Abstract

The waveguiding properties of a multilayer dielectric slab waveguide structure with applications in edge-coupled terahertz photomixer sources are studied. The structure guides two interfering laser beams, which their central frequency difference falls into the terahertz spectrum. The top layer of the dielectric waveguide structure is made of an ultrafast photoabsorbing material, wherein the power of the guided modes are being absorbed and converted into a terahertz signal. The optical field and power distributions inside the waveguide structure are studied for different physical parameters of the dielectric layers. The absorbed optical intensity and the generated terahertz photocurrent and terahertz power inside the photoabsorbing layer are calculated.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, M. Pepper, M. Kemp, "Terahertz frequency sensing and imaging: A time of reckoning future applications?," Proc. IEEE 93, 1722-1743 (2005).
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  3. M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, "Modular parallel-plate THz components for cost-efficient biosensing systems," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S281-S285 (2005).
  4. P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in biology and medicine," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52, 2438-2447 (2004).
  5. T. Globus, D. Woolard, M. Bykhovskaia, B. Gelmont, L. Werbos, A. Samuels, "THz-frequency spectroscopic sensing of DNA and related biological materials," Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 13, 903-936 (2003).
  6. S. Wang, B. Ferguson, D. Abbott, X.-C. Zhang, "T-ray imaging and tomography," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 247-256 (2003).
  7. Sensing with Terahertz Radiation (Springer-Verlag, 2003).
  8. M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. R. Tribe, "Security applications of terahertz technology," Proc. SPIE Conf. (2003) pp. 44-52.
  9. P. F. Taday, "Applications of terahertz spectroscopy to pharmaceutical sciences," Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A, Math. Phys. Sci. 362, 351-364 (2004).
  10. A. Hirata, H. Ishii, T. Nagatsuma, "Design and characterization of a 120-GHz millimeter-wave antenna for integrated photonic transmitters," Proc. Int. Top. Meeting Microw./Photon. (2000) pp. 229-232.
  11. M. C. Teich, "Field-theoretical treatment of photomixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 201-203 (1969).
  12. E. R. Brown, F. W. Smith, K. A. McIntosh, "Coherent millimeter-wave generation by heterodyne conversion in low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1480-1484 (1993).
  13. E. R. Brown, "THz generation by photomixing in ultrafast photoconductors," Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 13, 497-545 (2003).
  14. D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, S. Safavi-Naeini, "The interaction of laser and photoconductor in a continuous-wave terahertz photomixer ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1188-1196 (2005).
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  16. D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, S. Safavi-Naeini, "Modeling and analysis of high-temperature superconductor terahertz photomixers," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 3847-3855 (2005).
  17. E. A. Michael, "Travelling-wave photonic mixers for increased continuous-wave power beyond 1 THz," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S164-S177 (2005).
  18. J.-W. Shi, K.-G. Gan, Y.-J. Chiu, Y.-H. Chen, C.-K. Sun, Y.-J. Yang, J. E. Bowers, "Metal-semiconductor-metal traveling-wave photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 623-625 (2001).
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  20. L. Y. Lin, M. C. Wu, T. Itoh, T. A. Vang, R. E. Muller, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "High-power high-speed photodetectors-design, analysis, and experimental demonstration ," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1320-1331 (1997).
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  22. Low Temperature (LT) GaAs and Related Materials (Mater. Res. Soc., 1992).
  23. E. R. Brown, D. C. Driscoll, A. C. Gossard, "State-of-the-art in 1.55-μm ultrafast InGaAs photoconductors, and the use of signal-processing techniques to extract the photocarrier lifetime," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S199-S204 (2005).
  24. M. Sukhotin, E. R. Brown, A. C. Gossard, D. C. Driscoll, M. Hanson, P. Maker, R. Muller, "Photomixing and photoconductor measurements on ErAs/InGaAs at 1.55 μm ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3116-3118 (2003).
  25. A. Stohr, A. Malcoci, A. Sauerwald, I. C. Mayorga, R. Gusten, D. S. Jager, "Ultra-wide-band traveling-wave photodetectors for photonic local oscillators," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3062-3070 (2003).
  26. Y. Kokubo, I. Ohta, "Refractive index as a function of photon energy for AlGaAs between 1.2 and 1.8 eV," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2042-2043 (1997).
  27. Guided-Wave Optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, 1988).
  28. GaInAsP Alloy Semiconductors (Wiley, 1982).
  29. R. E. Nahory, M. A. Pollack, W. D. Johnston, Jr.R. L. Barns, "Band gap versus composition and demonstration of Vegard's law for $\hbox{In}_{1 - x}\hbox{Ga}_{x}\hbox{As}_{y}\hbox{P}_{1 - y}$ lattice matched to InP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 659-661 (1978).
  30. H. Yajima, "Coupled mode analysis of dielectric planar branching waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 749-755 (1978).
  31. V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
  32. D. Saeedkia, S. Safavi-Naeini, "A comprehensive model for photomixing in ultrafast photoconductors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1457-1459 (2006).
  33. N. Zamdmer, Q. Hu, K. A. McIntosh, S. Verghese, "Increase in response time of low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductive switches at high voltage bias," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2313-2315 (1999).
  34. H. W. Thim, "Computer study of bulk GaAs devices with random one-dimensional doping fluctuations ," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3897-3904 (1968).
  35. M. Sukhotin, E. R. Brown, D. C. Driscoll, M. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, "Picosecond photocarrier-lifetime in ErAs:InGaAs at 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3921-3923 (2003).

2006

D. Saeedkia, S. Safavi-Naeini, "A comprehensive model for photomixing in ultrafast photoconductors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1457-1459 (2006).

2005

D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, S. Safavi-Naeini, "The interaction of laser and photoconductor in a continuous-wave terahertz photomixer ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1188-1196 (2005).

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).

D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, M. Pepper, M. Kemp, "Terahertz frequency sensing and imaging: A time of reckoning future applications?," Proc. IEEE 93, 1722-1743 (2005).

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, "Modular parallel-plate THz components for cost-efficient biosensing systems," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S281-S285 (2005).

D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, S. Safavi-Naeini, "Modeling and analysis of high-temperature superconductor terahertz photomixers," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 3847-3855 (2005).

E. A. Michael, "Travelling-wave photonic mixers for increased continuous-wave power beyond 1 THz," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S164-S177 (2005).

E. R. Brown, D. C. Driscoll, A. C. Gossard, "State-of-the-art in 1.55-μm ultrafast InGaAs photoconductors, and the use of signal-processing techniques to extract the photocarrier lifetime," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S199-S204 (2005).

2004

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in biology and medicine," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52, 2438-2447 (2004).

P. F. Taday, "Applications of terahertz spectroscopy to pharmaceutical sciences," Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A, Math. Phys. Sci. 362, 351-364 (2004).

2003

E. R. Brown, "THz generation by photomixing in ultrafast photoconductors," Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 13, 497-545 (2003).

T. Globus, D. Woolard, M. Bykhovskaia, B. Gelmont, L. Werbos, A. Samuels, "THz-frequency spectroscopic sensing of DNA and related biological materials," Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 13, 903-936 (2003).

S. Wang, B. Ferguson, D. Abbott, X.-C. Zhang, "T-ray imaging and tomography," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 247-256 (2003).

M. Sukhotin, E. R. Brown, A. C. Gossard, D. C. Driscoll, M. Hanson, P. Maker, R. Muller, "Photomixing and photoconductor measurements on ErAs/InGaAs at 1.55 μm ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3116-3118 (2003).

A. Stohr, A. Malcoci, A. Sauerwald, I. C. Mayorga, R. Gusten, D. S. Jager, "Ultra-wide-band traveling-wave photodetectors for photonic local oscillators," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3062-3070 (2003).

M. Sukhotin, E. R. Brown, D. C. Driscoll, M. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, "Picosecond photocarrier-lifetime in ErAs:InGaAs at 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3921-3923 (2003).

2001

C. J. Stevens, D. J. Edwards, "Photomixing receiver using kinetic inductive effect in high $T_{c}$ superconductors," Electron. Lett. 37, 1420-1421 (2001).

J.-W. Shi, K.-G. Gan, Y.-J. Chiu, Y.-H. Chen, C.-K. Sun, Y.-J. Yang, J. E. Bowers, "Metal-semiconductor-metal traveling-wave photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 623-625 (2001).

A. Stohr, R. Heinzelmann, A. Malcoci, D. S. Jager, "Optical heterodyne millimeter-wave generation using 1.55-μm traveling-wave photodetectors," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1926-1933 (2001).

1999

N. Zamdmer, Q. Hu, K. A. McIntosh, S. Verghese, "Increase in response time of low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductive switches at high voltage bias," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2313-2315 (1999).

1997

L. Y. Lin, M. C. Wu, T. Itoh, T. A. Vang, R. E. Muller, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "High-power high-speed photodetectors-design, analysis, and experimental demonstration ," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1320-1331 (1997).

Y. Kokubo, I. Ohta, "Refractive index as a function of photon energy for AlGaAs between 1.2 and 1.8 eV," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2042-2043 (1997).

1995

E. H. Bottcher, D. Bimberg, "Millimeter wave distributed metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3648-3650 (1995).

1993

E. R. Brown, F. W. Smith, K. A. McIntosh, "Coherent millimeter-wave generation by heterodyne conversion in low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1480-1484 (1993).

1978

R. E. Nahory, M. A. Pollack, W. D. Johnston, Jr.R. L. Barns, "Band gap versus composition and demonstration of Vegard's law for $\hbox{In}_{1 - x}\hbox{Ga}_{x}\hbox{As}_{y}\hbox{P}_{1 - y}$ lattice matched to InP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 659-661 (1978).

H. Yajima, "Coupled mode analysis of dielectric planar branching waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 749-755 (1978).

1969

M. C. Teich, "Field-theoretical treatment of photomixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 201-203 (1969).

1968

H. W. Thim, "Computer study of bulk GaAs devices with random one-dimensional doping fluctuations ," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3897-3904 (1968).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. C. Teich, "Field-theoretical treatment of photomixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 201-203 (1969).

E. H. Bottcher, D. Bimberg, "Millimeter wave distributed metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3648-3650 (1995).

M. Sukhotin, E. R. Brown, A. C. Gossard, D. C. Driscoll, M. Hanson, P. Maker, R. Muller, "Photomixing and photoconductor measurements on ErAs/InGaAs at 1.55 μm ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3116-3118 (2003).

R. E. Nahory, M. A. Pollack, W. D. Johnston, Jr.R. L. Barns, "Band gap versus composition and demonstration of Vegard's law for $\hbox{In}_{1 - x}\hbox{Ga}_{x}\hbox{As}_{y}\hbox{P}_{1 - y}$ lattice matched to InP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 659-661 (1978).

N. Zamdmer, Q. Hu, K. A. McIntosh, S. Verghese, "Increase in response time of low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductive switches at high voltage bias," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2313-2315 (1999).

M. Sukhotin, E. R. Brown, D. C. Driscoll, M. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, "Picosecond photocarrier-lifetime in ErAs:InGaAs at 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3921-3923 (2003).

Electron. Lett.

C. J. Stevens, D. J. Edwards, "Photomixing receiver using kinetic inductive effect in high $T_{c}$ superconductors," Electron. Lett. 37, 1420-1421 (2001).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

H. Yajima, "Coupled mode analysis of dielectric planar branching waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 749-755 (1978).

D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, S. Safavi-Naeini, "The interaction of laser and photoconductor in a continuous-wave terahertz photomixer ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1188-1196 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

D. Saeedkia, S. Safavi-Naeini, "A comprehensive model for photomixing in ultrafast photoconductors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1457-1459 (2006).

J.-W. Shi, K.-G. Gan, Y.-J. Chiu, Y.-H. Chen, C.-K. Sun, Y.-J. Yang, J. E. Bowers, "Metal-semiconductor-metal traveling-wave photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 623-625 (2001).

IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.

D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, S. Safavi-Naeini, "Modeling and analysis of high-temperature superconductor terahertz photomixers," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 3847-3855 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

A. Stohr, R. Heinzelmann, A. Malcoci, D. S. Jager, "Optical heterodyne millimeter-wave generation using 1.55-μm traveling-wave photodetectors," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1926-1933 (2001).

L. Y. Lin, M. C. Wu, T. Itoh, T. A. Vang, R. E. Muller, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "High-power high-speed photodetectors-design, analysis, and experimental demonstration ," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1320-1331 (1997).

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in biology and medicine," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52, 2438-2447 (2004).

Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.

T. Globus, D. Woolard, M. Bykhovskaia, B. Gelmont, L. Werbos, A. Samuels, "THz-frequency spectroscopic sensing of DNA and related biological materials," Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 13, 903-936 (2003).

E. R. Brown, "THz generation by photomixing in ultrafast photoconductors," Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 13, 497-545 (2003).

J. Appl. Phys.

E. R. Brown, F. W. Smith, K. A. McIntosh, "Coherent millimeter-wave generation by heterodyne conversion in low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1480-1484 (1993).

H. W. Thim, "Computer study of bulk GaAs devices with random one-dimensional doping fluctuations ," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3897-3904 (1968).

Y. Kokubo, I. Ohta, "Refractive index as a function of photon energy for AlGaAs between 1.2 and 1.8 eV," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2042-2043 (1997).

J. Biol. Phys.

S. Wang, B. Ferguson, D. Abbott, X.-C. Zhang, "T-ray imaging and tomography," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 247-256 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol.

A. Stohr, A. Malcoci, A. Sauerwald, I. C. Mayorga, R. Gusten, D. S. Jager, "Ultra-wide-band traveling-wave photodetectors for photonic local oscillators," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3062-3070 (2003).

Opt. Lett.

Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A, Math. Phys. Sci.

P. F. Taday, "Applications of terahertz spectroscopy to pharmaceutical sciences," Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A, Math. Phys. Sci. 362, 351-364 (2004).

Proc. IEEE

D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, M. Pepper, M. Kemp, "Terahertz frequency sensing and imaging: A time of reckoning future applications?," Proc. IEEE 93, 1722-1743 (2005).

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, "Modular parallel-plate THz components for cost-efficient biosensing systems," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S281-S285 (2005).

E. A. Michael, "Travelling-wave photonic mixers for increased continuous-wave power beyond 1 THz," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S164-S177 (2005).

E. R. Brown, D. C. Driscoll, A. C. Gossard, "State-of-the-art in 1.55-μm ultrafast InGaAs photoconductors, and the use of signal-processing techniques to extract the photocarrier lifetime," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S199-S204 (2005).

Other

Low Temperature (LT) GaAs and Related Materials (Mater. Res. Soc., 1992).

Guided-Wave Optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

GaInAsP Alloy Semiconductors (Wiley, 1982).

Terahertz Optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, 2005).

A. Hirata, H. Ishii, T. Nagatsuma, "Design and characterization of a 120-GHz millimeter-wave antenna for integrated photonic transmitters," Proc. Int. Top. Meeting Microw./Photon. (2000) pp. 229-232.

Sensing with Terahertz Radiation (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. R. Tribe, "Security applications of terahertz technology," Proc. SPIE Conf. (2003) pp. 44-52.

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