Abstract

In this paper, an architecture for code-empowered optical CDMA (OCDMA) lightwave networks is presented. The architecture is based on reconfigurable optically transparent paths among users of the network to provide high-bandwidth optical connections on demand over small areas such as local area networks or access networks. The network operates on the transmission of incoherent OCDMA codes, each network station being equipped with an OCDMA encoder and decoder. The routing at a network node is based on the OCDMA code itself. The destination address, as well as the next node on the path, is given by the code as in a code-empowered network. A node consists of an OCDMA router built from parallel code converter routers that perform switching, routing, and code conversion. The latter enables a virtual code path for increased scalability. Commonly available delay lines enable the tunability of the encoder, decoder, and router for a reconfigurable and flexible network. Flexibility and granularity are also accentuated by OCDMA encoding. An OCDMA lightwave network can therefore respond to changes in traffic load, traffic conditions, failure, and other network impairments. We describe the possible architectures and the routing constraints of such OCDMA lightwave networks. We present a power analysis and focus on the performance issues of dynamic routing. The effect of coding, topology, load condition, and traffic demand is analyzed using simulations. The obtained results show that the flexibility of OCDMA and the large offered cardinality can be a solution to the needs of local area and access networks.

© 2007 IEEE

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2007 (1)

2006 (1)

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, M. Boroditsky, K. Bergman, M. Brodsky, "Polarization-dependent gain in SOA-based optical multistage interconnection networks ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3959-3967 (2006).

2005 (2)

Y.-K. Huang, V. Baby, P. Prucnal, C. Greiner, D. Iazikov, T. Mossberg, "Integrated holographic encoder for wavelength-hopping/time-spreading optical CDMA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 825-827 (2005).

C.-S. Brès, I. Glesk, P. Prucnal, "Demonstration of a transparent router for wavelength-hopping time-spreading optical CDMA ," Opt. Commun. 254, 58-66 (2005).

2004 (1)

W.-C. Kwong, G.-C. Yang, "Extended carrier-hopping prime codes for wavelength-time optical code-division multiple access ," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 1084-1098 (2004).

2003 (1)

J. Shah, "Optical CDMA," Opt. Photon. News 14, 42-47 (2003).

2002 (3)

A. Stok, E. Sargent, "The role of optical CDMA in access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 409-411 (2002).

R. Yim, L. Chen, J. Bajcsy, "Design and performance of 2-D codes for wavelength-time optical CDMA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 714-716 (2002).

J. Lee, P. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, D. Richardson, "A grating-based OCDMA coding-decoding system incorporating a nonlinear optical loop mirror for improved code recognition and noise reduction," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 36-46 (2002).

2000 (2)

L. Chen, P. Smith, "Demonstration of incoherent wavelength-encoding/time-spreading optical CDMA using chirped moire gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1281-1283 (2000).

S. Kim, M. Kang, S. Park, Y. Choi, S. Han, "Incoherent bidirectional fiber-optic code division multiple access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 921-923 (2000).

1999 (1)

K. Yu, N. Park, "Design of new family of two-dimensional wavelength-time spreading codes for optical code division multiple access networks," Electron. Lett. 35, 830-831 (1999).

1998 (1)

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, M. Nishimura, "Generation of an ultra-broad-band supercontinuum by dispersion-flattened and decreasing fiber ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 72-74 (1998).

1997 (1)

K.-L. Deng, K. Kang, I. Glesk, P. Prucnal, "A 1024-channel fast tunable delay line for ultrafast all-optical TDM networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1496-1498 (1997).

1996 (2)

L. Tancevski, M. Tur, J. Budin, I. Andonovic, "Hybrid wavelength hopping/time spreading code division multiple access systems," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectronics 143, 161-166 (1996).

G. Yang, W. Kwong, "Two-dimensional spatial signature patterns," IEEE Trans. Commun. 44, 184-191 (1996).

1995 (1)

A. Hassan, J. Hershey, N. Riza, "Spatial optical CDMA," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 13, 609-613 (1995).

1994 (1)

L. Tancevski, I. Andonovic, "Wavelength hopping/time spreading code division multiple access systems," Electron. Lett. 30, 721-723 (1994).

1993 (2)

D. Zaccarin, M. Kavegard, "An optical CDMA system based on spectral amplitude encoding of an LED," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 479-482 (1993).

J. Sokoloff, P. Prucnal, I. Glesk, M. Kane, "A terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787-790 (1993).

1991 (1)

P. Prucnal, M. Krol, J. Stacy, "Demonstration of a rapidly tunable optical time-division multiple-access coder," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 170-172 (1991).

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

P. Prucnal, M. Santoro, T. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing," Electron. Lett. 4, 547-554 (1986).

Electron. Lett. (3)

P. Prucnal, M. Santoro, T. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing," Electron. Lett. 4, 547-554 (1986).

L. Tancevski, I. Andonovic, "Wavelength hopping/time spreading code division multiple access systems," Electron. Lett. 30, 721-723 (1994).

K. Yu, N. Park, "Design of new family of two-dimensional wavelength-time spreading codes for optical code division multiple access networks," Electron. Lett. 35, 830-831 (1999).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

A. Stok, E. Sargent, "The role of optical CDMA in access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 409-411 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

A. Hassan, J. Hershey, N. Riza, "Spatial optical CDMA," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 13, 609-613 (1995).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (9)

D. Zaccarin, M. Kavegard, "An optical CDMA system based on spectral amplitude encoding of an LED," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 479-482 (1993).

R. Yim, L. Chen, J. Bajcsy, "Design and performance of 2-D codes for wavelength-time optical CDMA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 714-716 (2002).

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, M. Nishimura, "Generation of an ultra-broad-band supercontinuum by dispersion-flattened and decreasing fiber ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 72-74 (1998).

S. Kim, M. Kang, S. Park, Y. Choi, S. Han, "Incoherent bidirectional fiber-optic code division multiple access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 921-923 (2000).

Y.-K. Huang, V. Baby, P. Prucnal, C. Greiner, D. Iazikov, T. Mossberg, "Integrated holographic encoder for wavelength-hopping/time-spreading optical CDMA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 825-827 (2005).

L. Chen, P. Smith, "Demonstration of incoherent wavelength-encoding/time-spreading optical CDMA using chirped moire gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1281-1283 (2000).

P. Prucnal, M. Krol, J. Stacy, "Demonstration of a rapidly tunable optical time-division multiple-access coder," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 170-172 (1991).

K.-L. Deng, K. Kang, I. Glesk, P. Prucnal, "A 1024-channel fast tunable delay line for ultrafast all-optical TDM networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1496-1498 (1997).

J. Sokoloff, P. Prucnal, I. Glesk, M. Kane, "A terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787-790 (1993).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

G. Yang, W. Kwong, "Two-dimensional spatial signature patterns," IEEE Trans. Commun. 44, 184-191 (1996).

W.-C. Kwong, G.-C. Yang, "Extended carrier-hopping prime codes for wavelength-time optical code-division multiple access ," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 1084-1098 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, M. Boroditsky, K. Bergman, M. Brodsky, "Polarization-dependent gain in SOA-based optical multistage interconnection networks ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3959-3967 (2006).

J. Lee, P. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, D. Richardson, "A grating-based OCDMA coding-decoding system incorporating a nonlinear optical loop mirror for improved code recognition and noise reduction," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 36-46 (2002).

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

C.-S. Brès, I. Glesk, P. Prucnal, "Demonstration of a transparent router for wavelength-hopping time-spreading optical CDMA ," Opt. Commun. 254, 58-66 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

J. Shah, "Optical CDMA," Opt. Photon. News 14, 42-47 (2003).

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectronics (1)

L. Tancevski, M. Tur, J. Budin, I. Andonovic, "Hybrid wavelength hopping/time spreading code division multiple access systems," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectronics 143, 161-166 (1996).

Other (5)

W. Kwong, G.-C. Yang, Prime Codes With Applications to CDMA Optical and Wireless .

L. Chen, "Technologies for hybrid wavelength-time optical CDMA transmission," Proc. Can. Conf. Elect. and Comput. Eng. (2001) pp. 435-440.

Little Optics Inc. White Paper: Economics of Very Large Scale Integration Photonics (2003).

L. Xu, I. GLesk, V. Baby, P. Prucnal, "Multiple access interference (MAI) noise reduction in a 2D optical CDMA system using ultrafast optical thresholding," Proc. LEOS Annu. Meeting (2004) pp. 591-592.

C. Lam, "To spread or not to spread—The myths of optical CDMA," Proc. IEEE LEOS Annu. Meeting (2000) pp. 13-16.

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