Abstract

We demonstrate a compact fully tunable narrowband fourth-order pole-zero optical filter that is fabricated in a silicon complementary-metal–oxide–semiconductor foundry. The filter is implemented using silicon on oxide channel waveguides and consists of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with two ring resonator all-pass filters (APFs) on each arm. The filter architecture is based on the sum and difference of the APFs responses. The ring resonators introduce a nonlinear phase response in each arm that allows carving narrow frequency bands out of a broad spectrum. In this paper, we demonstrate a 3-dB filter bandwidth of 1.0 GHz with a stopband rejection of better than 25 dB. The filter free spectral range is 16.5 GHz. Thermooptic phase shifters are used to tune the filter. As silicon has a large thermooptic coefficient compared to silica, the demonstrated filter requires a low tuning power of less than 300 mW. In addition, this filter is compact with dimensions 25 times smaller than the same filter would be if it were made using standard silica on silicon waveguides with a 0.8% step index contrast.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics," Proc. IEEE 81, 1687-1706 (1993).
  2. M. J. Grove, D. Carothers, A. T. Pomerene, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, M. Beals, D. K. Sparacin, M. Lipson, A. B. Apsel, C. W. Wong, "Recent advances in CMOS compatible integrated photonics," Proc. GOMAC (2006.).
  3. K. Takad, M. Abe, T. Shibata, K. Okamoto, "1-GHz-spaced 16-channel arrayed-waveguide grating for a wavelength reference standard in DWDM network systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 850-853 (2002).
  4. S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, V. Van, J. V. Hryoiewicz, P. P. Ahsil, F. G. Johnson, D. Giu, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, J. Shaoton, "Compact full C-band tunable filters for 50 GHz channel spacing based on high order micro-ring resonators," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper PDP9.
  5. C. K. Madsen, "Efficient architectures for exactly realizing optical filters with optimum bandpass designs ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1136-1138 (1998).
  6. K. Jinguji, "Synthesis of coherent two-port optical delay-line circuit with ring waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1882-1898 (1996).
  7. C. K. Madsen, J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach (Wiley, 1999).
  8. D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2455-2461 (2005).
  9. R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, R. M. Osgood, "Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366-1368 (2003).
  10. C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer-size waveguide devices ," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2332-2339 (2003).
  11. L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE (2006) pp. 612 502.
  12. I. Day, I. Evans, A. Knigha, F. Hopper, S. Roberts, J. Johnston, S. Day, I. Luff, H. Tsang, M. Asghari, "Tapered silicon waveguides for low insertion loss highly-efficient high-speed electronic variable optical attenuators," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AtlantaGA (2003) Paper TuM5.
  13. V. Almeida, R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1304 (2003).

2005 (1)

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2455-2461 (2005).

2003 (3)

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, R. M. Osgood, "Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366-1368 (2003).

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer-size waveguide devices ," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2332-2339 (2003).

V. Almeida, R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1304 (2003).

2002 (1)

K. Takad, M. Abe, T. Shibata, K. Okamoto, "1-GHz-spaced 16-channel arrayed-waveguide grating for a wavelength reference standard in DWDM network systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 850-853 (2002).

1998 (1)

C. K. Madsen, "Efficient architectures for exactly realizing optical filters with optimum bandpass designs ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1136-1138 (1998).

1996 (1)

K. Jinguji, "Synthesis of coherent two-port optical delay-line circuit with ring waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1882-1898 (1996).

1993 (1)

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics," Proc. IEEE 81, 1687-1706 (1993).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, R. M. Osgood, "Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366-1368 (2003).

C. K. Madsen, "Efficient architectures for exactly realizing optical filters with optimum bandpass designs ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1136-1138 (1998).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

K. Jinguji, "Synthesis of coherent two-port optical delay-line circuit with ring waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1882-1898 (1996).

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2455-2461 (2005).

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer-size waveguide devices ," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2332-2339 (2003).

K. Takad, M. Abe, T. Shibata, K. Okamoto, "1-GHz-spaced 16-channel arrayed-waveguide grating for a wavelength reference standard in DWDM network systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 850-853 (2002).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics," Proc. IEEE 81, 1687-1706 (1993).

Other (5)

M. J. Grove, D. Carothers, A. T. Pomerene, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, M. Beals, D. K. Sparacin, M. Lipson, A. B. Apsel, C. W. Wong, "Recent advances in CMOS compatible integrated photonics," Proc. GOMAC (2006.).

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, V. Van, J. V. Hryoiewicz, P. P. Ahsil, F. G. Johnson, D. Giu, O. King, F. Seiferth, M. Trakalo, J. Shaoton, "Compact full C-band tunable filters for 50 GHz channel spacing based on high order micro-ring resonators," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper PDP9.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE (2006) pp. 612 502.

I. Day, I. Evans, A. Knigha, F. Hopper, S. Roberts, J. Johnston, S. Day, I. Luff, H. Tsang, M. Asghari, "Tapered silicon waveguides for low insertion loss highly-efficient high-speed electronic variable optical attenuators," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AtlantaGA (2003) Paper TuM5.

C. K. Madsen, J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach (Wiley, 1999).

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