Abstract

In-band crosstalk due to Rayleigh backscattering (RB) can be avoided in bidirectional wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) transmission systems when using two identical sets of wavelengths in opposite directions over a single fiber. We describe this by using such sets in a disjoint manner and eliminating the RB crosstalk with the help of simple optical edge filters instead of the WDM comb filters previously employed in interleaved bidirectional systems. We also provide a practical application example and describe the power penalty due to the interferometric RB crosstalk, taking into account recent polarized optical noise research because RB light is partially polarized. Numerical results for externally modulated intensity-modulation/direct-detection (IM/DD) optical systems show that the power penalty can be kept less than 0.5 dB with moderate edge filters, even for more than several tens of optically amplified repeater segments.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Hida, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Enomoto, "PLC components used in FTTH access networks," NTT Tech. Rev. 3, 22-26 (2005).
  2. J.-M. P. Delavaux, O. Mizuhara, P. D. Yeats, T. V. Nguyen, "10 Gb/s 150-km bidirectional repeaterless optical-fiber transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1087-1089 (1995).
  3. K. Aida, H. Masuda, K. Nakagawa, "Bi-directional repeatered transmission over 400 km using gain stabilized linear repeaters ," Proc. ECOC (1996) pp. 169-172.
  4. H. Obara, H. Masuda, K. Aida, "Transmission over 200-km single-fiber bidirectional ring network with reconfigurable WDM add/drop repeaters," Proc. ECOC (1997) pp. 9-12.
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  6. P. Healy, "Statistics of Rayleigh backscatter from a single-mode fiber," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-35, 210-214 (1987).
  7. J. Ko, S. Kim, J. Lee, S. Won, Y. S. Kim, J. Jeong, "Estimation of performance degradation of bidirectional WDM transmission systems due to Rayleigh backscattering and ASE noises using numerical and analytical models," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 938-946 (2003).
  8. J. Conradi, R. Maciejko, "Digital optical receiver sensitivity degradation caused by crosstalk in bidirectional fiber optic systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-29, 1012-1016 (1981).
  9. R. K. Staubli, P. Gysel, "Crosstalk penalties due to coherent Rayleigh noise in bidirectional optical communication systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 375-380 (1991).
  10. T. Kamalakis, D. Varoutas, T. Sphicopoulos, "Statistical study of in-band crosstalk noise using the multicanonical Monte Carlo method ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2242-2244 (2004).
  11. N. K. Shankaranarayanan, "WDMA/subcarrier-FDMA lightwave networks: Limitations due to optical beat interference ," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 931-943 (1991).
  12. A. F. Judy, "Generation of interference intensity noise from fiber Rayleigh backscatter and discrete reflections," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. San JoseCA (1991) Paper WL4.
  13. T. H. Wood, R. A. Linke, B. L. Kasper, E. C. Carr, "Observation of coherent Rayleigh noise in single-source bidirectional optical fiber systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 346-352 (1988).
  14. M. Sumida, T. Kubo, T. Imai, "Limitations imposed by Rayleigh backscattering in closely interleaved, bidirectional WDM transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 150-152 (2003).
  15. S. K. Das, E. E. Harstead, "Beat interference penalty in optical duplex transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 213-217 (2002).
  16. D. A. Atlas, R. Pidgeon, F. Little, "Rayleigh backscatter effects on 1550-nm CATV distribution systems employing optical amplifiers ," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 933-946 (1995).
  17. M. O. van Deventer, "Power penalties due to reflection and Rayleigh backscattering in a single frequency bidirectional coherent transmission system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 851-854 (1993).
  18. R. K. Staubli, P. Gysel, "Statistical properties of single-mode fiber Rayleigh backscattered intensity and resulting detector current," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1091-1097 (1992).
  19. M. O. van Deventer, "Polarization properties of Rayleigh backscattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1895-1899 (1993).
  20. I. T. Lima, Jr.A. O. Lima, Y. Sun, H. Jiao, J. Zweck, C. R. Menyuk, G. M. Carter, "A receiver model for optical fiber communication systems with arbitrarily polarized noise ," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1478-1490 (2005).
  21. P. Wan, J. Conradi, "Impact of double Rayleigh backscatter noise on digital and analog fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 288-297 (1996).
  22. H. Obara, M. Sakata, "Bidirectional WDM transmission systems to enable using two identical sets of wavelengths over a single fiber," Electron. Lett. 42, 547-548 (2006).
  23. H. Obara, M. Sakata, Performance analysis of bidirectional multifiber WDM express networks for metro areas IEICE Tech. Rep. CS2005-55 (2005) pp. 15-20.
  24. H. Obara, H. Masuda, K. Suzuki, K. Aida, "Multifiber wavelength-division multiplexed ring network architecture for tera-bits/s throughput ," Proc. ICC (1998) pp. 921-925.
  25. H. Obara, K. Aida, "Helical WDM ring network architecture," Electron. Lett. 35, 1-2 (1999).
  26. H. Obara, M. Sakata, "Design concept of bidirectional WDM add/drop networks with improved reconfigurability ," Proc. APCC (2004) pp. 617-621.
  27. M. Nazarathy, W. V. Sorin, D. M. Baney, S. A. Newton, "Spectral analysis of optical mixing measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1083-1096 (1989).
  28. G. A. Deshamps, P. E. Mast, "Poincare representation of partially polarized fields," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-21, 474-478 (1973).
  29. S. D. Personic, "Receiver design for digital fiber optic communications systems—Part I and Part II ," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1175-1194 (1973).
  30. K. Inoue, K. Nakanishi, K. Oda, H. Toba, "Crosstalk and power penalty due to fiber four-wave mixing in multichannel transmissions ," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1423-1439 (1994).
  31. R. K. Staubli, P. Gysel, "Statistical properties of single-mode fiber Rayleigh backscattered intensity and resulting detector current," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1091-1097 (1992).
  32. M. Artgia, M. A. Locaputo, C. Ruocchio, "Backscattering recapture factor measurements using optical continuous wave reflectometry ," Proc. ECOC (2002) pp. 1-2.
  33. S. D. Personick, "Photon probe—An optical fiber time-domain reflectometer," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 355-356 (1977).
  34. J. C. Juarez, E. W. Maier, K. N. Choi, H. F. Taylor, "Distributed fiber-optic intrusion sensor system," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2081-2087 (2005).
  35. D. Marcus, "Derivation of analytical expressions for the bit-error probability in lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1818-1823 (1990).
  36. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Inst. Phys., 2001).

2006 (1)

H. Obara, M. Sakata, "Bidirectional WDM transmission systems to enable using two identical sets of wavelengths over a single fiber," Electron. Lett. 42, 547-548 (2006).

2005 (3)

Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Hida, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Enomoto, "PLC components used in FTTH access networks," NTT Tech. Rev. 3, 22-26 (2005).

I. T. Lima, Jr.A. O. Lima, Y. Sun, H. Jiao, J. Zweck, C. R. Menyuk, G. M. Carter, "A receiver model for optical fiber communication systems with arbitrarily polarized noise ," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1478-1490 (2005).

J. C. Juarez, E. W. Maier, K. N. Choi, H. F. Taylor, "Distributed fiber-optic intrusion sensor system," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2081-2087 (2005).

2004 (1)

T. Kamalakis, D. Varoutas, T. Sphicopoulos, "Statistical study of in-band crosstalk noise using the multicanonical Monte Carlo method ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2242-2244 (2004).

2003 (2)

J. Ko, S. Kim, J. Lee, S. Won, Y. S. Kim, J. Jeong, "Estimation of performance degradation of bidirectional WDM transmission systems due to Rayleigh backscattering and ASE noises using numerical and analytical models," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 938-946 (2003).

M. Sumida, T. Kubo, T. Imai, "Limitations imposed by Rayleigh backscattering in closely interleaved, bidirectional WDM transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 150-152 (2003).

2002 (1)

S. K. Das, E. E. Harstead, "Beat interference penalty in optical duplex transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 213-217 (2002).

1999 (1)

H. Obara, K. Aida, "Helical WDM ring network architecture," Electron. Lett. 35, 1-2 (1999).

1996 (1)

P. Wan, J. Conradi, "Impact of double Rayleigh backscatter noise on digital and analog fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 288-297 (1996).

1995 (2)

D. A. Atlas, R. Pidgeon, F. Little, "Rayleigh backscatter effects on 1550-nm CATV distribution systems employing optical amplifiers ," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 933-946 (1995).

J.-M. P. Delavaux, O. Mizuhara, P. D. Yeats, T. V. Nguyen, "10 Gb/s 150-km bidirectional repeaterless optical-fiber transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1087-1089 (1995).

1994 (1)

K. Inoue, K. Nakanishi, K. Oda, H. Toba, "Crosstalk and power penalty due to fiber four-wave mixing in multichannel transmissions ," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1423-1439 (1994).

1993 (2)

M. O. van Deventer, "Power penalties due to reflection and Rayleigh backscattering in a single frequency bidirectional coherent transmission system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 851-854 (1993).

M. O. van Deventer, "Polarization properties of Rayleigh backscattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1895-1899 (1993).

1992 (2)

R. K. Staubli, P. Gysel, "Statistical properties of single-mode fiber Rayleigh backscattered intensity and resulting detector current," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1091-1097 (1992).

R. K. Staubli, P. Gysel, "Statistical properties of single-mode fiber Rayleigh backscattered intensity and resulting detector current," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1091-1097 (1992).

1991 (2)

R. K. Staubli, P. Gysel, "Crosstalk penalties due to coherent Rayleigh noise in bidirectional optical communication systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 375-380 (1991).

N. K. Shankaranarayanan, "WDMA/subcarrier-FDMA lightwave networks: Limitations due to optical beat interference ," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 931-943 (1991).

1990 (1)

D. Marcus, "Derivation of analytical expressions for the bit-error probability in lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1818-1823 (1990).

1989 (1)

M. Nazarathy, W. V. Sorin, D. M. Baney, S. A. Newton, "Spectral analysis of optical mixing measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1083-1096 (1989).

1988 (1)

T. H. Wood, R. A. Linke, B. L. Kasper, E. C. Carr, "Observation of coherent Rayleigh noise in single-source bidirectional optical fiber systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 346-352 (1988).

1987 (1)

P. Healy, "Statistics of Rayleigh backscatter from a single-mode fiber," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-35, 210-214 (1987).

1981 (1)

J. Conradi, R. Maciejko, "Digital optical receiver sensitivity degradation caused by crosstalk in bidirectional fiber optic systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-29, 1012-1016 (1981).

1977 (1)

S. D. Personick, "Photon probe—An optical fiber time-domain reflectometer," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 355-356 (1977).

1973 (2)

G. A. Deshamps, P. E. Mast, "Poincare representation of partially polarized fields," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-21, 474-478 (1973).

S. D. Personic, "Receiver design for digital fiber optic communications systems—Part I and Part II ," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1175-1194 (1973).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (2)

S. D. Personic, "Receiver design for digital fiber optic communications systems—Part I and Part II ," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1175-1194 (1973).

S. D. Personick, "Photon probe—An optical fiber time-domain reflectometer," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 355-356 (1977).

Electron. Lett. (2)

H. Obara, M. Sakata, "Bidirectional WDM transmission systems to enable using two identical sets of wavelengths over a single fiber," Electron. Lett. 42, 547-548 (2006).

H. Obara, K. Aida, "Helical WDM ring network architecture," Electron. Lett. 35, 1-2 (1999).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

M. Sumida, T. Kubo, T. Imai, "Limitations imposed by Rayleigh backscattering in closely interleaved, bidirectional WDM transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 150-152 (2003).

J.-M. P. Delavaux, O. Mizuhara, P. D. Yeats, T. V. Nguyen, "10 Gb/s 150-km bidirectional repeaterless optical-fiber transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1087-1089 (1995).

T. Kamalakis, D. Varoutas, T. Sphicopoulos, "Statistical study of in-band crosstalk noise using the multicanonical Monte Carlo method ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2242-2244 (2004).

M. O. van Deventer, "Power penalties due to reflection and Rayleigh backscattering in a single frequency bidirectional coherent transmission system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 851-854 (1993).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

G. A. Deshamps, P. E. Mast, "Poincare representation of partially polarized fields," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-21, 474-478 (1973).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (4)

R. K. Staubli, P. Gysel, "Statistical properties of single-mode fiber Rayleigh backscattered intensity and resulting detector current," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1091-1097 (1992).

R. K. Staubli, P. Gysel, "Statistical properties of single-mode fiber Rayleigh backscattered intensity and resulting detector current," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1091-1097 (1992).

P. Healy, "Statistics of Rayleigh backscatter from a single-mode fiber," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-35, 210-214 (1987).

J. Conradi, R. Maciejko, "Digital optical receiver sensitivity degradation caused by crosstalk in bidirectional fiber optic systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-29, 1012-1016 (1981).

J. Lightw. Technol. (13)

R. K. Staubli, P. Gysel, "Crosstalk penalties due to coherent Rayleigh noise in bidirectional optical communication systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 375-380 (1991).

J. Ko, S. Kim, J. Lee, S. Won, Y. S. Kim, J. Jeong, "Estimation of performance degradation of bidirectional WDM transmission systems due to Rayleigh backscattering and ASE noises using numerical and analytical models," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 938-946 (2003).

M. O. van Deventer, "Polarization properties of Rayleigh backscattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1895-1899 (1993).

I. T. Lima, Jr.A. O. Lima, Y. Sun, H. Jiao, J. Zweck, C. R. Menyuk, G. M. Carter, "A receiver model for optical fiber communication systems with arbitrarily polarized noise ," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1478-1490 (2005).

P. Wan, J. Conradi, "Impact of double Rayleigh backscatter noise on digital and analog fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 288-297 (1996).

N. K. Shankaranarayanan, "WDMA/subcarrier-FDMA lightwave networks: Limitations due to optical beat interference ," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 931-943 (1991).

T. H. Wood, R. A. Linke, B. L. Kasper, E. C. Carr, "Observation of coherent Rayleigh noise in single-source bidirectional optical fiber systems ," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 346-352 (1988).

K. Inoue, K. Nakanishi, K. Oda, H. Toba, "Crosstalk and power penalty due to fiber four-wave mixing in multichannel transmissions ," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1423-1439 (1994).

J. C. Juarez, E. W. Maier, K. N. Choi, H. F. Taylor, "Distributed fiber-optic intrusion sensor system," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2081-2087 (2005).

D. Marcus, "Derivation of analytical expressions for the bit-error probability in lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1818-1823 (1990).

M. Nazarathy, W. V. Sorin, D. M. Baney, S. A. Newton, "Spectral analysis of optical mixing measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1083-1096 (1989).

S. K. Das, E. E. Harstead, "Beat interference penalty in optical duplex transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 213-217 (2002).

D. A. Atlas, R. Pidgeon, F. Little, "Rayleigh backscatter effects on 1550-nm CATV distribution systems employing optical amplifiers ," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 933-946 (1995).

NTT Tech. Rev. (1)

Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Hida, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Enomoto, "PLC components used in FTTH access networks," NTT Tech. Rev. 3, 22-26 (2005).

Other (9)

A. F. Judy, "Generation of interference intensity noise from fiber Rayleigh backscatter and discrete reflections," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. San JoseCA (1991) Paper WL4.

K. Aida, H. Masuda, K. Nakagawa, "Bi-directional repeatered transmission over 400 km using gain stabilized linear repeaters ," Proc. ECOC (1996) pp. 169-172.

H. Obara, H. Masuda, K. Aida, "Transmission over 200-km single-fiber bidirectional ring network with reconfigurable WDM add/drop repeaters," Proc. ECOC (1997) pp. 9-12.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

H. Obara, M. Sakata, Performance analysis of bidirectional multifiber WDM express networks for metro areas IEICE Tech. Rep. CS2005-55 (2005) pp. 15-20.

H. Obara, H. Masuda, K. Suzuki, K. Aida, "Multifiber wavelength-division multiplexed ring network architecture for tera-bits/s throughput ," Proc. ICC (1998) pp. 921-925.

H. Obara, M. Sakata, "Design concept of bidirectional WDM add/drop networks with improved reconfigurability ," Proc. APCC (2004) pp. 617-621.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Inst. Phys., 2001).

M. Artgia, M. A. Locaputo, C. Ruocchio, "Backscattering recapture factor measurements using optical continuous wave reflectometry ," Proc. ECOC (2002) pp. 1-2.

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