Abstract

We show, using simulations, that a combination of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and optical single sideband modulation can be used to compensate for chromatic dispersion in ultralong-haul wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) systems. OFDM provides a high spectral efficiency, does not require a reverse feedback path for compensation, and has a better sensitivity than nonreturn to zero. This paper provides design rules for 800–4000-km optical-OFDM systems. The effects of WDM channel number and spacing, fiber dispersion, and input power per channel on the received Q are studied using extensive numerical simulations. These effects are summarized as a set of design rules.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. D. McGhan, "Electronic dispersion compensation," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OWK1.
  2. R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, M. Glick, P. Bayvel, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OWB3.
  3. A. Färbert, "Application of digital equalization in optical transmission systems," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OTuE5.
  4. L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. Wandel, P. Kristensen, C. Jorgensen, L. V. Jorgensen, B. Edvold, B. Palsdottir, D. Jakobsen, "Dispersion-compensating fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3566-3579 (2005).
  5. F. Ouellette, J. F. Cliche, S. Gagnon, "All-fiber devices for chromatic dispersion compensation based on chirped distributed resonant coupling," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1728-1738 (1994).
  6. D. J. Moss, M. Lamont, S. McLaughlin, G. Randall, P. Colbourne, S. Kiran, C. A. Hulse, "Tunable dispersion and dispersion slope compensators for 10 Gb/s using all-pass multicavity etalons," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 730-732 (2003).
  7. R. I. Killey, V. Mikhailov, S. Appathurai, P. Bayvel, "Investigation of nonlinear distortion in 40-Gb/s transmission with higher order mode fiber dispersion compensators," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2282-2289 (2002).
  8. T. Koch, R. Alferness, "Dispersion compensation by active predistorted signal synthesis," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 800-805 (1985).
  9. A. D. Ellis, M. E. McCarthy, "Receiver-side electronic dispersion compensation using passive optical field detection for low cost 10 Gb/s 600 km-reach applications," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OTuE4.
  10. K. Zhou, J. G. Proakis, F. Ling, "Decision-feedback equalization of time-dispersive channels with coded modulation," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 18-24 (1990).
  11. Y. Sun, M. E. Ali, K. Balemarthy, R. L. Lingle, S. E. Ralph, B. E. Lemoff, "10 Gb/s transmission over 300 m OM3 fiber from 990–1080 nm with electronic dispersion compensation," Optical Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OTuE2.
  12. A. Ghiasi, A. Momtaz, A. Dastur, F. Chang, G. Noh, B. Gomatam, E. Ibragimov, A. Shanbhag, O. Schreiber, E. Su, K. Conroy, R. Jambunathan, J. Wood, "Experimental results of EDC based receivers for 2400 ps/nm at 10.7 Gb/s for emerging telecom standards," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OTuE3.
  13. J. P. Elbers, H. Wernz, H. Griesser, C. Glingener, A. Faerbert, S. Langenbach, N. Stojanovic, C. Dorschky, T. Kupfer, C. Schulien, "Measurement of the dispersion tolerance of optical duobinary with an MLSE-receiver at 10.7 Gb/s ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2005) Paper OThJ4.
  14. M. Sieben, J. Conradi, D. E. Dodds, "Optical single sideband transmission at 10 Gb/s using only electrical dispersion compensation ," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1742-1749 (1999).
  15. D. Fonseca, A. V. T. Cartaxo, P. Monteiro, "Optical single-sideband transmitter for various electrical signaling formats," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2059-2069 (2006).
  16. R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, M. Glick, P. Bayvel, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion using digital processing and a dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 714-716 (2005).
  17. J. McNicol, M. O'Sullivan, K. Roberts, A. Comeau, D. McGhan, L. Strawczynski, "Electrical domain compensation of optical dispersion [optical fibre communication applications] ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2005) Paper OThJ3.
  18. D. McGhan, C. Laperle, A. Savehenko, L. Chuandong, G. Mak, M. O'Sullivan, "5120 km RZ-DPSK transmission over G652 fiber at 10 Gb/s with no optical dispersion compensation ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2005) Paper PDP27.
  19. K. Roberts, C. Li, L. Strawczynski, M. O'Sullivan, I. Hardcastle, "Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 403-405 (2006).
  20. J. G. Proakis, M. Salehi, Essentials of Communications Systems Engineering (Prentice-Hall, 2005).
  21. B. J. Dixon, R. D. Pollard, S. Iezekiel, "Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing in wireless communication systems with multimode fiber feeds," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1404-1409 (2001).
  22. O. Gonzalez, R. Perez-Jimenez, S. Rodriguez, J. Rabadan, A. Ayala, "OFDM over indoor wireless optical channel," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. 152, 199-204 (2005).
  23. D. Chanda, A. Sesay, B. Davies, "Performance of clipped OFDM signal in fiber," IEEE Canadian Conf. Electrical and Computer Engineering Niagara FallsONCanada (2004) Paper 2401-2404.
  24. A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "10 Gb/s multimode fiber link using power-efficient orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing ," Opt. Express 13, 10 003-10 009 (2005).
  25. J. Armstrong, A. J. Lowery, "Power efficient optical OFDM," Electron. Lett. 42, 370-372 (2006).
  26. A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for dispersion compensation of long-haul optical systems," Opt. Express 14, 2079-2084 (2006).
  27. R. Hui, B. Zhu, R. Huang, C. T. Allen, K. R. Demarest, D. Richards, "Subcarrier multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 417-427 (2002).
  28. A. J. Lowery, L. Du, J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper PDP39.
  29. J. M. Tang, P. M. Lane, K. A. Shore, "Transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode fiber links ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 205-207 (2006).
  30. I. B. Djordjevic, B. Vasic, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission," Opt. Express 14, 3767-3775 (2006).
  31. W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 42, 587-589 (2006).
  32. M. Mayrock, H. Haunstein, "Impact of implementation impairments on the performance of an optical OFDM transmission system ," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. CannesFrance (2006) Paper Th3.2.1.
  33. R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, "Impact of fiber nonlinearities on advanced modulation formats using electronic pre-distortion ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OWB1.
  34. A. Klekamp, F. Buchali, M. Audoin, H. Bülow, "Nonlinear limitations of electronic dispersion pre-compensation by intrachannel effects ," Optical Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OWR1.
  35. E. A. Golovchenko, N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, "Four-wave mixing in multispan dispersion-managed transmission links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1481-1483 (1998).
  36. N. S. Bergano, "Wavelength division multiplexing in long-haul transoceanic transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4125-4139 (2005).
  37. J. P. Elbers, A. Farbert, C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, "Reduced model to describe SPM-limited fiber transmission in dispersion-managed lightwave systems ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 276-281 (2000).
  38. T. K. Chiang, N. Kagi, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, "Cross-phase modulation in fiber links with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators ," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 249-260 (1996).
  39. F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, "Power limitations due to four-wave mixing depletion in WDM systems with unequally spaced channels ," Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Summer Topical Meeting San JoseCA (1993) Paper T1.4.

2006

D. Fonseca, A. V. T. Cartaxo, P. Monteiro, "Optical single-sideband transmitter for various electrical signaling formats," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2059-2069 (2006).

K. Roberts, C. Li, L. Strawczynski, M. O'Sullivan, I. Hardcastle, "Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 403-405 (2006).

J. M. Tang, P. M. Lane, K. A. Shore, "Transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode fiber links ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 205-207 (2006).

I. B. Djordjevic, B. Vasic, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission," Opt. Express 14, 3767-3775 (2006).

W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 42, 587-589 (2006).

J. Armstrong, A. J. Lowery, "Power efficient optical OFDM," Electron. Lett. 42, 370-372 (2006).

A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for dispersion compensation of long-haul optical systems," Opt. Express 14, 2079-2084 (2006).

2005

N. S. Bergano, "Wavelength division multiplexing in long-haul transoceanic transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4125-4139 (2005).

O. Gonzalez, R. Perez-Jimenez, S. Rodriguez, J. Rabadan, A. Ayala, "OFDM over indoor wireless optical channel," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. 152, 199-204 (2005).

A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "10 Gb/s multimode fiber link using power-efficient orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing ," Opt. Express 13, 10 003-10 009 (2005).

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, M. Glick, P. Bayvel, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion using digital processing and a dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 714-716 (2005).

L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. Wandel, P. Kristensen, C. Jorgensen, L. V. Jorgensen, B. Edvold, B. Palsdottir, D. Jakobsen, "Dispersion-compensating fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3566-3579 (2005).

2003

D. J. Moss, M. Lamont, S. McLaughlin, G. Randall, P. Colbourne, S. Kiran, C. A. Hulse, "Tunable dispersion and dispersion slope compensators for 10 Gb/s using all-pass multicavity etalons," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 730-732 (2003).

2002

R. I. Killey, V. Mikhailov, S. Appathurai, P. Bayvel, "Investigation of nonlinear distortion in 40-Gb/s transmission with higher order mode fiber dispersion compensators," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2282-2289 (2002).

R. Hui, B. Zhu, R. Huang, C. T. Allen, K. R. Demarest, D. Richards, "Subcarrier multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 417-427 (2002).

2001

B. J. Dixon, R. D. Pollard, S. Iezekiel, "Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing in wireless communication systems with multimode fiber feeds," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1404-1409 (2001).

2000

J. P. Elbers, A. Farbert, C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, "Reduced model to describe SPM-limited fiber transmission in dispersion-managed lightwave systems ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 276-281 (2000).

1999

M. Sieben, J. Conradi, D. E. Dodds, "Optical single sideband transmission at 10 Gb/s using only electrical dispersion compensation ," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1742-1749 (1999).

1998

E. A. Golovchenko, N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, "Four-wave mixing in multispan dispersion-managed transmission links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1481-1483 (1998).

1996

T. K. Chiang, N. Kagi, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, "Cross-phase modulation in fiber links with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators ," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 249-260 (1996).

1994

F. Ouellette, J. F. Cliche, S. Gagnon, "All-fiber devices for chromatic dispersion compensation based on chirped distributed resonant coupling," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1728-1738 (1994).

1990

K. Zhou, J. G. Proakis, F. Ling, "Decision-feedback equalization of time-dispersive channels with coded modulation," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 18-24 (1990).

1985

T. Koch, R. Alferness, "Dispersion compensation by active predistorted signal synthesis," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 800-805 (1985).

Electron. Lett.

J. Armstrong, A. J. Lowery, "Power efficient optical OFDM," Electron. Lett. 42, 370-372 (2006).

W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 42, 587-589 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

J. P. Elbers, A. Farbert, C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, "Reduced model to describe SPM-limited fiber transmission in dispersion-managed lightwave systems ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 276-281 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. M. Tang, P. M. Lane, K. A. Shore, "Transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode fiber links ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 205-207 (2006).

E. A. Golovchenko, N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, "Four-wave mixing in multispan dispersion-managed transmission links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1481-1483 (1998).

K. Roberts, C. Li, L. Strawczynski, M. O'Sullivan, I. Hardcastle, "Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 403-405 (2006).

D. J. Moss, M. Lamont, S. McLaughlin, G. Randall, P. Colbourne, S. Kiran, C. A. Hulse, "Tunable dispersion and dispersion slope compensators for 10 Gb/s using all-pass multicavity etalons," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 730-732 (2003).

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, M. Glick, P. Bayvel, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion using digital processing and a dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 714-716 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Commun.

K. Zhou, J. G. Proakis, F. Ling, "Decision-feedback equalization of time-dispersive channels with coded modulation," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 18-24 (1990).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

B. J. Dixon, R. D. Pollard, S. Iezekiel, "Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing in wireless communication systems with multimode fiber feeds," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1404-1409 (2001).

J. Lightw. Technol.

R. Hui, B. Zhu, R. Huang, C. T. Allen, K. R. Demarest, D. Richards, "Subcarrier multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 417-427 (2002).

N. S. Bergano, "Wavelength division multiplexing in long-haul transoceanic transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4125-4139 (2005).

M. Sieben, J. Conradi, D. E. Dodds, "Optical single sideband transmission at 10 Gb/s using only electrical dispersion compensation ," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1742-1749 (1999).

D. Fonseca, A. V. T. Cartaxo, P. Monteiro, "Optical single-sideband transmitter for various electrical signaling formats," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2059-2069 (2006).

R. I. Killey, V. Mikhailov, S. Appathurai, P. Bayvel, "Investigation of nonlinear distortion in 40-Gb/s transmission with higher order mode fiber dispersion compensators," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2282-2289 (2002).

T. Koch, R. Alferness, "Dispersion compensation by active predistorted signal synthesis," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 800-805 (1985).

L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. Wandel, P. Kristensen, C. Jorgensen, L. V. Jorgensen, B. Edvold, B. Palsdottir, D. Jakobsen, "Dispersion-compensating fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3566-3579 (2005).

F. Ouellette, J. F. Cliche, S. Gagnon, "All-fiber devices for chromatic dispersion compensation based on chirped distributed resonant coupling," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1728-1738 (1994).

T. K. Chiang, N. Kagi, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, "Cross-phase modulation in fiber links with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators ," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 249-260 (1996).

Opt. Express

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron.

O. Gonzalez, R. Perez-Jimenez, S. Rodriguez, J. Rabadan, A. Ayala, "OFDM over indoor wireless optical channel," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. 152, 199-204 (2005).

Other

D. Chanda, A. Sesay, B. Davies, "Performance of clipped OFDM signal in fiber," IEEE Canadian Conf. Electrical and Computer Engineering Niagara FallsONCanada (2004) Paper 2401-2404.

J. G. Proakis, M. Salehi, Essentials of Communications Systems Engineering (Prentice-Hall, 2005).

A. J. Lowery, L. Du, J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper PDP39.

M. Mayrock, H. Haunstein, "Impact of implementation impairments on the performance of an optical OFDM transmission system ," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. CannesFrance (2006) Paper Th3.2.1.

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, "Impact of fiber nonlinearities on advanced modulation formats using electronic pre-distortion ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OWB1.

A. Klekamp, F. Buchali, M. Audoin, H. Bülow, "Nonlinear limitations of electronic dispersion pre-compensation by intrachannel effects ," Optical Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OWR1.

D. McGhan, "Electronic dispersion compensation," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OWK1.

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, M. Glick, P. Bayvel, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OWB3.

A. Färbert, "Application of digital equalization in optical transmission systems," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OTuE5.

A. D. Ellis, M. E. McCarthy, "Receiver-side electronic dispersion compensation using passive optical field detection for low cost 10 Gb/s 600 km-reach applications," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OTuE4.

J. McNicol, M. O'Sullivan, K. Roberts, A. Comeau, D. McGhan, L. Strawczynski, "Electrical domain compensation of optical dispersion [optical fibre communication applications] ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2005) Paper OThJ3.

D. McGhan, C. Laperle, A. Savehenko, L. Chuandong, G. Mak, M. O'Sullivan, "5120 km RZ-DPSK transmission over G652 fiber at 10 Gb/s with no optical dispersion compensation ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2005) Paper PDP27.

Y. Sun, M. E. Ali, K. Balemarthy, R. L. Lingle, S. E. Ralph, B. E. Lemoff, "10 Gb/s transmission over 300 m OM3 fiber from 990–1080 nm with electronic dispersion compensation," Optical Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OTuE2.

A. Ghiasi, A. Momtaz, A. Dastur, F. Chang, G. Noh, B. Gomatam, E. Ibragimov, A. Shanbhag, O. Schreiber, E. Su, K. Conroy, R. Jambunathan, J. Wood, "Experimental results of EDC based receivers for 2400 ps/nm at 10.7 Gb/s for emerging telecom standards," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OTuE3.

J. P. Elbers, H. Wernz, H. Griesser, C. Glingener, A. Faerbert, S. Langenbach, N. Stojanovic, C. Dorschky, T. Kupfer, C. Schulien, "Measurement of the dispersion tolerance of optical duobinary with an MLSE-receiver at 10.7 Gb/s ," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2005) Paper OThJ4.

F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, "Power limitations due to four-wave mixing depletion in WDM systems with unequally spaced channels ," Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Summer Topical Meeting San JoseCA (1993) Paper T1.4.

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