Abstract

We have performed both experimental and numerical analyses of interleaved bidirectional transmission of 16 × 10-Gb/s dense-wavelength-division-multiplexed (DWDM) signals using differential-phase-shift-keying (DPSK) modulation format and in-line semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs). The constant intensity of DPSK-modulated DWDM signals enabled us to mitigate the crosstalk effects in the bidirectional SOA. We have demonstrated error-free bidirectional transmission of 16 channels over an 80-km single-mode fiber (SMF) with matching dispersion-compensating fiber and in-line amplification provided by an SOA. SOAs can be used for bidirectional transmission if the facet reflections can be controlled. In order to understand further the effect of the SOA facet reflectivity on transmission results, we developed a simulation model for our system. Based on the good agreement between our simulation and experimental results, we have found out that the system reflections can be minimized by careful optimization of the bias current and reflectivity of the SOA.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. K. Akimoto, J. Kani, M. Teshima, K. Iwatsuki, "Super-dense WDM transmission of spectrum-sliced incoherent light for wide-area access network ," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2715-2722 (2003).
  2. J. Yu, P. Jeppesen, "Bi-directional WDM transmission by use of SOAs as in-line amplifiers without isolators ," Proc. OFC (2001) pp. WDD-58.
  3. J. Yu, A. Buxens, A. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, "16 × 10-Gb/s WDM bi-directional gating in a semiconductor optical amplifier for optical cross connects exploiting network connection symmetry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 702-704 (2002).
  4. O. Akanbi, J. Yu, G. K. Chang, "Bi-directional transmission of DPSK modulated DWDM channels using semiconductor optical amplifiers ," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) TokyoJapan (2005) Paper CTuO5.
  5. O. Akanbi, J. Yu, G. K. Chang, "A new scheme for bi-directional WDM-PON using upstream and downstream channels generated by optical carrier suppression and separation technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 340-342 (2006).
  6. M. Settembre, F. Matera, "Cascaded optical communication systems with in-line semiconductor optical amplifiers ," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 962-967 (1997).
  7. Y. Sun, "32 × 2.5-Gb/s DWDM channels over 125 km using cascaded in-line semiconductor optical amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 35, 1863-1865 (1999).
  8. M. Yoshino, K. Inoue, "Improvement of saturation output power in a semiconductor laser amplifier through pumping light injection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 58-60 (1996).
  9. Z. Li, "1050-km WDM transmission of 8 × 10.709 Gb/s DPSK signal using cascaded in-line semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1760-1762 (2004).
  10. P. Cho, "Investigation of SOA nonlinearities on the amplification of high spectral efficiency signals ," Conf. Optical Fiber Commun. (OFC) Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper MF70.
  11. T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, K. Stubkjaer, "All optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 942-954 (1996).
  12. S. Bischoff, A. Buxens, H. Poulsen, A. Clausen, J. Mark, "Bi-directional four wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers: Theory and experiment ," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1617-1625 (1999).
  13. L. H. Spiekman, A. Gnauck, J. Wiesenfeld, L. Garrett, "DWDM transmission of 32 10-Gb/s channels through 160 km link using semiconductor optical amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 36, 1046-1047 (2000).
  14. L. H. Spiekman, A. Gnauck, J. Wiesenfeld, G. van den Hoven, L. Garrett, "Transmission of 8 DWDM channels at 20-Gb/s over 160 km of standard fiber using a cascade of semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 717-719 (2000).
  15. W. Choi, S. Hur, J. Lee, Y. Kim, J. Jeong, "Transmission performance analysis of 8 × 10 Gb/s WDM signals using cascaded SOAs due to signal wavelength displacement," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1350-1356 (2002).
  16. L. Gillner, E. Goobar, L. Thylen, M. Gustavsson, "Semiconductor laser amplifier optimization," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1822-1827 (1989).
  17. S. Radic, S. Chandrasekhal, "Limitations in dense bi-directional transmission in absence of optical amplification ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 95-97 (2002).
  18. M. Sumida, T. Kubo, T. Imai, "Limitations imposed by Rayleigh backscattering in closely interleaved, bi-directional WDM transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 150-152 (2003).
  19. G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).
  20. M. J. Adams, H. J. Westlake, M. J. O'Mahony, I. D. Henning, "A comparison of active and passive optical bistability in semiconductors," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1498-1501 (1985).
  21. M. J. O'Mahony, "Semiconductor laser amplifiers for use in future fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 531-544 (1988).
  22. J. Wang, H. Olesen, K. Stubkjaer, "Recombination, gain and bandwidth characteristics of 1.3-μm semiconductor laser amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 184-189 (1987).
  23. T. Saitoh, T. Mukai, "1.5 μm GaInAsP traveling wave semiconductor laser amplifier," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1010-1020 (1987).
  24. N. A. Olsson, "Semiconductor optical amplifiers," Proc. IEEE 80, 375-382 (1987).
  25. G. Giulani, D'Alessandro, "Noise analysis of conventional and gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1256-1263 (2000).
  26. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 1997).
  27. H. Kim, "Cross phase modulation induced nonlinear phase noise in WDM direct detection DPSK systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1770-1774 (2003).
  28. X. Wei, L. Zhang, "Analysis of the phase noise in saturated SOAs for DPSK applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 554-561 (2005).
  29. K. Kikuchi, T. P. Lee, "Design theory of electrically frequency controlled narrow linewidth semiconductor lasers for coherent optical communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 1273-1276 (1987).
  30. J. Pleumeekers, "Acceleration of gain recovery in semiconductor optical amplifiers by optical injection near transparency wavelength," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 12-14 (2002).
  31. S. Liaw, K.-P. Ho, C. Lin, S. Chi, "Multichannel bi-directional transmission using a WDM MUX/DMUX pair and uni-directional in-line amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1664-1666 (1997).
  32. N. Storkfelt, "Measurement of carrier lifetime and linewidth enhancement factor for 1.5-um ridge waveguide laser amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 632-634 (1991).
  33. R. Gutierrez-Castrejon, L. Schares, L. Occhi, G. Guekos, "Modeling and measurement of longitudinal gain dynamics in saturated semiconductor optical amplifiers of different length," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1476-1484 (2000).
  34. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase shift keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).
  35. M. Deventer, "Power penalties due to reflection and Rayleigh backscattering in a single frequency bi-directional coherent system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 851-854 (1993).

2006 (1)

O. Akanbi, J. Yu, G. K. Chang, "A new scheme for bi-directional WDM-PON using upstream and downstream channels generated by optical carrier suppression and separation technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 340-342 (2006).

2005 (2)

X. Wei, L. Zhang, "Analysis of the phase noise in saturated SOAs for DPSK applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 554-561 (2005).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase shift keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

2004 (1)

Z. Li, "1050-km WDM transmission of 8 × 10.709 Gb/s DPSK signal using cascaded in-line semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1760-1762 (2004).

2003 (3)

K. Akimoto, J. Kani, M. Teshima, K. Iwatsuki, "Super-dense WDM transmission of spectrum-sliced incoherent light for wide-area access network ," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2715-2722 (2003).

M. Sumida, T. Kubo, T. Imai, "Limitations imposed by Rayleigh backscattering in closely interleaved, bi-directional WDM transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 150-152 (2003).

H. Kim, "Cross phase modulation induced nonlinear phase noise in WDM direct detection DPSK systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1770-1774 (2003).

2002 (4)

J. Pleumeekers, "Acceleration of gain recovery in semiconductor optical amplifiers by optical injection near transparency wavelength," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 12-14 (2002).

S. Radic, S. Chandrasekhal, "Limitations in dense bi-directional transmission in absence of optical amplification ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 95-97 (2002).

W. Choi, S. Hur, J. Lee, Y. Kim, J. Jeong, "Transmission performance analysis of 8 × 10 Gb/s WDM signals using cascaded SOAs due to signal wavelength displacement," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1350-1356 (2002).

J. Yu, A. Buxens, A. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, "16 × 10-Gb/s WDM bi-directional gating in a semiconductor optical amplifier for optical cross connects exploiting network connection symmetry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 702-704 (2002).

2000 (4)

L. H. Spiekman, A. Gnauck, J. Wiesenfeld, L. Garrett, "DWDM transmission of 32 10-Gb/s channels through 160 km link using semiconductor optical amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 36, 1046-1047 (2000).

L. H. Spiekman, A. Gnauck, J. Wiesenfeld, G. van den Hoven, L. Garrett, "Transmission of 8 DWDM channels at 20-Gb/s over 160 km of standard fiber using a cascade of semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 717-719 (2000).

R. Gutierrez-Castrejon, L. Schares, L. Occhi, G. Guekos, "Modeling and measurement of longitudinal gain dynamics in saturated semiconductor optical amplifiers of different length," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1476-1484 (2000).

G. Giulani, D'Alessandro, "Noise analysis of conventional and gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1256-1263 (2000).

1999 (2)

S. Bischoff, A. Buxens, H. Poulsen, A. Clausen, J. Mark, "Bi-directional four wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers: Theory and experiment ," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1617-1625 (1999).

Y. Sun, "32 × 2.5-Gb/s DWDM channels over 125 km using cascaded in-line semiconductor optical amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 35, 1863-1865 (1999).

1997 (2)

M. Settembre, F. Matera, "Cascaded optical communication systems with in-line semiconductor optical amplifiers ," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 962-967 (1997).

S. Liaw, K.-P. Ho, C. Lin, S. Chi, "Multichannel bi-directional transmission using a WDM MUX/DMUX pair and uni-directional in-line amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1664-1666 (1997).

1996 (2)

M. Yoshino, K. Inoue, "Improvement of saturation output power in a semiconductor laser amplifier through pumping light injection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 58-60 (1996).

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, K. Stubkjaer, "All optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 942-954 (1996).

1993 (1)

M. Deventer, "Power penalties due to reflection and Rayleigh backscattering in a single frequency bi-directional coherent system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 851-854 (1993).

1991 (1)

N. Storkfelt, "Measurement of carrier lifetime and linewidth enhancement factor for 1.5-um ridge waveguide laser amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 632-634 (1991).

1989 (2)

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).

L. Gillner, E. Goobar, L. Thylen, M. Gustavsson, "Semiconductor laser amplifier optimization," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1822-1827 (1989).

1988 (1)

M. J. O'Mahony, "Semiconductor laser amplifiers for use in future fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 531-544 (1988).

1987 (4)

J. Wang, H. Olesen, K. Stubkjaer, "Recombination, gain and bandwidth characteristics of 1.3-μm semiconductor laser amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 184-189 (1987).

T. Saitoh, T. Mukai, "1.5 μm GaInAsP traveling wave semiconductor laser amplifier," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1010-1020 (1987).

N. A. Olsson, "Semiconductor optical amplifiers," Proc. IEEE 80, 375-382 (1987).

K. Kikuchi, T. P. Lee, "Design theory of electrically frequency controlled narrow linewidth semiconductor lasers for coherent optical communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 1273-1276 (1987).

1985 (1)

M. J. Adams, H. J. Westlake, M. J. O'Mahony, I. D. Henning, "A comparison of active and passive optical bistability in semiconductors," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1498-1501 (1985).

Electron. Lett. (2)

Y. Sun, "32 × 2.5-Gb/s DWDM channels over 125 km using cascaded in-line semiconductor optical amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 35, 1863-1865 (1999).

L. H. Spiekman, A. Gnauck, J. Wiesenfeld, L. Garrett, "DWDM transmission of 32 10-Gb/s channels through 160 km link using semiconductor optical amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 36, 1046-1047 (2000).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (6)

L. Gillner, E. Goobar, L. Thylen, M. Gustavsson, "Semiconductor laser amplifier optimization," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1822-1827 (1989).

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).

M. J. Adams, H. J. Westlake, M. J. O'Mahony, I. D. Henning, "A comparison of active and passive optical bistability in semiconductors," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1498-1501 (1985).

T. Saitoh, T. Mukai, "1.5 μm GaInAsP traveling wave semiconductor laser amplifier," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1010-1020 (1987).

X. Wei, L. Zhang, "Analysis of the phase noise in saturated SOAs for DPSK applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 554-561 (2005).

R. Gutierrez-Castrejon, L. Schares, L. Occhi, G. Guekos, "Modeling and measurement of longitudinal gain dynamics in saturated semiconductor optical amplifiers of different length," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1476-1484 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (11)

M. Deventer, "Power penalties due to reflection and Rayleigh backscattering in a single frequency bi-directional coherent system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 851-854 (1993).

J. Pleumeekers, "Acceleration of gain recovery in semiconductor optical amplifiers by optical injection near transparency wavelength," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 12-14 (2002).

S. Liaw, K.-P. Ho, C. Lin, S. Chi, "Multichannel bi-directional transmission using a WDM MUX/DMUX pair and uni-directional in-line amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1664-1666 (1997).

N. Storkfelt, "Measurement of carrier lifetime and linewidth enhancement factor for 1.5-um ridge waveguide laser amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 632-634 (1991).

S. Radic, S. Chandrasekhal, "Limitations in dense bi-directional transmission in absence of optical amplification ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 95-97 (2002).

M. Sumida, T. Kubo, T. Imai, "Limitations imposed by Rayleigh backscattering in closely interleaved, bi-directional WDM transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 150-152 (2003).

L. H. Spiekman, A. Gnauck, J. Wiesenfeld, G. van den Hoven, L. Garrett, "Transmission of 8 DWDM channels at 20-Gb/s over 160 km of standard fiber using a cascade of semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 717-719 (2000).

O. Akanbi, J. Yu, G. K. Chang, "A new scheme for bi-directional WDM-PON using upstream and downstream channels generated by optical carrier suppression and separation technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 340-342 (2006).

M. Yoshino, K. Inoue, "Improvement of saturation output power in a semiconductor laser amplifier through pumping light injection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 58-60 (1996).

Z. Li, "1050-km WDM transmission of 8 × 10.709 Gb/s DPSK signal using cascaded in-line semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1760-1762 (2004).

J. Yu, A. Buxens, A. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, "16 × 10-Gb/s WDM bi-directional gating in a semiconductor optical amplifier for optical cross connects exploiting network connection symmetry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 702-704 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (11)

K. Akimoto, J. Kani, M. Teshima, K. Iwatsuki, "Super-dense WDM transmission of spectrum-sliced incoherent light for wide-area access network ," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2715-2722 (2003).

M. Settembre, F. Matera, "Cascaded optical communication systems with in-line semiconductor optical amplifiers ," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 962-967 (1997).

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, K. Stubkjaer, "All optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 942-954 (1996).

S. Bischoff, A. Buxens, H. Poulsen, A. Clausen, J. Mark, "Bi-directional four wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers: Theory and experiment ," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1617-1625 (1999).

W. Choi, S. Hur, J. Lee, Y. Kim, J. Jeong, "Transmission performance analysis of 8 × 10 Gb/s WDM signals using cascaded SOAs due to signal wavelength displacement," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1350-1356 (2002).

K. Kikuchi, T. P. Lee, "Design theory of electrically frequency controlled narrow linewidth semiconductor lasers for coherent optical communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 1273-1276 (1987).

H. Kim, "Cross phase modulation induced nonlinear phase noise in WDM direct detection DPSK systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1770-1774 (2003).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase shift keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

G. Giulani, D'Alessandro, "Noise analysis of conventional and gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1256-1263 (2000).

M. J. O'Mahony, "Semiconductor laser amplifiers for use in future fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 531-544 (1988).

J. Wang, H. Olesen, K. Stubkjaer, "Recombination, gain and bandwidth characteristics of 1.3-μm semiconductor laser amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 184-189 (1987).

Proc. IEEE (1)

N. A. Olsson, "Semiconductor optical amplifiers," Proc. IEEE 80, 375-382 (1987).

Other (4)

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 1997).

J. Yu, P. Jeppesen, "Bi-directional WDM transmission by use of SOAs as in-line amplifiers without isolators ," Proc. OFC (2001) pp. WDD-58.

O. Akanbi, J. Yu, G. K. Chang, "Bi-directional transmission of DPSK modulated DWDM channels using semiconductor optical amplifiers ," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) TokyoJapan (2005) Paper CTuO5.

P. Cho, "Investigation of SOA nonlinearities on the amplification of high spectral efficiency signals ," Conf. Optical Fiber Commun. (OFC) Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper MF70.

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