Abstract

In this paper, an overview and assessment of high-performance receivers based upon Ge-on-silicon-on-insulator (Ge-on-SOI) photodiodes and Si CMOS amplifier ICs is provided. Receivers utilizing Ge-on-SOI lateral p-i-n photodiodes paired with high-gain CMOS amplifiers are shown to operate at 15 Gb/s with a sensitivity of -7.4 dBm (BER=10<sup>-12</sup>) while utilizing a single supply voltage of only 2.4 V. The 5-Gb/s sensitivity of similar receivers is constant up to 93 °C, and 10-Gb/s operation is demonstrated at 85 °C. Error-free (BER<10<sup>-12</sup>) operation of receivers combining a Ge-on-SOI photodiode with a single-ended high-speed receiver front end is demonstrated at 19 Gb/s, using a supply voltage of 1.8 V. In addition, receivers utilizing Ge-on-SOI photodiodes integrated with a low-power CMOS IC are shown to operate at 10 Gb/s using a single 1.1-V supply while consuming only 11 mW of power. A perspective on the future technological capabilities and applications of Ge-detector/Si-CMOS receivers is also provided.

© 2007 IEEE

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2006 (5)

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, J. O. Chu, "Ge-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1489-1502 (2006).

C. L. Schow, L. Schares, S. J. Koester, G. Dehlinger, R. John, F. E. Doany, "A 15-Gb/s, 2.4 V optical receiver using a Ge-on-SOI photodiode and a CMOS IC," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1981-1983 (2006).

C. L. Schow, L. Schares, R. A. John, L. S. Fischer, D. Guckenberger, "A 25-Gb/s transimpedance amplifier in 0.13 $\mu \hbox{m}$ CMOS," Electron. Lett. 42, 1240-1241 (2006).

L. Schares, "Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1032-1044 (2006).

S. Balakumar, M. M. Roy, B. Ramamurthy, C. H. Tung, G. Fei, S. Tripathy, C. Dongzhi, R. Kumar, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, "Fabrication aspects of germanium on insulator from sputtered Ge on Si-substrates," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9, G158-G160 (2006).

2005 (6)

M. Jutzi, M. Grözing, E. Gaugler, W. Mazioschek, M. Berroth, "2-Gb/s CMOS optical integrated receiver with a spatially modulated photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1268-1270 (2005).

S. Radovanovic, A. J. Annema, B. Nauta, "A 3-Gb/s optical detector in standard CMOS for 850-nm optical communication," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1706-1717 (2005).

M. Rouvière, "Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55 $\mu \hbox{m}$ operation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231 109-1-231 109-3 (2005).

W.-Z. Chen, Y.-L. Cheng, D.-S. Lin, "A 1.8-V 10-Gb/s fully integrated CMOS optical receiver analog front-end," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1388-1396 (2005).

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, "Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510-1512 (2005).

J. Liu, "High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103 501-1-103 501-3 (2005).

2004 (6)

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, A. Grill, "High-speed germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).

Z. Huang, J. Oh, J. C. Campbell, "Back-side-illuminated high-speed Ge photodetector fabricated on Si substrate using thin SiGe buffer layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3286-3288 (2004).

D. L. Harame, "The revolution in SiGe: Impact on device electronics," Appl. Surf. Sci. 224, 9-17 (2004).

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, H. Jäckel, "A low-power 20-GHz 52-dB$\Omega$ transimpedance amplifier in 80-nm CMOS," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39, 885-894 (2004).

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J.-F. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, K. Cadien, "On-chip optical interconnects," Intel Technol. J. 8, 129-142 (2004).

G. Masini, V. Cencelli, L. Colace, F. de Notaristefani, G. Assanto, "Linear array of Si-Ge heterojunction photodetectors monolithically integrated with silicon CMOS readout electronics," IEEE Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 811-815 (2004).

2003 (2)

N. A. Bojarczuk, M. Copel, S. Guha, V. Narayanan, E. J. Preisler, F. M. Ross, H. Shang, "Epitaxial silicon and germanium on buried insulator heterostructures and devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5443-5445 (2003).

B. Yang, J. D. Schaub, S. M. Csutak, D. L. Rogers, J. C. Campbell, "10-Gb/s all-silicon optical receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 745-747 (2003).

2002 (1)

S. M. Csutak, J. D. Schaub, W. E. Wu, R. Shimer, J. C. Campbell, "High-speed monolithically integrated silicon photoreceivers fabricated in 130-nm CMOS technology ," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1724-1729 (2002).

2000 (3)

D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).

B. Mukherjee, "WDM optical communication networks: Progress and challenges," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1810-1824 (2000).

D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, "Optical interconnects at the chip and board level: Challenges and solutions," Proc. IEEE 88, 808-818 (2000).

1999 (2)

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, "Ge-on-Si approaches to the detection of near-infrared light," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1843-1852 (1999).

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).

1998 (1)

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, E. A. Fitzgerald, "High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed buffers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2125-2127 (1998).

1996 (1)

L. Naval, B. Jalali, L. Gomelsky, J. M. Liu, "Optimization of $\hbox{Si}_{1 - {\rm x}}\hbox{Ge}_{\rm x}/\hbox{Si}$ waveguide photodetectors operating at $\lambda = 1.3\ \mu\hbox{m}$," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 787-797 (1996).

1995 (1)

B. Davari, R. H. Dennard, G. G. Shahidi, "CMOS scaling for high-performance and low-power—The next 10 years," Proc. IEEE 83, 595-606 (1995).

1993 (1)

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics," Proc. IEEE 81, 1687-1706 (1993).

1986 (1)

H. Temkin, T. P. Pearsall, J. C. Bean, R. A. Logan, S. Luryi, "$\hbox{Ge}_{\rm x}\hbox{Si}_{1 - {\rm x}}$ strained-layer superlattice waveguide photodetectors operating near 1.3 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 963-965 (1986).

1984 (1)

S. Luryi, A. Kastalsky, J. C. Bean, "New infrared detector on a silicon chip," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-31, 1135-1139 (1984).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

H. Temkin, T. P. Pearsall, J. C. Bean, R. A. Logan, S. Luryi, "$\hbox{Ge}_{\rm x}\hbox{Si}_{1 - {\rm x}}$ strained-layer superlattice waveguide photodetectors operating near 1.3 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 963-965 (1986).

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, E. A. Fitzgerald, "High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed buffers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2125-2127 (1998).

Z. Huang, J. Oh, J. C. Campbell, "Back-side-illuminated high-speed Ge photodetector fabricated on Si substrate using thin SiGe buffer layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3286-3288 (2004).

J. Liu, "High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103 501-1-103 501-3 (2005).

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).

M. Rouvière, "Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55 $\mu \hbox{m}$ operation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231 109-1-231 109-3 (2005).

N. A. Bojarczuk, M. Copel, S. Guha, V. Narayanan, E. J. Preisler, F. M. Ross, H. Shang, "Epitaxial silicon and germanium on buried insulator heterostructures and devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5443-5445 (2003).

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

D. L. Harame, "The revolution in SiGe: Impact on device electronics," Appl. Surf. Sci. 224, 9-17 (2004).

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (1)

S. Balakumar, M. M. Roy, B. Ramamurthy, C. H. Tung, G. Fei, S. Tripathy, C. Dongzhi, R. Kumar, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, "Fabrication aspects of germanium on insulator from sputtered Ge on Si-substrates," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9, G158-G160 (2006).

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. L. Schow, L. Schares, R. A. John, L. S. Fischer, D. Guckenberger, "A 25-Gb/s transimpedance amplifier in 0.13 $\mu \hbox{m}$ CMOS," Electron. Lett. 42, 1240-1241 (2006).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, "Ge-on-Si approaches to the detection of near-infrared light," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1843-1852 (1999).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

B. Mukherjee, "WDM optical communication networks: Progress and challenges," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1810-1824 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, J. O. Chu, "Ge-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1489-1502 (2006).

L. Schares, "Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1032-1044 (2006).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (3)

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, H. Jäckel, "A low-power 20-GHz 52-dB$\Omega$ transimpedance amplifier in 80-nm CMOS," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39, 885-894 (2004).

W.-Z. Chen, Y.-L. Cheng, D.-S. Lin, "A 1.8-V 10-Gb/s fully integrated CMOS optical receiver analog front-end," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1388-1396 (2005).

S. Radovanovic, A. J. Annema, B. Nauta, "A 3-Gb/s optical detector in standard CMOS for 850-nm optical communication," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1706-1717 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

B. Yang, J. D. Schaub, S. M. Csutak, D. L. Rogers, J. C. Campbell, "10-Gb/s all-silicon optical receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 745-747 (2003).

M. Jutzi, M. Grözing, E. Gaugler, W. Mazioschek, M. Berroth, "2-Gb/s CMOS optical integrated receiver with a spatially modulated photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1268-1270 (2005).

C. L. Schow, L. Schares, S. J. Koester, G. Dehlinger, R. John, F. E. Doany, "A 15-Gb/s, 2.4 V optical receiver using a Ge-on-SOI photodiode and a CMOS IC," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1981-1983 (2006).

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, A. Grill, "High-speed germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, "Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510-1512 (2005).

IEEE Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Masini, V. Cencelli, L. Colace, F. de Notaristefani, G. Assanto, "Linear array of Si-Ge heterojunction photodetectors monolithically integrated with silicon CMOS readout electronics," IEEE Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 811-815 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (1)

S. Luryi, A. Kastalsky, J. C. Bean, "New infrared detector on a silicon chip," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-31, 1135-1139 (1984).

Intel Technol. J. (1)

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J.-F. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, K. Cadien, "On-chip optical interconnects," Intel Technol. J. 8, 129-142 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

S. M. Csutak, J. D. Schaub, W. E. Wu, R. Shimer, J. C. Campbell, "High-speed monolithically integrated silicon photoreceivers fabricated in 130-nm CMOS technology ," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1724-1729 (2002).

L. Naval, B. Jalali, L. Gomelsky, J. M. Liu, "Optimization of $\hbox{Si}_{1 - {\rm x}}\hbox{Ge}_{\rm x}/\hbox{Si}$ waveguide photodetectors operating at $\lambda = 1.3\ \mu\hbox{m}$," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 787-797 (1996).

Proc. IEEE (4)

D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, "Optical interconnects at the chip and board level: Challenges and solutions," Proc. IEEE 88, 808-818 (2000).

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics," Proc. IEEE 81, 1687-1706 (1993).

B. Davari, R. H. Dennard, G. G. Shahidi, "CMOS scaling for high-performance and low-power—The next 10 years," Proc. IEEE 83, 595-606 (1995).

D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).

Other (15)

J.-O. Plouchart, J. Kim, J. Gross, R. Trzcinski, K. Wu, "Scalability of SOI CMOS technology and circuit to millimeter wave performance," Proc. Compound Semicond. Integr. Circuit Symp. (2005) pp. 121-124.

S. J. Koester, L. Schares, C. L. Schow, G. Dehlinger, R. A. John, "Temperature-dependent analysis of Ge-on-SOI photodetectors and receivers," Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Group-IV Photon. (2006) pp. 179-181.

10-Gb/s Ethernet standard (ANSI/IEEE P802.3-2002) http://www.ieee802.org/3/ae/ http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/802.3.html.

10-Gb/s Infiniband standard http://www.infinibandta.org.

Fibre Channel standards http://www.fibrechannel.org http://www.t11.org.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, C. L. Schow, P. K. Pepeljugoski, F. E. Doany, R. A. John, J. A. Kash, "A 17-Gb/s, 200-m multimode optical fiber link using CMOS analog ICs and silicon carrier packaging ," Proc. 19th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Opt. Soc. (2006) pp. 573-574.

R. Swoboda, H. Zimmermann, "11 Gb/s monolithically integrated silicon optical receiver for 850 nm wavelength," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (2006) pp. 904-911.

D. Guckenberger, "1 V, 10 mW, 10 Gb/s CMOS optical receiver front-end," Proc. IEEE Radio Freq. Integr. Circuits Symp. (2005) pp. 309-312.

R.-C. Liu, H. Wang, "DC-to-15- and DC-to-30-GHz CMOS distributed transimpedance amplifiers," Proc. IEEE Radio Freq. Integr. Circuits Symp. (2004) pp. 535-538.

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