Abstract

A comprehensive review of the optical transceivers for fiber-to-the-premises applications is presented, with emphasis on system requirements and enabling technologies. Recent progress in photonic integration to realize low-cost, high-performance, and compact optical transceivers for the optical network terminal is reviewed.

© 2007 IEEE

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2006 (5)

H. Sasaki, M. Uekawa, Y. Maeno, K. Kotani, D. Shimura, R. Sekikawa, T. Takamori, T. Ori, K. Masuko, Y. Katsuki, "A low-cost micro-BOSA using Si microlens integrated on Si optical bench for PON application ," OFC/NFOEC OWL6/1-OWL6/3 (2006).

Y.-T. Han, Y.-J. Park, S.-H. Park, J.-U. Shin, D.-J. Kim, C.-H. Park, S.-W. Park, Y.-K. Kwon, D.-J. Lee, W.-Y. Hwang, H.-K. Sung, "A PLC-based optical sub-assembly of triplexer using TFF-attached WDM and PD carriers ," ETRI J. 28, 102-106 (2006).

S. Kim, S. Park, J. Tae Moon, H. Lee, "A low-crosstalk design of 1.25 Gb/s optical triplexer module for FTTH systems," ETRI J. 28, 9-16 (2006).

T. Lang, J. J. He, S. He, "Cross-order arrayed waveguide grating design for triplexers in fiber access networks ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 232-234 (2006).

C. Xu, X. Hong, W.-P. Huang, "Design optimization of integrated BiDi triplexer optical filter based on planar lightwave circuit ," OSA Opt. Express 14, 4675-4686 (2006).

2005 (7)

M. Iwase, Y. Ishikawa, T. Komatsu, J. Kasahara, N. Hattori, M. Miura, N. Nakamura, K. Odaka, "Optical transceiver modules for gigabit Ethernet PON FTTH system," Furukawa Rev. 8-14 (2005).

Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Hida, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Enomoto, "PLC components used in FTTH access networks," NTT Technol. Rev. 3, 22-26 (2005).

M. Nakamura, Y. Imai, Y. Umeda, J. Endo, Y. J. Akatsu, "1.25-Gb/s burst-mode receiver ICs with quick response for PON systems," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 2680-2688 (2005).

P. Ossieur, D. Verhulst, Y. Martens, W. Chen, J. Bauwelinck, X. Z. Qiu, J. Vandewege, "A 1.25-Gb/s burst-mode receiver for GPON applications," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1180-1189 (2005).

J. H. Song, J. H. Lim, R. K. Kim, K. S. Lee, K. Y. Kim, J. Cho, D. Han, S. H. Jung, Y. Oh, D. H. Jang, "Bragg grating-assisted WDM filter for integrated optical triplexer transceivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2607-2609 (2005).

X. Li, G.-R. Zhou, N.-N. Feng, W.-P. Huang, "A novel planar waveguide wavelength demultiplexer design for integrated optical triplexer transceiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1214-1216 (2005).

C. Xu, L. Shen, D. Zhou, W.-P. Huang, J. Hong, "Novel design of bi-directional triplexer based on PLC," Proc. SPIE, Photonic Application in Devices Commun. System. 5970, 154-161 (2005).

2004 (3)

M. Salib, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Alduino, M. Paniccia, "Silicon photonics," Intel Technol. J. 8, 143-160 (2004).

Q. Le, S. G. Lee, Y. H. Oh, H. Y. Kang, T. H. Yoo, "A burst-mode receiver for 1.25-Gb/s ethernet PON with AGC and internally created reset signal ," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39, 2379-2388 (2004).

L. P. Shen, C. L. Xu, W.-P. Huang, "Integrated grating-assisted coarse/dense WDM multiplexers," Optical Components and Devices 5970, Proc. SPIE, 698-706 (2004).

2003 (3)

M. Uekawa, H. Sasaki, D. Shimura, K. Kotani, Y. Maeno, T. Takamori, "Surface-mountable silicon microlens for low-cost laser modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 945-947 (2003).

P. Ossieur, X. Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, "Sensitivity penalty calculation for burst-mode receivers using avalanche photodiodes ," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2565-2575 (2003).

J. A. P. Morgado, A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Assessment of laser noise influence on direct-detection transmission system performance ," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 759-768 (2003).

2002 (3)

H. Nakanishi, "Development of bidirectional 1.3/1.55-μm optical transceiver module compliant with ethernet standard," SEI Tech. Rev. 99-105 (2002).

M.-C. Oh, C. Zhang, H.-Y. Lee, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, "Low-loss interconnection between electrooptic and passive polymer waveguides with a vertical taper ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1121-1123 (2002).

B. Stegmueller, E. Baur, M. Kicherer, "15-GHz modulation performance of integrated DFB laser diode EA modulator with identical multiple-quantum-well double-stack active layer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1647-1649 (2002).

2001 (4)

L. Giraudet, "High speed evanescently coupled PIN photodiodes for hybridization on silicon platform optimized with genetic algorithm," Electron. Lett. 37, 973-975 (2001).

S. Saini, F. G. Johnson, D. R. Stone, W. Zhou, H. Shen, M. Dagenais, "A 2 × 2 crosspoint switch fabricated on the passive active resonant coupler (PARC) platform," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 203-205 (2001).

H. Kawanishi, "EAM-Integrated DFB laser modules with more than 40-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 954-956 (2001).

M. Iwase, T. Nomura, A. Izawa, H. Mori, S. Tamura, T. Shirai, T. Kamiya, "Single mode fiber MT-RJ SFF transceiver module using optical subassembly with a new shielded silicon optical bench," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 24, 419-428 (2001).

2000 (4)

T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, K. Kato, "Full 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar lightwave circuit for full duplex operation," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1541-1547 (2000).

T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, K. Kato, "A 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar lightwave circuit for full duplex operation," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1541-1546 (2000).

M. C. Nowell, D. G. Cunningham, D. C. Hanson, L. G. Kazovsky, "Evaluation of Gb/s laser based fibre LAN links: Review of the gigabit Ethernet model ," Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 169-192 (2000).

K. Kundo, "1.55 μm wavelength-selectable microarray DFB-LD's with monolithically integrated MMI combiner, SOA, and EA-modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 242-244 (2000).

1999 (3)

P. V. Studenkov, M. R. Gokhale, S. R. Forrest, "Efficient coupling in integrated twin-waveguide lasers using waveguide tapers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1096-1098 (1999).

T. Kurosaki, "1.3/1.55μm Full-duplex WDM optical transceiver modules for ATM-PON (PDS) system using PLC-hybrid-integration and CMOS-IC technologies," IEICE Trans. Electron. E82-C, 1465-1473 (1999).

M. Yano, K. Yamaguchi, H. Yamashita, "Global optical access systems based on ATM-PON," Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 35, 56-70 (1999).

1998 (4)

C. W. Tu, W. G. Bi, Y. Ma, J. P. Zhang, L. W. Wang, S. T. Ho, "A novel material for long-wavelength lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 510-513 (1998).

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).

H. Nakajima, A. Leroy, B. Pierre, P. Boulet, J. Charil, S. Grosmaire, A. Gloukhian, Y. Raffle, S. Slempkes, F. Mallecot, F. Doukhan, "1.3 μm/1.55 μm in-line transceiver assembly with –27 dBm full-duplex sensitivity," Electron. Lett. 34, 303-304 (1998).

K.-S. Park, D.-K. Oh, H.-M. Kim, K.-E. Pyun, "Compact photonic integrated circuit chip with low crosstalk for bidirectional transceivers ," Electron. Lett. 34, 79-80 (1998).

1997 (3)

J. D. Bainbridge, "Demonstration of integrated 12×12 InGaAsP/InP grating wavelength router at 2.5 Gb/s channel bit rates," Electron. Lett. 33, 1458-1459 (1997).

M. Kondow, "A novel material for long wavelength semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 719-730 (1997).

C. Su, L.-K. Chen, K. W. Cheung, "Theory of burst-mode receiver and its applications in optical multiaccess networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 590-605 (1997).

1996 (3)

T. Takeuchi, T. Sasaki, M. Hayashi, K. Hamamoto, K. Makita, K. Taguchi, K. Komatsu, "A transceiver PIC for bidirectional optical communication fabricated by bandgap energy controlled selective MOVPE," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 361-363 (1996).

H. Nakajima, J. Charil, D. Robein, A. Gloukhian, B. Pierre, J. Landreau, S. Grosmaire, A. Leroy, "Full-duplex operation of an in-line transceiver emitting at 1.3 μm and receiving at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 32, 473-474 (1996).

H. Nakajima, A. Leroy, J. Charil, "Full-duplex performance of in-line transceivers emitting at 1.3 μm and receiving at 1.55 μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1561-1563 (1996).

1995 (4)

A. Ramdane, "Monolithic integration of InGaAsP-InP strained-layer distributed feedback laser and external modulator by selective quantum-well interdiffusion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1016-1018 (1995).

P. Menndez-Valdes, "Performance of optical direct receivers using noise corrupted decision threshold," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2202-2214 (1995).

R. J. S. Bates, D. M. Kuchta, K. P. Jackson, "Improved multimode fiber link BER calculations due to modal noise and non-self-pulsating laser-diodes," Opt. Quantum Electron. 27, 203-224 (1995).

Y. Yamada, S. Suzuki, K. Moriwaki, Y. Hibino, Y. Tohmori, Y. Aktsu, Y. Nakasuga, T. Hashimoto, H. Terui, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Inoue, Y. Akahori, R. Nanase, "Application of planar lightwave circuit platform to hybrid integrated optical WDM transmitter/receiver module," Electron. Lett. 31, 1366-1367 (1995).

1994 (2)

C. Su, L.-K. Chen, K. W. Cheung, "Inherent transmission capacity of burst-mode for optical multiaccess networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 664-667 (1994).

R. Matz, J. G. Bauer, P. Clemens, G. Heise, H. F. Mahlein, W. Metzger, H. Michel, G. Schulte-Roth, "Development of a photonic integrated transceiver chip for WDM transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1327-1329 (1994).

1993 (2)

R. Adar, C. H. Henry, C. Dragone, R. C. Kistler, M. A. Milbrodt, "Broad-band array multiplexers made with silica waveguide on silicon," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 212-219 (1993).

C. A. Eldering, "Theoretical determination of sensitivity penalty for burst mode fiber optic receivers ," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 2145-2149 (1993).

1992 (3)

Y. Ota, R. G. Swartz, V. D. Archer, "DC-1Gb/s burst-mode compatible receiver for optical bus application," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 244-249 (1992).

G. D. Brown, "Bandwidth and rise time calculations for digital multimode fiberoptic data links," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 672-678 (1992).

P. M. Charles, P. J. Wiliams, A. K. Wood, R. Ogden, A. C. Carter, "OEICs for WDM transceiver modules fabricated by reactive ion etching on semi-insulating substrates ," Electron. Lett. 28, 1084-1085 (1992).

1991 (1)

T. Oguchi, J. Noda, H. Hanafusa, S. Nishi, "Dielectric multilayered interference filters deposited on polyimide films," Electron. Lett. 27, 706-707 (1991).

1990 (2)

Y. Ota, R. G. Swartz, "Burst-mode compatible optical receiver with a large dynamic range," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1897-1903 (1990).

P. G. Walker, J. Urquhart, I. Bennion, A. C. Carter, "1.3/1.55 μm Mach–Zehnder wavelength deplexers for integrated optoelectronic transceiver modules," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. J. 127, 33-37 (1990).

1989 (1)

J. L. Gimlett, N. K. Cheung, "Effects of phase-to-intensity noise conversion by multiple reflections on gigabit-per-second DFB laser transmission-systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 888-895 (1989).

1988 (1)

G. P. Agrawal, P. J. Anthony, T. M. Shen, "Dispersion penalty for 1.3-μm lightwave systems with multimode semiconductor-lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 620-625 (1988).

1982 (1)

K. Ogawa, "Analysis of mode partition noise in laser transmission-systems," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 849-855 (1982).

Electron. Lett. (8)

T. Oguchi, J. Noda, H. Hanafusa, S. Nishi, "Dielectric multilayered interference filters deposited on polyimide films," Electron. Lett. 27, 706-707 (1991).

Y. Yamada, S. Suzuki, K. Moriwaki, Y. Hibino, Y. Tohmori, Y. Aktsu, Y. Nakasuga, T. Hashimoto, H. Terui, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Inoue, Y. Akahori, R. Nanase, "Application of planar lightwave circuit platform to hybrid integrated optical WDM transmitter/receiver module," Electron. Lett. 31, 1366-1367 (1995).

J. D. Bainbridge, "Demonstration of integrated 12×12 InGaAsP/InP grating wavelength router at 2.5 Gb/s channel bit rates," Electron. Lett. 33, 1458-1459 (1997).

L. Giraudet, "High speed evanescently coupled PIN photodiodes for hybridization on silicon platform optimized with genetic algorithm," Electron. Lett. 37, 973-975 (2001).

H. Nakajima, J. Charil, D. Robein, A. Gloukhian, B. Pierre, J. Landreau, S. Grosmaire, A. Leroy, "Full-duplex operation of an in-line transceiver emitting at 1.3 μm and receiving at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 32, 473-474 (1996).

H. Nakajima, A. Leroy, B. Pierre, P. Boulet, J. Charil, S. Grosmaire, A. Gloukhian, Y. Raffle, S. Slempkes, F. Mallecot, F. Doukhan, "1.3 μm/1.55 μm in-line transceiver assembly with –27 dBm full-duplex sensitivity," Electron. Lett. 34, 303-304 (1998).

P. M. Charles, P. J. Wiliams, A. K. Wood, R. Ogden, A. C. Carter, "OEICs for WDM transceiver modules fabricated by reactive ion etching on semi-insulating substrates ," Electron. Lett. 28, 1084-1085 (1992).

K.-S. Park, D.-K. Oh, H.-M. Kim, K.-E. Pyun, "Compact photonic integrated circuit chip with low crosstalk for bidirectional transceivers ," Electron. Lett. 34, 79-80 (1998).

ETRI J. (2)

Y.-T. Han, Y.-J. Park, S.-H. Park, J.-U. Shin, D.-J. Kim, C.-H. Park, S.-W. Park, Y.-K. Kwon, D.-J. Lee, W.-Y. Hwang, H.-K. Sung, "A PLC-based optical sub-assembly of triplexer using TFF-attached WDM and PD carriers ," ETRI J. 28, 102-106 (2006).

S. Kim, S. Park, J. Tae Moon, H. Lee, "A low-crosstalk design of 1.25 Gb/s optical triplexer module for FTTH systems," ETRI J. 28, 9-16 (2006).

Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. (1)

M. Yano, K. Yamaguchi, H. Yamashita, "Global optical access systems based on ATM-PON," Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 35, 56-70 (1999).

Furukawa Rev. (1)

M. Iwase, Y. Ishikawa, T. Komatsu, J. Kasahara, N. Hattori, M. Miura, N. Nakamura, K. Odaka, "Optical transceiver modules for gigabit Ethernet PON FTTH system," Furukawa Rev. 8-14 (2005).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Ogawa, "Analysis of mode partition noise in laser transmission-systems," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 849-855 (1982).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (3)

M. Kondow, "A novel material for long wavelength semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 719-730 (1997).

C. W. Tu, W. G. Bi, Y. Ma, J. P. Zhang, L. W. Wang, S. T. Ho, "A novel material for long-wavelength lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 510-513 (1998).

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (3)

Q. Le, S. G. Lee, Y. H. Oh, H. Y. Kang, T. H. Yoo, "A burst-mode receiver for 1.25-Gb/s ethernet PON with AGC and internally created reset signal ," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39, 2379-2388 (2004).

M. Nakamura, Y. Imai, Y. Umeda, J. Endo, Y. J. Akatsu, "1.25-Gb/s burst-mode receiver ICs with quick response for PON systems," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 2680-2688 (2005).

P. Ossieur, D. Verhulst, Y. Martens, W. Chen, J. Bauwelinck, X. Z. Qiu, J. Vandewege, "A 1.25-Gb/s burst-mode receiver for GPON applications," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1180-1189 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (15)

M. Uekawa, H. Sasaki, D. Shimura, K. Kotani, Y. Maeno, T. Takamori, "Surface-mountable silicon microlens for low-cost laser modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 945-947 (2003).

C. Su, L.-K. Chen, K. W. Cheung, "Inherent transmission capacity of burst-mode for optical multiaccess networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 664-667 (1994).

M.-C. Oh, C. Zhang, H.-Y. Lee, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, "Low-loss interconnection between electrooptic and passive polymer waveguides with a vertical taper ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1121-1123 (2002).

H. Kawanishi, "EAM-Integrated DFB laser modules with more than 40-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 954-956 (2001).

H. Nakajima, A. Leroy, J. Charil, "Full-duplex performance of in-line transceivers emitting at 1.3 μm and receiving at 1.55 μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1561-1563 (1996).

K. Kundo, "1.55 μm wavelength-selectable microarray DFB-LD's with monolithically integrated MMI combiner, SOA, and EA-modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 242-244 (2000).

P. V. Studenkov, M. R. Gokhale, S. R. Forrest, "Efficient coupling in integrated twin-waveguide lasers using waveguide tapers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1096-1098 (1999).

S. Saini, F. G. Johnson, D. R. Stone, W. Zhou, H. Shen, M. Dagenais, "A 2 × 2 crosspoint switch fabricated on the passive active resonant coupler (PARC) platform," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 203-205 (2001).

B. Stegmueller, E. Baur, M. Kicherer, "15-GHz modulation performance of integrated DFB laser diode EA modulator with identical multiple-quantum-well double-stack active layer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1647-1649 (2002).

A. Ramdane, "Monolithic integration of InGaAsP-InP strained-layer distributed feedback laser and external modulator by selective quantum-well interdiffusion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1016-1018 (1995).

J. H. Song, J. H. Lim, R. K. Kim, K. S. Lee, K. Y. Kim, J. Cho, D. Han, S. H. Jung, Y. Oh, D. H. Jang, "Bragg grating-assisted WDM filter for integrated optical triplexer transceivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2607-2609 (2005).

X. Li, G.-R. Zhou, N.-N. Feng, W.-P. Huang, "A novel planar waveguide wavelength demultiplexer design for integrated optical triplexer transceiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1214-1216 (2005).

T. Lang, J. J. He, S. He, "Cross-order arrayed waveguide grating design for triplexers in fiber access networks ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 232-234 (2006).

T. Takeuchi, T. Sasaki, M. Hayashi, K. Hamamoto, K. Makita, K. Taguchi, K. Komatsu, "A transceiver PIC for bidirectional optical communication fabricated by bandgap energy controlled selective MOVPE," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 361-363 (1996).

R. Matz, J. G. Bauer, P. Clemens, G. Heise, H. F. Mahlein, W. Metzger, H. Michel, G. Schulte-Roth, "Development of a photonic integrated transceiver chip for WDM transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1327-1329 (1994).

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. (1)

M. Iwase, T. Nomura, A. Izawa, H. Mori, S. Tamura, T. Shirai, T. Kamiya, "Single mode fiber MT-RJ SFF transceiver module using optical subassembly with a new shielded silicon optical bench," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 24, 419-428 (2001).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

T. Kurosaki, "1.3/1.55μm Full-duplex WDM optical transceiver modules for ATM-PON (PDS) system using PLC-hybrid-integration and CMOS-IC technologies," IEICE Trans. Electron. E82-C, 1465-1473 (1999).

Intel Technol. J. (1)

M. Salib, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Alduino, M. Paniccia, "Silicon photonics," Intel Technol. J. 8, 143-160 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (13)

R. Adar, C. H. Henry, C. Dragone, R. C. Kistler, M. A. Milbrodt, "Broad-band array multiplexers made with silica waveguide on silicon," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 212-219 (1993).

T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, K. Kato, "A 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar lightwave circuit for full duplex operation," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1541-1546 (2000).

T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, K. Kato, "Full 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar lightwave circuit for full duplex operation," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1541-1547 (2000).

C. Su, L.-K. Chen, K. W. Cheung, "Theory of burst-mode receiver and its applications in optical multiaccess networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 590-605 (1997).

Y. Ota, R. G. Swartz, "Burst-mode compatible optical receiver with a large dynamic range," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1897-1903 (1990).

Y. Ota, R. G. Swartz, V. D. Archer, "DC-1Gb/s burst-mode compatible receiver for optical bus application," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 244-249 (1992).

C. A. Eldering, "Theoretical determination of sensitivity penalty for burst mode fiber optic receivers ," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 2145-2149 (1993).

P. Menndez-Valdes, "Performance of optical direct receivers using noise corrupted decision threshold," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2202-2214 (1995).

P. Ossieur, X. Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, "Sensitivity penalty calculation for burst-mode receivers using avalanche photodiodes ," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2565-2575 (2003).

J. A. P. Morgado, A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Assessment of laser noise influence on direct-detection transmission system performance ," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 759-768 (2003).

G. P. Agrawal, P. J. Anthony, T. M. Shen, "Dispersion penalty for 1.3-μm lightwave systems with multimode semiconductor-lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 620-625 (1988).

G. D. Brown, "Bandwidth and rise time calculations for digital multimode fiberoptic data links," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 672-678 (1992).

J. L. Gimlett, N. K. Cheung, "Effects of phase-to-intensity noise conversion by multiple reflections on gigabit-per-second DFB laser transmission-systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 888-895 (1989).

NTT Technol. Rev. (1)

Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Hida, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Enomoto, "PLC components used in FTTH access networks," NTT Technol. Rev. 3, 22-26 (2005).

OFC/NFOEC (1)

H. Sasaki, M. Uekawa, Y. Maeno, K. Kotani, D. Shimura, R. Sekikawa, T. Takamori, T. Ori, K. Masuko, Y. Katsuki, "A low-cost micro-BOSA using Si microlens integrated on Si optical bench for PON application ," OFC/NFOEC OWL6/1-OWL6/3 (2006).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. J. S. Bates, D. M. Kuchta, K. P. Jackson, "Improved multimode fiber link BER calculations due to modal noise and non-self-pulsating laser-diodes," Opt. Quantum Electron. 27, 203-224 (1995).

M. C. Nowell, D. G. Cunningham, D. C. Hanson, L. G. Kazovsky, "Evaluation of Gb/s laser based fibre LAN links: Review of the gigabit Ethernet model ," Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 169-192 (2000).

Optical Components and Devices (1)

L. P. Shen, C. L. Xu, W.-P. Huang, "Integrated grating-assisted coarse/dense WDM multiplexers," Optical Components and Devices 5970, Proc. SPIE, 698-706 (2004).

OSA Opt. Express (1)

C. Xu, X. Hong, W.-P. Huang, "Design optimization of integrated BiDi triplexer optical filter based on planar lightwave circuit ," OSA Opt. Express 14, 4675-4686 (2006).

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. J. (1)

P. G. Walker, J. Urquhart, I. Bennion, A. C. Carter, "1.3/1.55 μm Mach–Zehnder wavelength deplexers for integrated optoelectronic transceiver modules," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. J. 127, 33-37 (1990).

Proc. SPIE, Photonic Application in Devices Commun. System. (1)

C. Xu, L. Shen, D. Zhou, W.-P. Huang, J. Hong, "Novel design of bi-directional triplexer based on PLC," Proc. SPIE, Photonic Application in Devices Commun. System. 5970, 154-161 (2005).

SEI Tech. Rev. (1)

H. Nakanishi, "Development of bidirectional 1.3/1.55-μm optical transceiver module compliant with ethernet standard," SEI Tech. Rev. 99-105 (2002).

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T. Haslumoto, A. Kanda, R. Kasalnml, I. Ogawa, Y. Shuto, M. Yanagisawa, A. Ohki, S. Mino, M. Ishui, Y. Suzuki, R. Nagasc, T. Kitagawa, "A bidirectional single fiber 1.25 Gb/s optical transceiver module with SFP package using PLC ," Proc. Electron. Compon. and Technol. Conf. (2003) pp. 279-283.

T. Hashimoto, T. Kitagawa, I. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, "Hybrid integration of active devices on PLC," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper ThLC.

T. Uno, T. Nishikawa, M. Mitsuda, G. Tohmon, Y. Matsui, "Hybridly integrated optical transceiver module for access networks," Proc. Electron. Compon. and Technol. Conf. (1998) pp. 560-569.

H. Nakanishi, "1.25 Gbps single fiber transceivers using low cost polymer straight waveguide for 1.3/1.55- μm data link," Proc. 27th ECOC (2001) pp. 356-357.

Xponent, Inc. Maxim"Reference design," HRFD 10.4: 1244 Mbps/1244 Mbps GPON ONT With Video Overlay (2005).

W. Chen, B. Little, W. Chen, S. Chu, J. Hryniewicz, D. Gill, O. King, F. Johnson, R. Davidson, K. Donovan, J. Gibson, "Compact, low loss chip scale triplexer WDM filter," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper PDP12.

B. E. Little, "A VLSI photonics platform," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (2003) pp. 444-445.

ColorChip Ltd. http://www.color-chip.com/WebForm1.aspx?menu=tc&page=SystemOnGlass .

Enablence Inc. http://www.enablence.com/pdf/pr_02132007_volumeproduction.pdf.

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M. Gunawardena, All Optical Integrated Optics http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~mevan/Research/Optical integrated Circuits.pdf Dept. Elect. Eng., Purdue Univ. Lecturing Material.

F. Mallecot, D. Chaumont, A. Plais, D. Carpentier, E. Derouin, T. Fillion, F. Baborit, F. Doukhan, H. Nakajima, "Record sensitivity, in full-duplex operation of at 155 Mb/s, of a BRS/ridge in-line transmit receive device," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. San JoseCA (1998) Paper ThS5.

Part 3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications Amendment: Media Access Control Parameters, Physical Layers, and Management Parameters for Subscriber Access Networks IEEE Std 802.3ah-2004 (2004).

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J. E. George, "Optical system design considerations for FTTP networks," Proc. FTTH Conf. (2003) pp. 1-10.

J. George, "Designing passive optical networks for cost effective triple play support," Proc. FTTH Conf. (2004) pp. 1-11.

S. Ten, K. M. Ennser, J. M. Grochocinski, S. P. Burtsev, V. L. da Silva, "Comparison of four-wave mixing and cross phase modulation penalties in dense WDM systems ," Proc. Optical Fiber Conf. (1999) pp. 43-45.

Y. Chang, G. Noh, "1.25 Gb/s uplink burst-mode transmissions: System requirements and optical diagnostic challenges of EPON physical-layer chipset for enabling broadband optical Ethernet access networks," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2006) pp. JThB84/1-JThB84/9.

M. Iwase, "Passive alignment optical modules using high precision plastic package and silicon optical bench technologies," Proc. OECC (2002) Paper 10C1-1 134–135.

T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, K. Kato, "Full duplex 1.3/1.55 μm wavelength division multiplexing optical module using a planar lightwave circuit platform," IEEE/LEOS Summer Topic Meeting MontereyCA (1998) Paper TuC4.

D. Shimura, M. Uekawa, R. Sekikawa, K. Kotani, Y. Maeno, H. Sasaki, T. Takamori, "Ultra compact optical subassembly using integrated laser diode and silicon microlens for low-cost optical component," Electronic Components Technology Conf. Las VegasNV (2004) Paper s05P7.

M. Pearson, "PLCs poised to displace bulk-optics in FTTH," Lightwave (2006) http://lw.pennnet.com/articles/article_display.cfm?article_id=249365.

M. Hamacher, H. Heldrich, R. Kaiser, P. Albercht, W. Ebert, S. Malchow, M. Mohrle, W. Rehbein, H. Schroeter-Janßen, R. Stenzel, "Full-duplex WDM-transceiver-PICs," Proc. ECOC (1998) pp. 639-640.

M. Hamacher, H. Heldrich, R. Kaiser, P. Albercht, W. Ebert, S. Malchow, M. Mohrle, W. Rehbein, H. Schroeter-Janßen, R. Stenzel, "Full-duplex WDM-transceiver-PICs," Proc. ECOC (1998) pp. 639-640.

A. Plais, C. Chaumont, F. Mallecot, F. Gaborit, D. Carpentier, J. Jacquet, A. Leroy, J. Charil, H. Nakajima, "Integrated BRS/ridge in-line transmit receive device fabrication using well established III–V material technology," 10th Int. Conf. Indium Phosphide and Relat. Mater. TsukubaJapan (1998) Paper TuP-51.

F. Mallecot, "-31 dBm sensitivity of a monolithic transmitter-receiver device over wide temperature range," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (1999) Paper ThN2.

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