "Line strip spot-diffusing transmitter configuration for optical wireless systems influenced by background noise and multipath dispersion," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 37-45 (2004).
  26. A. G. Al-Ghamdi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "Analysis of optical wireless links employing a beam clustering method and diversity receivers ," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (2004) pp. 3341-3347.
  27. R. A. Fisher, Optical Phase Conjugation (Optics and Photonics Series) (Academic, 1983).
  28. A. Brignon, J.-P. Huignard, Phase Conjugate Laser Optics (Wiley, 2004).
  29. http://www.icsa.gr.jp/english/index_e.html The Website of the Infrared Communication Systems Association (ICSA) in Japan.

2006 (1)

M. Jazayerifar, J. A. Salehi, "Atmospheric optical CDMA communication systems via optical orthogonal codes," IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 1614-1623 (2006).

2004 (3)

V. J. Hernandez, Y. Du, W. Cong, R. P. Scott, K. Li, J. P. Heritage, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, S. J. B. Yoo, "Spectral phase-encoded time-spreading (SPECTS) optical code-division multiple access for terabit optical access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2671-2679 (2004).

X. Wang, K. Kitayama, "Analysis of beat noise in coherent and incoherent time-spreading OCDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2226-2235 (2004).

A. G. Al-Ghamdi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "Line strip spot-diffusing transmitter configuration for optical wireless systems influenced by background noise and multipath dispersion," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 37-45 (2004).

2003 (3)

A. G. Al-Ghamdi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "Performance evaluation of a triangular pyramidal fly-eye diversity detector for optical wireless communications," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 80-86 (2003).

X. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, "Mitigation of turbulence-induced scintillation noise in free-space optical links using temporal-domain detection techniques," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 623-625 (2003).

T. Ohtsuki, "Performance analysis of atmospheric optical PPM CDMA systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 406-411 (2003).

2002 (3)

X. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293-1300 (2002).

K. S. Kim, D. M. Marom, L. B. Milstein, Y. Fainman, "Hybrid pulse position modulation/ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple-access systems—Part I: Fundamental analysis," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2018-2031 (2002).

A. Stok, E. H. Sargent, "The role of optical CDMA in access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 83-87 (2002).

2001 (2)

H. M. H. Shalaby, "Optical OPPM-CDMA receivers with chip-level detectors," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.-Commun. 148, 31-37 (2001).

H. A. Willebrand, B. S. Ghuman, "Fiber optics without fiber," IEEE Spectr. 38, 40-45 (2001).

1999 (1)

K. Kamakura, T. Ohtsuki, I. Sasase, "Optical spread time CDMA communication systems with PPM signaling," IEICE Trans. Commun. E82-B, 1038-1047 (1999).

1998 (2)

H. M. H. Shalaby, "Chip-level detection in optical code division multiple access," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1077-1087 (1998).

E. D. J. Smith, R. J. Blaikie, D. P. Taylor, "Performance enhancement of spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA using pulse-position modulation ," IEEE Trans. Commun. 46, 1176-1185 (1998).

1994 (1)

H. M. Kwon, "Optical orthogonal code-division multiple-access system—Part I: APD noise and thermal noise ," IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2470-2479 (1994).

1990 (1)

J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, "Coherent ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple access communication systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 478-491 (1990).

1989 (3)

F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, V. K. Wei, "Optical orthogonal codes: Design, analysis, and applications," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 35, 595-604 (1989).

J. A. Salehi, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber network—Part I: Fundamental principles," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824-833 (1989).

J. A. Salehi, C. A. Brackett, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber network—Part II: Systems performance analysis," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 834-842 (1989).

1986 (1)

P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro, T. R. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 547-554 (1986).

1984 (1)

J. B. Abshire, "Performance of OOK and low-order PPM modulations in optical communications when using APD-based receivers," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-32, 1140-1143 (1984).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

A. Stok, E. H. Sargent, "The role of optical CDMA in access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 83-87 (2002).

A. G. Al-Ghamdi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "Performance evaluation of a triangular pyramidal fly-eye diversity detector for optical wireless communications," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 80-86 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, "Mitigation of turbulence-induced scintillation noise in free-space optical links using temporal-domain detection techniques," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 623-625 (2003).

IEEE Spectr. (1)

H. A. Willebrand, B. S. Ghuman, "Fiber optics without fiber," IEEE Spectr. 38, 40-45 (2001).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (9)

J. A. Salehi, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber network—Part I: Fundamental principles," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824-833 (1989).

J. A. Salehi, C. A. Brackett, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber network—Part II: Systems performance analysis," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 834-842 (1989).

H. M. Kwon, "Optical orthogonal code-division multiple-access system—Part I: APD noise and thermal noise ," IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2470-2479 (1994).

X. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293-1300 (2002).

J. B. Abshire, "Performance of OOK and low-order PPM modulations in optical communications when using APD-based receivers," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-32, 1140-1143 (1984).

M. Jazayerifar, J. A. Salehi, "Atmospheric optical CDMA communication systems via optical orthogonal codes," IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 1614-1623 (2006).

A. G. Al-Ghamdi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "Line strip spot-diffusing transmitter configuration for optical wireless systems influenced by background noise and multipath dispersion," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 37-45 (2004).

K. S. Kim, D. M. Marom, L. B. Milstein, Y. Fainman, "Hybrid pulse position modulation/ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple-access systems—Part I: Fundamental analysis," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2018-2031 (2002).

E. D. J. Smith, R. J. Blaikie, D. P. Taylor, "Performance enhancement of spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA using pulse-position modulation ," IEEE Trans. Commun. 46, 1176-1185 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, V. K. Wei, "Optical orthogonal codes: Design, analysis, and applications," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 35, 595-604 (1989).

IEICE Trans. Commun. (1)

K. Kamakura, T. Ohtsuki, I. Sasase, "Optical spread time CDMA communication systems with PPM signaling," IEICE Trans. Commun. E82-B, 1038-1047 (1999).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

V. J. Hernandez, Y. Du, W. Cong, R. P. Scott, K. Li, J. P. Heritage, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, S. J. B. Yoo, "Spectral phase-encoded time-spreading (SPECTS) optical code-division multiple access for terabit optical access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2671-2679 (2004).

X. Wang, K. Kitayama, "Analysis of beat noise in coherent and incoherent time-spreading OCDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2226-2235 (2004).

H. M. H. Shalaby, "Chip-level detection in optical code division multiple access," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1077-1087 (1998).

J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, "Coherent ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple access communication systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 478-491 (1990).

P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro, T. R. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 547-554 (1986).

T. Ohtsuki, "Performance analysis of atmospheric optical PPM CDMA systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 406-411 (2003).

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.-Commun. (1)

H. M. H. Shalaby, "Optical OPPM-CDMA receivers with chip-level detectors," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.-Commun. 148, 31-37 (2001).

Other (7)

K. Ohba, T. Hirano, T. Miyazawa, I. Sasase, "A symbol decision scheme to mitigate effects of scintillations and MAIs in optical atmospheric PPM-CDMA systems," Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM Conf. (2005) pp. 1999-2003.

E. J. Shin, V. W. S. Chan, "Optical communication over the turbulent atmospheric channel using spatial diversity ," Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM Conf. (2002) pp. 2055-2060.

S. Karp, R. M. Gagliardi, S. E. Moran, L. B. Stotts, Optical Channels: Fibers, Clouds, Water, and the Atmosphere (Plenum, 1998).

A. G. Al-Ghamdi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "Analysis of optical wireless links employing a beam clustering method and diversity receivers ," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (2004) pp. 3341-3347.

R. A. Fisher, Optical Phase Conjugation (Optics and Photonics Series) (Academic, 1983).

A. Brignon, J.-P. Huignard, Phase Conjugate Laser Optics (Wiley, 2004).

http://www.icsa.gr.jp/english/index_e.html The Website of the Infrared Communication Systems Association (ICSA) in Japan.

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