Abstract

We discuss high spectral efficient long-haul transmission using multilevel modulation formats. In particular, we investigate long-haul transmission with a 1.6-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency using polarization-multiplexed return-to-zero differential quadrature phase-shift keying. In an experimental demonstration, we show 40 × 85.6-Gb/s transmission with a 50-GHz channel spacing over 1700 km (18 × 94.5 km) of standard-single-mode fiber.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, "Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 259-272 (2004).
  2. F. C. Garcia Cunning, T. Healy, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, "Multi-banded coherent WDM transmission," Proc. 31st ECOC (2005) pp. 23-24.
  3. F. Schaich, J. Speidel, "Wavelength-time coding for ultra-dense wavelength multiplexing," Proc. ITG Fachbericht 193, 7th ITG-Fachtagung Photonic Netw. (2006) pp. 113-120.
  4. G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Agarwal, A. H. Gnauck, L. L. Buhl, J. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, "Limitations op optical add/drop filtering on 42.7-Gb/s transmission with 50-GHz channel spacing ," Proc. 30th ECOC (2004) pp. 94-95.
  5. J. A. Lázaro, W. Idler, R. Dischler, A. Kleinkamp, "Filtering and linear crosstalk penalties of ASK and DPSK 43 Gb/s DWDM systems with 50 GHz channel spacing," Proc. 30th ECOC (2004) pp. 416-417.
  6. T. Tolke, P. A. Anderrson, Y. Geng, B. Zsigri, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, "Generation, transmission and wavelength conversion of a 80 Gb/s RZ-DBPSK-ASK signal ," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics BaltimoreMD (2005) Paper CMQ4.
  7. T. Tolke, M. Serbay, Y. Geng, J. Bevensee Jensen, W. Rosenkranz, P. Jeppesen, "Penalty-free transmission of multilevel 240 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK-ASK using only 40 Gb/s equipment ," Proc. 31st ECOC (2005) pp. 11-12.
  8. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, C. Dorrer, "Spectrally efficient (0.8 b/s/Hz) 1-Tb/s (25 × 42.7 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK transmission over 28 100-km SSMF spans with 7 optical add/drops," Proc. 30th ECOC (2004) pp. 40-41.
  9. G. Charlet, P. Tran, H. Mardoyan, M. Lefrancois, T. Fauconnier, F. Jorge, S. Bigo, "151 × 43 Gb/s transmission over 4080 km based on return-to-zero differential quadrature phase-shift keying," Proc. 31st ECOC (2005) pp. 5-6.
  10. D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Line optimization in long-haul transmission systems with 42.8-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK modulation ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OFD2.
  11. C. Xu, X. Liu, X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2004).
  12. J.-X. Cai, M. Nissov, C. R. Davidson, W. T. Anderson, Y. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, D. G. Foursa, W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. Lucero, N. S. Bergamo, "Improved margin in long-haul 40 Gb/s systems using bit-synchronously modulated RZ-DQPSK ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper PDP33.
  13. N. E. Hecker, E. Gottwald, K. Kotten, C.-J. Weiske, A. Schöpflin, P. M. Krummrich, C. Glingener, "Automated polarization control demonstrated in a 1.28 Tb/s ($16 \times 2 \times 40\ \hbox{Gb/s}$) polarization multiplexed DWDM field trail," Proc. 27th ECOC (2001) pp. 86-87.
  14. K. Kukuchi, T. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogashara, T. Ono, "10.92-Tb/s (273 × 40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical-repeatered transmission experiment," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2001) Paper PD24.
  15. S. Bigo, Y. Frignac, G. Charlet, W. Idler, S. Borne, H. Gross, R. Dischler, W. Poehlmann, P. Tran, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, G. Veith, A. Jourdan, J.-P. Hamaide, "10.2 Tb/s (256 × 42.7 Gb/s PDM/WDM) transmission over 100 km teralight fiber with 1.28 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2001) Paper PD25.
  16. D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "A comparison between multi-level modulation formats: 21-4 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK and POLMUX-RZ-DPSK ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OThR2.
  17. L. E. Nelson, H. Kogelnik, "Coherent crosstalk impairments in polarization multiplexed transmission due to polarization mode dispersion," Opt. Express 7, 350-361 (2000).
  18. D. van den Borne, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "PMD induced transmission penalties in polarization multiplexed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4004-4015 (2005).
  19. D. van den Borne, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Cross phase modulation induced depolarization penalties in 2 × 10 Gb/s polarization-multiplexed transmission," Proc. 30th ECOC (2004) pp. 102-103.
  20. G. Charlet, S. Lanne, L. Pierre, C. Simonneua, P. Tran, H. Mardoyan, P. Brindel, M. Gorlier, J. C. Antona, M. Molina, P. Sillard, J. Godin, W. Idler, S. Bigo, "Cost-optimized 6.3 Tb/s-capacity terrestrial link over 17 × 100 km using phase-shaped binary transmission in a conventional all-EDFA SMF-based systems ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AtlantaGA (2003) Paper PDP25.
  21. B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. Lingle, Jr.Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri, S. Namiki, "6.4-Tb/s (160 × 42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32 × 100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AtlantaGA (2003) Paper PDP19.
  22. I. Morita, N. Edgawa, "50 GHz-spaced 64 × 42.7 Gb/s transmission over 8200 km using pre-filtered CS-RZ DPSK signal and EDFA repeaters," Proc. 30th ECOC (2004) pp. 60-61.
  23. N. Yoshikane, I. Morita, "160% spectrally-efficient 5.12 Tb/s (64 × 85.4 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK) transmission without polarisation demultiplexing," Proc. 30th ECOC (2004) pp. 44-45.
  24. H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, K. Kitayama, "1.6 b/s/Hz, 6.4 Tb/s OCDM/WDM ($4\ \hbox{OCDM} \times 40\ \hbox{WDM} \times 40\ \hbox{Gb/s}$) transmission experiment," Proc. 27th ECOC (2001) pp. 6-7.
  25. C. Wree, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, J. Leibrich, E.-D. Schmidt, B. Lankl, W. Rosenkranz, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 × 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz Grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization-multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).
  26. B. Milivojevic, A. F. Abas, A. Hidayat, S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, R. Noé, M. Guy, M. Lapointe, "1.6-b/s/Hz 160-Gb/s 230-km RZ-DQPSK polarization multiplex transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 495-498 (2005).
  27. P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, "Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-Gb/s DWDM transmission over 4 × 100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization-multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 656-658 (2005).
  28. S. Tsukamoto, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Coherent demodulation of 40-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed QPSK signals with 16-GHz spacing after 200-km transmission," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2005) Paper PDP29.
  29. S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, A. Schöpflin, E. Gottwald, P. M. Krummrich, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "26 × 42.8-Gb/s DQPSK transmission with 0.8-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 4500 km SSMF using optical phase conjugation," Proc. 31st ECOC (2005) pp. 9-10.
  30. Y. Yamada, S.-I. Nakagawa, K. Takashina, T. Tawazana, H. Taga, K. Goto, "25-GHz spacing ultra-dense WDM transmission experiment of 1-Tb/s (100 WDM × 10 Gb/s) over 7300 km using non pre-chirped RZ format," Electron. Lett. 35, 2212-2213 (1999).
  31. R. A. Griffin, R. I. Johnstone, R. G. Walker, J. Hall, S. D. Wadsworth, K. Berry, A. C. Carter, M. J. Wale, J. Hughes, P. A. Jerran, N. J. Parsons, "10 Gb/s optical differential quadrature phase shift key (DQPSK) transmission using GaAS/AlGaAs integration," Proc. OFC Conf. (2002) pp. 1-3.
  32. J.-S. Lee, C.-S. Shim, "Bit-error-rate analysis of optically preamplified receivers using an eigenfunction expansion method in optical frequency domain," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1224-1229 (1994).
  33. S. Hinz, D. Sandel, F. Wüst, R. Noé, "PMD tolerance of polarization division multiplex transmission using return-to-zero coding ," Opt. Express 9, 136-140 (2001).
  34. C. Rasmussen, S. Dey, F. Lui, J. Bennike, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, M. Kimitt, K. Springer, D. Gaspontsev, V. Ivshin, "Transmission of 40 × 42.7 Gb/s over 5200 km UltraWave fiber with terrestrial 100 km spans using turn-key ETDM transmitter and receiver," 28th Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) CopenhagenDenmark (2002) Paper PD4.4.
  35. E. Forestieri, "Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre- and postdetection filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1493-1503 (2000).
  36. R. Noé, S. Hinz, D. Sandel, F. Wüst, "Crosstalk detection schemes for polarization division multiplexed transmission experiments ," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1469-1475 (2001).
  37. A. Färbert, "Performance of a 10.7 Gb/s receiver with digital equaliser using maximum likelihood sequence estimation," Proc. 30th ECOC (2004) pp. 10-11.
  38. S. Calabro, T. Dullweber, E. Gottwald, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Mullner, B. Opitz, G. Sebald, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, C. Weiske, H. Zech, "An electrical polarization-state controller and demultiplexer for polarization multiplexed optical signals," Proc. 30th ECOC (2004) pp. 950-951.
  39. M. T. Core, "Cross polarization interference cancellation for fiber optic systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 305-312 (2006).

2006 (1)

M. T. Core, "Cross polarization interference cancellation for fiber optic systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 305-312 (2006).

2005 (3)

D. van den Borne, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "PMD induced transmission penalties in polarization multiplexed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4004-4015 (2005).

B. Milivojevic, A. F. Abas, A. Hidayat, S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, R. Noé, M. Guy, M. Lapointe, "1.6-b/s/Hz 160-Gb/s 230-km RZ-DQPSK polarization multiplex transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 495-498 (2005).

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, "Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-Gb/s DWDM transmission over 4 × 100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization-multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 656-658 (2005).

2004 (2)

J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, "Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 259-272 (2004).

C. Xu, X. Liu, X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2004).

2003 (1)

C. Wree, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, J. Leibrich, E.-D. Schmidt, B. Lankl, W. Rosenkranz, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 × 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz Grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization-multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).

2001 (2)

R. Noé, S. Hinz, D. Sandel, F. Wüst, "Crosstalk detection schemes for polarization division multiplexed transmission experiments ," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1469-1475 (2001).

S. Hinz, D. Sandel, F. Wüst, R. Noé, "PMD tolerance of polarization division multiplex transmission using return-to-zero coding ," Opt. Express 9, 136-140 (2001).

2000 (2)

E. Forestieri, "Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre- and postdetection filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1493-1503 (2000).

L. E. Nelson, H. Kogelnik, "Coherent crosstalk impairments in polarization multiplexed transmission due to polarization mode dispersion," Opt. Express 7, 350-361 (2000).

1999 (1)

Y. Yamada, S.-I. Nakagawa, K. Takashina, T. Tawazana, H. Taga, K. Goto, "25-GHz spacing ultra-dense WDM transmission experiment of 1-Tb/s (100 WDM × 10 Gb/s) over 7300 km using non pre-chirped RZ format," Electron. Lett. 35, 2212-2213 (1999).

1994 (1)

J.-S. Lee, C.-S. Shim, "Bit-error-rate analysis of optically preamplified receivers using an eigenfunction expansion method in optical frequency domain," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1224-1229 (1994).

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Yamada, S.-I. Nakagawa, K. Takashina, T. Tawazana, H. Taga, K. Goto, "25-GHz spacing ultra-dense WDM transmission experiment of 1-Tb/s (100 WDM × 10 Gb/s) over 7300 km using non pre-chirped RZ format," Electron. Lett. 35, 2212-2213 (1999).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, "Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 259-272 (2004).

C. Xu, X. Liu, X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

C. Wree, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, J. Leibrich, E.-D. Schmidt, B. Lankl, W. Rosenkranz, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 × 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz Grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization-multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).

B. Milivojevic, A. F. Abas, A. Hidayat, S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, R. Noé, M. Guy, M. Lapointe, "1.6-b/s/Hz 160-Gb/s 230-km RZ-DQPSK polarization multiplex transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 495-498 (2005).

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, "Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-Gb/s DWDM transmission over 4 × 100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization-multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 656-658 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

J.-S. Lee, C.-S. Shim, "Bit-error-rate analysis of optically preamplified receivers using an eigenfunction expansion method in optical frequency domain," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1224-1229 (1994).

E. Forestieri, "Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre- and postdetection filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1493-1503 (2000).

R. Noé, S. Hinz, D. Sandel, F. Wüst, "Crosstalk detection schemes for polarization division multiplexed transmission experiments ," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1469-1475 (2001).

M. T. Core, "Cross polarization interference cancellation for fiber optic systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 305-312 (2006).

D. van den Borne, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "PMD induced transmission penalties in polarization multiplexed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4004-4015 (2005).

Opt. Express (2)

Other (26)

C. Rasmussen, S. Dey, F. Lui, J. Bennike, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, M. Kimitt, K. Springer, D. Gaspontsev, V. Ivshin, "Transmission of 40 × 42.7 Gb/s over 5200 km UltraWave fiber with terrestrial 100 km spans using turn-key ETDM transmitter and receiver," 28th Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) CopenhagenDenmark (2002) Paper PD4.4.

R. A. Griffin, R. I. Johnstone, R. G. Walker, J. Hall, S. D. Wadsworth, K. Berry, A. C. Carter, M. J. Wale, J. Hughes, P. A. Jerran, N. J. Parsons, "10 Gb/s optical differential quadrature phase shift key (DQPSK) transmission using GaAS/AlGaAs integration," Proc. OFC Conf. (2002) pp. 1-3.

S. Tsukamoto, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Coherent demodulation of 40-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed QPSK signals with 16-GHz spacing after 200-km transmission," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2005) Paper PDP29.

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, A. Schöpflin, E. Gottwald, P. M. Krummrich, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "26 × 42.8-Gb/s DQPSK transmission with 0.8-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 4500 km SSMF using optical phase conjugation," Proc. 31st ECOC (2005) pp. 9-10.

A. Färbert, "Performance of a 10.7 Gb/s receiver with digital equaliser using maximum likelihood sequence estimation," Proc. 30th ECOC (2004) pp. 10-11.

S. Calabro, T. Dullweber, E. Gottwald, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Mullner, B. Opitz, G. Sebald, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, C. Weiske, H. Zech, "An electrical polarization-state controller and demultiplexer for polarization multiplexed optical signals," Proc. 30th ECOC (2004) pp. 950-951.

D. van den Borne, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Cross phase modulation induced depolarization penalties in 2 × 10 Gb/s polarization-multiplexed transmission," Proc. 30th ECOC (2004) pp. 102-103.

G. Charlet, S. Lanne, L. Pierre, C. Simonneua, P. Tran, H. Mardoyan, P. Brindel, M. Gorlier, J. C. Antona, M. Molina, P. Sillard, J. Godin, W. Idler, S. Bigo, "Cost-optimized 6.3 Tb/s-capacity terrestrial link over 17 × 100 km using phase-shaped binary transmission in a conventional all-EDFA SMF-based systems ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AtlantaGA (2003) Paper PDP25.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. Lingle, Jr.Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri, S. Namiki, "6.4-Tb/s (160 × 42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32 × 100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AtlantaGA (2003) Paper PDP19.

I. Morita, N. Edgawa, "50 GHz-spaced 64 × 42.7 Gb/s transmission over 8200 km using pre-filtered CS-RZ DPSK signal and EDFA repeaters," Proc. 30th ECOC (2004) pp. 60-61.

N. Yoshikane, I. Morita, "160% spectrally-efficient 5.12 Tb/s (64 × 85.4 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK) transmission without polarisation demultiplexing," Proc. 30th ECOC (2004) pp. 44-45.

H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, K. Kitayama, "1.6 b/s/Hz, 6.4 Tb/s OCDM/WDM ($4\ \hbox{OCDM} \times 40\ \hbox{WDM} \times 40\ \hbox{Gb/s}$) transmission experiment," Proc. 27th ECOC (2001) pp. 6-7.

J.-X. Cai, M. Nissov, C. R. Davidson, W. T. Anderson, Y. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, D. G. Foursa, W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. Lucero, N. S. Bergamo, "Improved margin in long-haul 40 Gb/s systems using bit-synchronously modulated RZ-DQPSK ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper PDP33.

N. E. Hecker, E. Gottwald, K. Kotten, C.-J. Weiske, A. Schöpflin, P. M. Krummrich, C. Glingener, "Automated polarization control demonstrated in a 1.28 Tb/s ($16 \times 2 \times 40\ \hbox{Gb/s}$) polarization multiplexed DWDM field trail," Proc. 27th ECOC (2001) pp. 86-87.

K. Kukuchi, T. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogashara, T. Ono, "10.92-Tb/s (273 × 40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical-repeatered transmission experiment," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2001) Paper PD24.

S. Bigo, Y. Frignac, G. Charlet, W. Idler, S. Borne, H. Gross, R. Dischler, W. Poehlmann, P. Tran, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, G. Veith, A. Jourdan, J.-P. Hamaide, "10.2 Tb/s (256 × 42.7 Gb/s PDM/WDM) transmission over 100 km teralight fiber with 1.28 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2001) Paper PD25.

D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "A comparison between multi-level modulation formats: 21-4 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK and POLMUX-RZ-DPSK ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OThR2.

F. C. Garcia Cunning, T. Healy, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, "Multi-banded coherent WDM transmission," Proc. 31st ECOC (2005) pp. 23-24.

F. Schaich, J. Speidel, "Wavelength-time coding for ultra-dense wavelength multiplexing," Proc. ITG Fachbericht 193, 7th ITG-Fachtagung Photonic Netw. (2006) pp. 113-120.

G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Agarwal, A. H. Gnauck, L. L. Buhl, J. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, "Limitations op optical add/drop filtering on 42.7-Gb/s transmission with 50-GHz channel spacing ," Proc. 30th ECOC (2004) pp. 94-95.

J. A. Lázaro, W. Idler, R. Dischler, A. Kleinkamp, "Filtering and linear crosstalk penalties of ASK and DPSK 43 Gb/s DWDM systems with 50 GHz channel spacing," Proc. 30th ECOC (2004) pp. 416-417.

T. Tolke, P. A. Anderrson, Y. Geng, B. Zsigri, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, "Generation, transmission and wavelength conversion of a 80 Gb/s RZ-DBPSK-ASK signal ," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics BaltimoreMD (2005) Paper CMQ4.

T. Tolke, M. Serbay, Y. Geng, J. Bevensee Jensen, W. Rosenkranz, P. Jeppesen, "Penalty-free transmission of multilevel 240 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK-ASK using only 40 Gb/s equipment ," Proc. 31st ECOC (2005) pp. 11-12.

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, C. Dorrer, "Spectrally efficient (0.8 b/s/Hz) 1-Tb/s (25 × 42.7 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK transmission over 28 100-km SSMF spans with 7 optical add/drops," Proc. 30th ECOC (2004) pp. 40-41.

G. Charlet, P. Tran, H. Mardoyan, M. Lefrancois, T. Fauconnier, F. Jorge, S. Bigo, "151 × 43 Gb/s transmission over 4080 km based on return-to-zero differential quadrature phase-shift keying," Proc. 31st ECOC (2005) pp. 5-6.

D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Line optimization in long-haul transmission systems with 42.8-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK modulation ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OFD2.

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