Abstract

In this paper, we report the fabrication of an optical-beam combiner for stellar interferometry by means of direct ultraviolet (UV) writing. The component is shown to have good performance (fringe contrast > 95%, total loss ~ 0.7, -40-dB crosstalk, broadband operation covering at least the range 1.49–1.65 μm, and low differential chromatic dispersion). The overall performance exceeds that of similar components currently used for astronomical research. This result, combined with the fast-prototyping ability of UV writing, opens up new possibilities for the realization of highly optimized integrated-optical components for astronomical research.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. J. D. Monnier, "Optical interferometry in astronomy," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 789-794 (2003).
  2. P. Haguenauer, J.-P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, "Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. III. Validation of a planar optics two-telescope beam combiner," Appl. Opt. 39, 2130-2139 (2000).
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  4. M. Severi, P. Pouteau, P. Mottier, P. Kern, "A waveguide interferometer for phase closure in astronomy," Proc. Eur. Conf. Integr. Opt. (1999) pp. 279.
  5. M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, O. Poulsen, "Direct UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films ," Electron. Lett. 30, 1401-1402 (1994).
  6. M. Svalgaard, K. Færch, L. U. Andersen, "Variable optical attenuator fabricated by direct UV writing," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2097-2103 (2003).
  7. M. Olivero, M. Svalgaard, "UV written 1 × N optical splitters," Opt. Express 14, 162-170 (2006).
  8. M. Olivero, M. Svalgaard, "Fabrication of 2 × 8 power splitters in silica-on-silicon by the direct UV writing technique," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 802-804 (2006).
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  10. D. Zauner, K. Kulstad, J. Rathje, M. Svalgaard, "Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss," Electron. Lett. 34, 1582-1584 (1998).
  11. P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, "High pressure $\hbox{H}_{2}$ loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in $\hbox{GeO}_{2}$ doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
  12. T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemarie, D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet light induced Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80 (1994).
  13. J. B. LeBouquin, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, P. Haguenauer, P. Kervella, I. Schanen, J.-P. Berger, A. Delboulbé, B. Arezki, M. Schöller, "First observations with an H-band integrated optics beam combiner at the VLTI," Astron. Astrophys. 424, 719-726 (2004).
  14. K. Færch, M. Svalgaard, "Symmetrical waveguide devices fabricated by direct UV writing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 173-175 (2002).
  15. P. Borde, "10 μm-wavefront spatial filtering: First results with chalcogenide fibers," Proc. SPIE—Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation (2002) pp. 273-279.
  16. G. Perrin, "Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers," Science 311, 194 (2006).
  17. A. K. Mairaj, P. Hua, H. N. Rutt, D. W. Hewak, "Fabrication and characterization of continuous wave direct UV $(\lambda = 244\ \hbox{nm})$ written channel waveguides in chalcogenide (Ga:La:S) glass," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1578-1584 (2002).
  18. B. Boulard, L. Brilland, H. Poignant, "UV writing of channel waveguides in erbium doped fluoride glass thin films," Electron. Lett. 34, 267-268 (1998).

2006 (3)

M. Olivero, M. Svalgaard, "UV written 1 × N optical splitters," Opt. Express 14, 162-170 (2006).

M. Olivero, M. Svalgaard, "Fabrication of 2 × 8 power splitters in silica-on-silicon by the direct UV writing technique," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 802-804 (2006).

G. Perrin, "Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers," Science 311, 194 (2006).

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

J. B. LeBouquin, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, P. Haguenauer, P. Kervella, I. Schanen, J.-P. Berger, A. Delboulbé, B. Arezki, M. Schöller, "First observations with an H-band integrated optics beam combiner at the VLTI," Astron. Astrophys. 424, 719-726 (2004).

2003 (2)

M. Svalgaard, K. Færch, L. U. Andersen, "Variable optical attenuator fabricated by direct UV writing," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2097-2103 (2003).

J. D. Monnier, "Optical interferometry in astronomy," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 789-794 (2003).

2002 (2)

K. Færch, M. Svalgaard, "Symmetrical waveguide devices fabricated by direct UV writing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 173-175 (2002).

A. K. Mairaj, P. Hua, H. N. Rutt, D. W. Hewak, "Fabrication and characterization of continuous wave direct UV $(\lambda = 244\ \hbox{nm})$ written channel waveguides in chalcogenide (Ga:La:S) glass," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1578-1584 (2002).

2001 (1)

J.-P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, "Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. IV. First measurements of stars," Astron. Astrophys. 376, L31-L34 (2001).

2000 (1)

1998 (2)

D. Zauner, K. Kulstad, J. Rathje, M. Svalgaard, "Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss," Electron. Lett. 34, 1582-1584 (1998).

B. Boulard, L. Brilland, H. Poignant, "UV writing of channel waveguides in erbium doped fluoride glass thin films," Electron. Lett. 34, 267-268 (1998).

1994 (2)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemarie, D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet light induced Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80 (1994).

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, O. Poulsen, "Direct UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films ," Electron. Lett. 30, 1401-1402 (1994).

1993 (1)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, "High pressure $\hbox{H}_{2}$ loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in $\hbox{GeO}_{2}$ doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

J.-P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, "Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. IV. First measurements of stars," Astron. Astrophys. 376, L31-L34 (2001).

J. B. LeBouquin, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, P. Haguenauer, P. Kervella, I. Schanen, J.-P. Berger, A. Delboulbé, B. Arezki, M. Schöller, "First observations with an H-band integrated optics beam combiner at the VLTI," Astron. Astrophys. 424, 719-726 (2004).

Electron. Lett. (4)

D. Zauner, K. Kulstad, J. Rathje, M. Svalgaard, "Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss," Electron. Lett. 34, 1582-1584 (1998).

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, "High pressure $\hbox{H}_{2}$ loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in $\hbox{GeO}_{2}$ doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, O. Poulsen, "Direct UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films ," Electron. Lett. 30, 1401-1402 (1994).

B. Boulard, L. Brilland, H. Poignant, "UV writing of channel waveguides in erbium doped fluoride glass thin films," Electron. Lett. 34, 267-268 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

M. Olivero, M. Svalgaard, "Fabrication of 2 × 8 power splitters in silica-on-silicon by the direct UV writing technique," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 802-804 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Færch, M. Svalgaard, "Symmetrical waveguide devices fabricated by direct UV writing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 173-175 (2002).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemarie, D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet light induced Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80 (1994).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

M. Svalgaard, K. Færch, L. U. Andersen, "Variable optical attenuator fabricated by direct UV writing," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2097-2103 (2003).

A. K. Mairaj, P. Hua, H. N. Rutt, D. W. Hewak, "Fabrication and characterization of continuous wave direct UV $(\lambda = 244\ \hbox{nm})$ written channel waveguides in chalcogenide (Ga:La:S) glass," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1578-1584 (2002).

Opt. Express (2)

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

J. D. Monnier, "Optical interferometry in astronomy," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 789-794 (2003).

Science (1)

G. Perrin, "Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers," Science 311, 194 (2006).

Other (2)

M. Severi, P. Pouteau, P. Mottier, P. Kern, "A waveguide interferometer for phase closure in astronomy," Proc. Eur. Conf. Integr. Opt. (1999) pp. 279.

P. Borde, "10 μm-wavefront spatial filtering: First results with chalcogenide fibers," Proc. SPIE—Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation (2002) pp. 273-279.

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