Abstract

For high-bit-rate long-haul fiber optic communications, the avalanche photodiode (APD) is frequently the photodetector of choice owing to its internal gain, which provides a sensitivity margin relative to PIN photodiodes. APDs can achieve 5–10-dB better sensitivity than PINs, provided that the multiplication noise is low and the gain-bandwidth product is sufficiently high. In the past decade, the performance of APDs for optical fiber communication systems has improved as a result of improvements in materials and the development of advanced device structures. This paper presents a brief review of APD fundamentals and describes some of the significant advances.

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  116. S. Demiguel, X.-G. Zheng, N. Li, X. Li, J. C. Campbell, J. Decobert, N. Tscherptner, A. Anselm, "High-responsivity and high-speed evanescently-coupled avalanche photodiodes," Electron. Lett. 39, 1848-1849 (2003).
  117. W. P. Risk, D. S. Bethune, "Quantum cryptography," Opt. Photon. News 13, 26-32 (2002).
  118. S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, F. Zappa, "Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267-1288 (2004).
  119. K. K. Forsyth, J. C. Dries, "Variations in the photon-counting performance of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes," Proc. IEEE LEOS Annu. Conf. (2003) pp. 777.
  120. K. A. McIntosh, J. P. Donnelly, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleon, S. D. Calawa, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, E. K. Duerr, S. H. Groves, D. C. Shaver, "InGaAsP/InP avalanche photodiodes for photon counting at 1.06 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2505-2507 (2002).
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2006 (3)

H.-W. Lee, J. L. Beutler, A. R. Hawkins, "High gain effects for solid-state impact-ionization multipliers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 471-476 (2006).

E. Yagyu, E. Ishimura, M. Nakaji, T. Aoyagi, Y. Tokuda, "Simple planar structure for high-performance AlInAs avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 76-78 (2006).

E. Yagyu, E. Ishimura, M. Nakaji, T. Aoyagi, K. Yoshiara, Y. Tokuda, "Investigation of guardring-free planar AlInAs avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1264-1266 (2006).

2005 (5)

C. Groves, C. K. Chia, R. C. Tozer, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, "Avalanche noise characteristics of single $\hbox{Al}_{\rm x}\hbox{Ga}_{1 - {\rm x}}\hbox{As}(0.3 < \times < 0.6)$-GaAs heterojunction APDs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 70-75 (2005).

N. Duan, S. Wang, F. Ma, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, L. A. Coldren, "High-speed and low-noise SACM avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization engineered multiplication region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1719-1721 (2005).

H.-W. Lee, A. R. Hawkins, "Solid-state current amplifier based on impact ionization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 73 511-1-73 511-3 (2005).

H.-W. Lee, J. L. Beutler, A. R. Hawkins, "Solid-state current amplifier based on impact ionization," Opt. Express 13, 8760-8765 (2005).

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, N. Tscherptner, "Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 777-787 (2005).

2004 (4)

A. L. Beck, B. Yang, S. Wang, C. J. Collins, J. C. Campbell, A. Yulius, A. Chen, J. M. Woodall, "Quasi-direct UV/blue GaP avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1695-1699 (2004).

J. C. Boisvert, A. Masalykin, G. S. Kinsey, T. Isshiki, M. Haddad, R. Sudharsanan, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, "Characterization of InAlAs/InGaAs APD arrays for SWIR imaging applications," Proc. SPIE 5406, 13-20 (2004).

A. Umbach, "High-speed integrated photodetectors for 40 Gb/s applications," Proc. SPIE 5246, 434-442 (2004).

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, F. Zappa, "Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267-1288 (2004).

2003 (7)

S. Demiguel, X.-G. Zheng, N. Li, X. Li, J. C. Campbell, J. Decobert, N. Tscherptner, A. Anselm, "High-responsivity and high-speed evanescently-coupled avalanche photodiodes," Electron. Lett. 39, 1848-1849 (2003).

S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, Jr.J. C. Campbell, "Ultra-low noise avalanche photodiodes with a “centered-well” multiplication region ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 375-378 (2003).

O.-H. Kwon, M. M. Hayat, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, A. L. Holmes, Jr.B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, "Optimal excess noise reduction in thin heterojunction $\hbox{Al}_{0.6} \hbox{Ga}_{0.4}\hbox{As}$-GaAs avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1287-1296 (2003).

N. Li, R. Sidhu, X. Li, F. Ma, X. Zheng, S. Wang, G. Karve, S. Demiguel, A. L. Holmes, Jr.J. C. Campbell, "InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiode with undepleted absorber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2175-2177 (2003).

C. H. Tan, R. Ghin, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, M. Hopkinson, "The effect of dead space on gain and excess noise in $\hbox{In}_{0.48} \hbox{Ga}_{0.52}{\rm P}\ \hbox{p}^{+}\hbox{in}^{+}$ diodes," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 803-806 (2003).

B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, Y. Feng, J. H. Zhao, M. Weiner, "Nonlocal effects in thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 1724-1732 (2003).

F. Ma, X. Li, J. C. Campbell, J. D. Beck, C.-F. Wan, M. A. Kinch, "Monte Carlo simulations of $\hbox{Hg}_{0.7}\hbox{Cd}_{0.3}\hbox{Te}$ avalanche photodiodes and resonance phenomenon in the multiplication noise," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 785-787 (2003).

2002 (11)

Y. Kang, P. Mages, A. R. Clawson, P. K. L. Yu, M. Bitter, Z. Pan, A. Pauchard, S. Hummel, Y. H. Lo, "Fused InGaAs-Si avalanche photodiodes with low-noise performances," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1593-1595 (2002).

X. Li, X. Zheng, S. Wang, F. Ma, J. C. Campbell, "Calculation of gain and noise with dead space for GaAs and $\hbox{Al}_{\rm x} \hbox{Ga}_{1 - {\rm x}}\hbox{As}$ avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 1112-1117 (2002).

B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Riley, "Avalanche multiplication and breakdown in $\hbox{Al}_{\rm x}\hbox{Ga}_{1 - {\rm x}}\hbox{As}\ ({\rm x} < 0.9)$," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 2349-2351 (2002).

J. Wei, J. C. Dries, H. Wang, M. L. Lange, G. H. Olsen, S. R. Forrest, "Optimization of 10-Gb/s long-wavelength floating guard ring InGaAs-InP avalanche photodiodes ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 977-979 (2002).

M. M. Hayat, O.-H. Kwon, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, "Boundary effects on multiplication noise in thin heterostructure avalanche photodiodes: Theory and experiment," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 2114-2123 (2002).

S. Wang, J. B. Hurst, F. Ma, R. Sidhu, X. Sun, X. G. Zheng, A. L. Holmes, Jr.J. C. Campbell, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, "Low-noise impact-ionization-engineered avalanche photodiodes grown on InP substrates ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1722-1724 (2002).

W. P. Risk, D. S. Bethune, "Quantum cryptography," Opt. Photon. News 13, 26-32 (2002).

J. Wei, F. Xia, S. R. Forrest, "A high-responsivity high-bandwidth asymmetric twin-waveguide coupled InGaAs-InP-InAlAs avalanche photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1590-1592 (2002).

K. A. McIntosh, J. P. Donnelly, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleon, S. D. Calawa, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, E. K. Duerr, S. H. Groves, D. C. Shaver, "InGaAsP/InP avalanche photodiodes for photon counting at 1.06 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2505-2507 (2002).

S. Demiguel, L. Giraudet, L. Joulaud, J. Decobert, F. Blache, V. Coupé, F. Jorge, P. Pagnod-Rossiaux, E. Boucherez, M. Achouche, F. Devaux, "Evanescently coupled photodiodes integrating a double stage taper for 40 Gb/s applications—Compared performance with side-illuminated photodiodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2004-2014 (2002).

M. M. Hayat, O.-H. Kwon, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, "Boundary effects on multiplication noise in thin heterostructure avalanche photodiodes ," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 2114-2123 (2002).

2001 (8)

F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, S. R. Forrest, "An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 845-847 (2001).

G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Campbell, A. G. Dentai, "Waveguide avalanche photodiode operating at 1.55 μm with a gain-bandwidth product of 320 GHz," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 842-844 (2001).

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, Jr.J. C. Campbell, "Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1346-1348 (2001).

X. G. Zheng, X. Sun, S. Wang, P. Yuan, G. S. Kinsey, A. L. Holmes, Jr.B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, "Multiplication noise of $\hbox{Al}_{\rm x}\hbox{Ga}_{1 - {\rm x}}\hbox{As}$ avalanche photodiodes with high Al concentration and thin multiplication region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3833-3835 (2001).

B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, M. Hopkinson, G. Hill, G. H. Rees, "Excess noise characteristics of $\hbox{Al}_{0.8}\hbox{Ga}_{0.2}\hbox{As}$ avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 2198-2204 (2001).

C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, R. Grey, "Low multiplication noise thin $\hbox{Al}_{0.6}\hbox{Ga}_{0.4}\hbox{As}$ avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 1310-1317 (2001).

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. O. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. Saleh, M. Teich, "Impact-ionization and noise characteristics of thin III–V avalanche photodiodes ," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 2722-2731 (2001).

B. Jacob, P. N. Robson, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, "Fokker-Planck model for nonlocal impact ionization in semiconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1314-1317 (2001).

2000 (11)

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, Jr.B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, "Impact ionization characteristics of III–V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 198-204 (2000).

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, K. Y. Chang, J. S. Roberts, "Avalanche noise characteristics of thin GaAs structures with distributed carrier generation ," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 910-914 (2000).

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, J. Newey, "Avalanche noise measurements in thin Si $\hbox{p}^{+}\hbox{-}\hbox{i}\hbox{-} \hbox{n}^{+}$ diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3926-3928 (2000).

S. R. Cho, S. K. Yang, J. S. Ma, S. D. Lee, J. S. Yu, A. G. Choo, T. I. Kim, J. Burm, "Suppression of avalanche multiplication at the periphery of diffused junction by floating guard rings in a planar In-GaAs-InP avalanche photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 534-536 (2000).

X. G. Zheng, P. Yuan, X. Sun, G. S. Kinsey, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, "Temperature dependence of the ionization coefficients of $\hbox{Al}_{\rm x} \hbox{Ga}_{1 - {\rm x}}\hbox{As}$," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1168-1173 (2000).

G. S. Kinsey, D. W. Gotthold, A. L. Holmes, Jr.J. C. Campbell, "GaNAs resonant-cavity avalanche photodiode operating at 1.064 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1543-1544 (2000).

P. Yuan, S. Wang, X. Sun, X. G. Zheng, A. L. Holmes, Jr.J. C. Campbell, "Avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1370-1372 (2000).

S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. Grey, G. J. Rees, "Avalanche multiplication in $\hbox{Al}_{\rm x}\hbox{Ga}_{1 - {\rm x}}\hbox{As}\ ({\rm x} = 0 - 0.6)$," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 1089-1097 (2000).

B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, M. Hopkinson, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, "Impact ionization coefficients of $\hbox{Al}_{0.8}\hbox{Ga}_{0.2}\hbox{As}$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4374-4376 (2000).

T. Nakata, G. Takeuchi, I. Watanabe, K. Makita, T. Torikai, "10 Gb/s high sensitivity, low-voltage-operation avalanche photodiodes with thin InAlAs multiplication layer and waveguide structure," Electron. Lett. 36, 2033-2034 (2000).

T. Takeuchi, T. Nakata, K. Makita, M. Yamaguchi, "High-speed, high-power and high-efficiency photodiodes with evanescently coupled graded-index waveguide," Electron. Lett. 36, 972-973 (2000).

1999 (4)

C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Holmes, Jr.B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, "Resonant-cavity InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1162-1164 (1999).

S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, D. S. Ong, K. F. Li, "A simple model including the effects of dead space," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 769-775 (1999).

K. F. Li, S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, P. N. Robson, C. C. Button, J. C. Clark, "Low avalanche noise characteristics in thin InP $\hbox{p}^{+}\hbox{-}\hbox{i} \hbox{-}\hbox{n}^{+}$ diodes with electron initiated multiplication," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 364-366 (1999).

R. J. McIntyre, "A new look at impact ionization—Part 1: A theory of gain, noise, breakdown probability and frequency response," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 1623-1631 (1999).

1998 (4)

D. S. Ong, K. F. Li, G. J. Rees, G. M. Dunn, J. P. R. David, P. N. Robson, "A Monte Carlo investigation of multiplication noise in thin $\hbox{p}^{+} \hbox{in}^{+}$ avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 45, 1804-1810 (1998).

C. Lenox, P. Yuan, H. Nie, O. Baklenov, C. Hansing, J. C. Campbell, B. G. Streetman, "Thin multiplication region InAlAs homojunction avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 783-784 (1998).

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, P. N. Robson, R. Grey, "Avalanche multiplication noise characteristics in thin GaAs $\hbox{p}^{+} \hbox{-}\hbox{i}\hbox{-}\hbox{n}^{+}$ diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 45, 2102-2107 (1998).

G. Hasnain, W. G. Bi, S. Song, J. T. Anderson, N. Moll, C.-Y. Su, J. N. Hollenhorst, N. D. Baynes, I. Athroll, S. Amos, R. M. Ash, "Buried-mesa avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2321-2326 (1998).

1997 (4)

S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. Grey, D. C. Herbert, D. R. Wright, A. W. Higgs, "Impact ionization in thin $\hbox{Al}_{\rm x}\hbox{Ga}_{1 - {\rm x}}\hbox{As}$ $({\rm x} = 0.15 - 0.30)$ p-i-n diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1231-1235 (1997).

G. M. Dunn, G. J. Rees, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, D. C. Herbert, "Monte Carlo simulation of impact ionization and current multiplication in short GaAs $\hbox{p}^{+}\hbox{in}^{+}$ diodes," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12, 111-120 (1997).

C. Cohen-Jonathan, L. Giraudet, A. Bonzo, J. P. Praseuth, "Waveguide AlInAs/GaAlInAs avalanche photodiode with a gain-bandwidth product over 160 GHz ," Electron. Lett. 33, 1492-1493 (1997).

I. Watanabe, T. Nakata, M. Tsuji, K. Makita, K. Taguchi, "High-reliability and low-dark-current 10-Gb/s planar superlattice avalanche photodiodes ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1619-1621 (1997).

1996 (5)

A. Spinelli, A. L. Lacaita, "Mean gain of avalanche photodiodes in a dead space model," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 43, 23-30 (1996).

A. R. Hawkins, T. E. Reynolds, D. R. England, D. I. Babic, M. J. Mondry, K. Streubel, J. E. Bowers, "Silicon heterointerface photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3692-3694 (1996).

C. Hu, K. A. Anselm, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, "Noise characteristics of thin multiplication region GaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3734-3736 (1996).

S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, D. C. Herbert, T.-W. Lee, G. J. Rees, P. A. Houston, R. Grey, P. N. Robson, A. W. Higgs, D. R. Wight, "Investigation of impact ionization in thin GaAs diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 43, 1066-1072 (1996).

I. Watanabe, M. Tsuji, K. Makita, K. Taguchi, "A new planar-structure InAlGaAs-InAlAs superlattice avalanche photodiode with a Ti-implanted guard-ring," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 827-829 (1996).

1995 (2)

L. E. Tarof, R. Bruce, D. G. Knight, J. Yu, H. B. Kim, T. Baird, "Planar InP-InGaAs single growth avalanche photodiodes with no guard rings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1330-1332 (1995).

C. Y. Park, K. S. Hyun, S. K. Kang, M. K. Song, T. Y. Yoon, H. M. Kim, H. M. Park, S.-C. Park, Y. H. Lee, C. Lee, J. B. Yoo, "High-performance InGaAs/InP photodiode for 2.5 Gb/s optical receiver," Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 553-559 (1995).

1992 (3)

Y. Liu, S. R. Forrest, J. Hladky, M. J. Lange, G. H. Olsen, D. E. Ackly, "A planar InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiode with floating guard ring and double diffused junction ," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 182-193 (1992).

M. M. Hayat, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, "Effect of dead space on gain and noise of double-carrier multiplication avalanche photodiodes ," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 39, 546-552 (1992).

K. Kato, S. Hata, K. Kawano, J.-I. Yoshida, A. Kozen, "A high-efficiency 50 GHz InGaAs multimode waveguide photodetector," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2728-2735 (1992).

1991 (1)

H. Kuwatsuka, Y. Kito, T. Uchida, T. Mikawa, "High-speed InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes with a compositionally graded quaternary layer ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1113-1114 (1991).

1990 (3)

L. E. Tarof, "Planar InP-InGaAs avalanche photodetectors with n- multiplication layer exhibiting a very high gain-bandwidth product," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 643-646 (1990).

L. E. Tarof, D. G. Knight, K. E. Fox, C. J. Miner, N. Puetz, H. B. Kim, "Planar InPAnGaAs avalanche photodiodes with partial charge sheet in device periphery ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 670-672 (1990).

I. Watanabe, T. Torikai, K. Makita, K. Fukushima, T. Uji, "Impact ionization rates in (100) $\hbox{Al}_{0.48}\hbox{In}_{0.52}\hbox{As}$ ," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 11, 437-438 (1990).

1989 (1)

J. C. Campbell, S. Chandrasekhar, W. T. Tsang, G. J. Qua, B. C. Johnson, "Multiplication noise of wide-bandwidth InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 473-478 (1989).

1988 (3)

F. R. Bacher, J. S. Blakemore, J. T. Ebner, J. R. Arthur, "Optical-absorption coefficient of $\hbox{In}_{1 - {\rm x}}\hbox{Ga}_{\rm x} \hbox{As/InP}$," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 37, 2551-2557 (1988).

K. Taguchi, T. Torikai, Y. Sugimoto, K. Makita, H. Ishihara, "Planar-structure InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes with preferential lateral extended guard ring for 1.0–1.6 μm wavelength optical communication use ," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1643-1655 (1988).

V. M. Robbins, S. C. Smith, G. E. Stillman, "Impact ionization in $\hbox{Al}_{\rm x}\hbox{Ga}_{1 - {\rm x}}\hbox{As}$ for ${\rm x} = 0 - 0.4$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 296-298 (1988).

1987 (1)

B. L. Kasper, J. C. Campbell, "Multigigabit-per-second avalanche photodiode lightwave receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 1351-1364 (1987).

1985 (1)

D. A. Humphreys, R. J. King, "Measurement of absorption coefficients of $\hbox{Ga}_{0.47}\hbox{In}_{0.53} \hbox{As}$ over the wavelength range 1.0–1.7 μm," Electron. Lett. 21, 1187-1189 (1985).

1984 (3)

Y. Matsushima, Y. Noda, Y. Kushiro, N. Seki, S. Akiba, "High sensitivity of VPE-grown InGaAs/InP-heterostructure APD with buffer layer and guard-ring structure," Electron. Lett. 20, 235-236 (1984).

F. Capasso, H. M. Cox, A. I. Hutchinson, N. A. Olson, S. G. Hummel, "Pseudo-quaternary GaInAsP semiconductors: A new $\hbox{Ga}_{0.47} \hbox{In}_{0.53}\hbox{As}/\hbox{InP}$ graded gap superlattice and its applications to avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1193-1195 (1984).

F. Capasso, A. Y. Cho, P. W. Foy, "Low-dark-current low-voltage 1.3–1.6 μm avalanche photodiode with high-low electric field profile and separate absorption and multiplication regions by molecular beam epitaxy," Electron. Lett. 20, 635-637 (1984).

1983 (2)

J. C. Campbell, A. G. Dentai, W. S. Holden, B. L. Kasper, "High-performance avalanche photodiode with separate absorption, grading, and multiplication regions," Electron. Lett. 18, 818-820 (1983).

C. A. Amiento, S. H. Groves, "Impact ionization in (100)-, (110)-, and (111)- oriented InP avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 333-335 (1983).

1982 (4)

L. W. Cook, G. E. Bulman, G. E. Stillman, "Electron and hole ionization coefficients in InP determined by photomultiplication measurements ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 589-591 (1982).

Y. Matsushima, A. Akiba, K. Sakai, K. Kushirn, Y. Node, K. Utaka, "High-speed response InGaAs/InP heterostructure avalanche photodiode with InGaAsP buffer layers ," Electron. Lett. 18, 945-946 (1982).

S. R. Forrest, O. K. Kim, R. G. Smith, "Optical response time of $\hbox{In}_{0.53}\hbox{Ga}_{0.47}\hbox{As}$ avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 95-98 (1982).

F. Capasso, W. T. Tsang, A. L. Hutchinson, G. F. Williams, "Enhancement of electron impact ionization in a superlattice: A new avalanche photodiode with a large ionization rate ratio," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 38-40 (1982).

1980 (3)

R. Chin, N. Holonyak, Jr.G. E. Stillman, J. Y. Tang, K. Hess, "Impact ionization in multilayered heterojunction structures," Electron. Lett. 16, 467-469 (1980).

S. R. Forrest, M. DiDomenico, Jr.R. G. Smith, H. J. Stocker, "Evidence of tunneling in reverse-bias III–V photodetector diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 580-582 (1980).

H. Ando, H. Kaaba, M. Ito, T. Kaneda, "Tunneling current in InGaAs and optimum design for InGaAs/InP avalanche photo-diodes ," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, L277-L280 (1980).

1979 (1)

K. Nishida, K. Taguchi, Y. Matsumoto, "InGaAsP heterojunction avalanche photodiodes with high avalanche gain," Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 251-253 (1979).

1978 (1)

H. Melchior, A. R. Hartman, D. P. Schinke, T. E. Seidel, "Planar epitaxial silicon avalanche photodiode," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 1791-1807 (1978).

1976 (1)

T. Kaneda, H. Matsumoto, T. Yamaoka, "A model for reach-through avalanche photodiodes (RAPD's)," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3135-3139 (1976).

1974 (1)

Y. Okuto, C. R. Crowell, "Ionization coefficients in semiconductors: A nonlocalized property," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 10, 4284-4296 (1974).

1973 (2)

W. N. Grant, "Electron and hole ionization rates in epitaxial silicon at high electric fields," Solid State Electron. 16, 1189-1203 (1973).

S. D. Personick, "Receiver design for digital fiber-optic communication systems, Parts I and II," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 843-886 (1973).

1972 (2)

R. J. McIntyre, "The distribution of gains in uniformly multiplying avalanche photodiodes: Theory," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-19, 703-713 (1972).

J. Conradi, "The distributions of gains in uniformly multiplying avalanche photodiodes: Experimental ," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-19, 713-718 (1972).

1967 (2)

R. B. Emmons, "Avalanche-photodiode frequency response," J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3705-3714 (1967).

H. W. Ruegg, "An optimized avalanche photodiode," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-14, 239-251 (1967).

1966 (1)

R. J. McIntyre, "Multiplication noise in uniform avalanche diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-13, 164-168 (1966).

1964 (1)

C. A. Lee, R. A. Logan, R. L. Batdorf, J. J. Kleimack, W. Weigmann, "Ionization rates of holes and electrons in silicon," Phys. Rev. 134, A761-A773 (1964).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (20)

K. Nishida, K. Taguchi, Y. Matsumoto, "InGaAsP heterojunction avalanche photodiodes with high avalanche gain," Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 251-253 (1979).

S. R. Forrest, O. K. Kim, R. G. Smith, "Optical response time of $\hbox{In}_{0.53}\hbox{Ga}_{0.47}\hbox{As}$ avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 95-98 (1982).

F. Capasso, H. M. Cox, A. I. Hutchinson, N. A. Olson, S. G. Hummel, "Pseudo-quaternary GaInAsP semiconductors: A new $\hbox{Ga}_{0.47} \hbox{In}_{0.53}\hbox{As}/\hbox{InP}$ graded gap superlattice and its applications to avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1193-1195 (1984).

S. R. Forrest, M. DiDomenico, Jr.R. G. Smith, H. J. Stocker, "Evidence of tunneling in reverse-bias III–V photodetector diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 580-582 (1980).

L. E. Tarof, D. G. Knight, K. E. Fox, C. J. Miner, N. Puetz, H. B. Kim, "Planar InPAnGaAs avalanche photodiodes with partial charge sheet in device periphery ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 670-672 (1990).

C. A. Amiento, S. H. Groves, "Impact ionization in (100)-, (110)-, and (111)- oriented InP avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 333-335 (1983).

L. W. Cook, G. E. Bulman, G. E. Stillman, "Electron and hole ionization coefficients in InP determined by photomultiplication measurements ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 589-591 (1982).

F. Ma, X. Li, J. C. Campbell, J. D. Beck, C.-F. Wan, M. A. Kinch, "Monte Carlo simulations of $\hbox{Hg}_{0.7}\hbox{Cd}_{0.3}\hbox{Te}$ avalanche photodiodes and resonance phenomenon in the multiplication noise," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 785-787 (2003).

A. R. Hawkins, T. E. Reynolds, D. R. England, D. I. Babic, M. J. Mondry, K. Streubel, J. E. Bowers, "Silicon heterointerface photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3692-3694 (1996).

H.-W. Lee, A. R. Hawkins, "Solid-state current amplifier based on impact ionization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 73 511-1-73 511-3 (2005).

C. Hu, K. A. Anselm, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, "Noise characteristics of thin multiplication region GaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3734-3736 (1996).

C. Lenox, P. Yuan, H. Nie, O. Baklenov, C. Hansing, J. C. Campbell, B. G. Streetman, "Thin multiplication region InAlAs homojunction avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 783-784 (1998).

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, J. Newey, "Avalanche noise measurements in thin Si $\hbox{p}^{+}\hbox{-}\hbox{i}\hbox{-} \hbox{n}^{+}$ diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3926-3928 (2000).

N. Li, R. Sidhu, X. Li, F. Ma, X. Zheng, S. Wang, G. Karve, S. Demiguel, A. L. Holmes, Jr.J. C. Campbell, "InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiode with undepleted absorber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2175-2177 (2003).

V. M. Robbins, S. C. Smith, G. E. Stillman, "Impact ionization in $\hbox{Al}_{\rm x}\hbox{Ga}_{1 - {\rm x}}\hbox{As}$ for ${\rm x} = 0 - 0.4$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 296-298 (1988).

B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, M. Hopkinson, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, "Impact ionization coefficients of $\hbox{Al}_{0.8}\hbox{Ga}_{0.2}\hbox{As}$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4374-4376 (2000).

X. G. Zheng, X. Sun, S. Wang, P. Yuan, G. S. Kinsey, A. L. Holmes, Jr.B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, "Multiplication noise of $\hbox{Al}_{\rm x}\hbox{Ga}_{1 - {\rm x}}\hbox{As}$ avalanche photodiodes with high Al concentration and thin multiplication region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3833-3835 (2001).

G. S. Kinsey, D. W. Gotthold, A. L. Holmes, Jr.J. C. Campbell, "GaNAs resonant-cavity avalanche photodiode operating at 1.064 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1543-1544 (2000).

F. Capasso, W. T. Tsang, A. L. Hutchinson, G. F. Williams, "Enhancement of electron impact ionization in a superlattice: A new avalanche photodiode with a large ionization rate ratio," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 38-40 (1982).

K. A. McIntosh, J. P. Donnelly, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleon, S. D. Calawa, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, E. K. Duerr, S. H. Groves, D. C. Shaver, "InGaAsP/InP avalanche photodiodes for photon counting at 1.06 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2505-2507 (2002).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (2)

S. D. Personick, "Receiver design for digital fiber-optic communication systems, Parts I and II," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 843-886 (1973).

H. Melchior, A. R. Hartman, D. P. Schinke, T. E. Seidel, "Planar epitaxial silicon avalanche photodiode," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 1791-1807 (1978).

Electron. Lett. (10)

J. C. Campbell, A. G. Dentai, W. S. Holden, B. L. Kasper, "High-performance avalanche photodiode with separate absorption, grading, and multiplication regions," Electron. Lett. 18, 818-820 (1983).

Y. Matsushima, A. Akiba, K. Sakai, K. Kushirn, Y. Node, K. Utaka, "High-speed response InGaAs/InP heterostructure avalanche photodiode with InGaAsP buffer layers ," Electron. Lett. 18, 945-946 (1982).

F. Capasso, A. Y. Cho, P. W. Foy, "Low-dark-current low-voltage 1.3–1.6 μm avalanche photodiode with high-low electric field profile and separate absorption and multiplication regions by molecular beam epitaxy," Electron. Lett. 20, 635-637 (1984).

D. A. Humphreys, R. J. King, "Measurement of absorption coefficients of $\hbox{Ga}_{0.47}\hbox{In}_{0.53} \hbox{As}$ over the wavelength range 1.0–1.7 μm," Electron. Lett. 21, 1187-1189 (1985).

Y. Matsushima, Y. Noda, Y. Kushiro, N. Seki, S. Akiba, "High sensitivity of VPE-grown InGaAs/InP-heterostructure APD with buffer layer and guard-ring structure," Electron. Lett. 20, 235-236 (1984).

S. Demiguel, X.-G. Zheng, N. Li, X. Li, J. C. Campbell, J. Decobert, N. Tscherptner, A. Anselm, "High-responsivity and high-speed evanescently-coupled avalanche photodiodes," Electron. Lett. 39, 1848-1849 (2003).

R. Chin, N. Holonyak, Jr.G. E. Stillman, J. Y. Tang, K. Hess, "Impact ionization in multilayered heterojunction structures," Electron. Lett. 16, 467-469 (1980).

T. Takeuchi, T. Nakata, K. Makita, M. Yamaguchi, "High-speed, high-power and high-efficiency photodiodes with evanescently coupled graded-index waveguide," Electron. Lett. 36, 972-973 (2000).

C. Cohen-Jonathan, L. Giraudet, A. Bonzo, J. P. Praseuth, "Waveguide AlInAs/GaAlInAs avalanche photodiode with a gain-bandwidth product over 160 GHz ," Electron. Lett. 33, 1492-1493 (1997).

T. Nakata, G. Takeuchi, I. Watanabe, K. Makita, T. Torikai, "10 Gb/s high sensitivity, low-voltage-operation avalanche photodiodes with thin InAlAs multiplication layer and waveguide structure," Electron. Lett. 36, 2033-2034 (2000).

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

I. Watanabe, T. Torikai, K. Makita, K. Fukushima, T. Uji, "Impact ionization rates in (100) $\hbox{Al}_{0.48}\hbox{In}_{0.52}\hbox{As}$ ," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 11, 437-438 (1990).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (9)

A. L. Beck, B. Yang, S. Wang, C. J. Collins, J. C. Campbell, A. Yulius, A. Chen, J. M. Woodall, "Quasi-direct UV/blue GaP avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1695-1699 (2004).

X. G. Zheng, P. Yuan, X. Sun, G. S. Kinsey, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, "Temperature dependence of the ionization coefficients of $\hbox{Al}_{\rm x} \hbox{Ga}_{1 - {\rm x}}\hbox{As}$," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1168-1173 (2000).

O.-H. Kwon, M. M. Hayat, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, A. L. Holmes, Jr.B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, "Optimal excess noise reduction in thin heterojunction $\hbox{Al}_{0.6} \hbox{Ga}_{0.4}\hbox{As}$-GaAs avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1287-1296 (2003).

C. Groves, C. K. Chia, R. C. Tozer, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, "Avalanche noise characteristics of single $\hbox{Al}_{\rm x}\hbox{Ga}_{1 - {\rm x}}\hbox{As}(0.3 < \times < 0.6)$-GaAs heterojunction APDs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 70-75 (2005).

S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, Jr.J. C. Campbell, "Ultra-low noise avalanche photodiodes with a “centered-well” multiplication region ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 375-378 (2003).

K. Kato, S. Hata, K. Kawano, J.-I. Yoshida, A. Kozen, "A high-efficiency 50 GHz InGaAs multimode waveguide photodetector," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2728-2735 (1992).

G. Hasnain, W. G. Bi, S. Song, J. T. Anderson, N. Moll, C.-Y. Su, J. N. Hollenhorst, N. D. Baynes, I. Athroll, S. Amos, R. M. Ash, "Buried-mesa avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2321-2326 (1998).

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, Jr.B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, "Impact ionization characteristics of III–V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 198-204 (2000).

H.-W. Lee, J. L. Beutler, A. R. Hawkins, "High gain effects for solid-state impact-ionization multipliers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 471-476 (2006).

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K. F. Li, S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, P. N. Robson, C. C. Button, J. C. Clark, "Low avalanche noise characteristics in thin InP $\hbox{p}^{+}\hbox{-}\hbox{i} \hbox{-}\hbox{n}^{+}$ diodes with electron initiated multiplication," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 364-366 (1999).

L. E. Tarof, R. Bruce, D. G. Knight, J. Yu, H. B. Kim, T. Baird, "Planar InP-InGaAs single growth avalanche photodiodes with no guard rings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1330-1332 (1995).

S. R. Cho, S. K. Yang, J. S. Ma, S. D. Lee, J. S. Yu, A. G. Choo, T. I. Kim, J. Burm, "Suppression of avalanche multiplication at the periphery of diffused junction by floating guard rings in a planar In-GaAs-InP avalanche photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 534-536 (2000).

J. Wei, J. C. Dries, H. Wang, M. L. Lange, G. H. Olsen, S. R. Forrest, "Optimization of 10-Gb/s long-wavelength floating guard ring InGaAs-InP avalanche photodiodes ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 977-979 (2002).

L. E. Tarof, "Planar InP-InGaAs avalanche photodetectors with n- multiplication layer exhibiting a very high gain-bandwidth product," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 643-646 (1990).

H. Kuwatsuka, Y. Kito, T. Uchida, T. Mikawa, "High-speed InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes with a compositionally graded quaternary layer ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1113-1114 (1991).

F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, S. R. Forrest, "An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 845-847 (2001).

G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Campbell, A. G. Dentai, "Waveguide avalanche photodiode operating at 1.55 μm with a gain-bandwidth product of 320 GHz," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 842-844 (2001).

J. Wei, F. Xia, S. R. Forrest, "A high-responsivity high-bandwidth asymmetric twin-waveguide coupled InGaAs-InP-InAlAs avalanche photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1590-1592 (2002).

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, Jr.J. C. Campbell, "Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1346-1348 (2001).

P. Yuan, S. Wang, X. Sun, X. G. Zheng, A. L. Holmes, Jr.J. C. Campbell, "Avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1370-1372 (2000).

S. Wang, J. B. Hurst, F. Ma, R. Sidhu, X. Sun, X. G. Zheng, A. L. Holmes, Jr.J. C. Campbell, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, "Low-noise impact-ionization-engineered avalanche photodiodes grown on InP substrates ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1722-1724 (2002).

N. Duan, S. Wang, F. Ma, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, L. A. Coldren, "High-speed and low-noise SACM avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization engineered multiplication region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1719-1721 (2005).

C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Holmes, Jr.B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, "Resonant-cavity InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1162-1164 (1999).

I. Watanabe, M. Tsuji, K. Makita, K. Taguchi, "A new planar-structure InAlGaAs-InAlAs superlattice avalanche photodiode with a Ti-implanted guard-ring," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 827-829 (1996).

I. Watanabe, T. Nakata, M. Tsuji, K. Makita, K. Taguchi, "High-reliability and low-dark-current 10-Gb/s planar superlattice avalanche photodiodes ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1619-1621 (1997).

E. Yagyu, E. Ishimura, M. Nakaji, T. Aoyagi, Y. Tokuda, "Simple planar structure for high-performance AlInAs avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 76-78 (2006).

E. Yagyu, E. Ishimura, M. Nakaji, T. Aoyagi, K. Yoshiara, Y. Tokuda, "Investigation of guardring-free planar AlInAs avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1264-1266 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (21)

S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. Grey, G. J. Rees, "Avalanche multiplication in $\hbox{Al}_{\rm x}\hbox{Ga}_{1 - {\rm x}}\hbox{As}\ ({\rm x} = 0 - 0.6)$," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 1089-1097 (2000).

B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Riley, "Avalanche multiplication and breakdown in $\hbox{Al}_{\rm x}\hbox{Ga}_{1 - {\rm x}}\hbox{As}\ ({\rm x} < 0.9)$," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 2349-2351 (2002).

B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, M. Hopkinson, G. Hill, G. H. Rees, "Excess noise characteristics of $\hbox{Al}_{0.8}\hbox{Ga}_{0.2}\hbox{As}$ avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 2198-2204 (2001).

C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, R. Grey, "Low multiplication noise thin $\hbox{Al}_{0.6}\hbox{Ga}_{0.4}\hbox{As}$ avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 1310-1317 (2001).

B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, Y. Feng, J. H. Zhao, M. Weiner, "Nonlocal effects in thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 1724-1732 (2003).

M. M. Hayat, O.-H. Kwon, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, "Boundary effects on multiplication noise in thin heterostructure avalanche photodiodes ," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 2114-2123 (2002).

M. M. Hayat, O.-H. Kwon, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, "Boundary effects on multiplication noise in thin heterostructure avalanche photodiodes: Theory and experiment," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 2114-2123 (2002).

H. W. Ruegg, "An optimized avalanche photodiode," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-14, 239-251 (1967).

R. J. McIntyre, "Multiplication noise in uniform avalanche diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-13, 164-168 (1966).

R. J. McIntyre, "The distribution of gains in uniformly multiplying avalanche photodiodes: Theory," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-19, 703-713 (1972).

S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, D. C. Herbert, T.-W. Lee, G. J. Rees, P. A. Houston, R. Grey, P. N. Robson, A. W. Higgs, D. R. Wight, "Investigation of impact ionization in thin GaAs diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 43, 1066-1072 (1996).

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. O. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. Saleh, M. Teich, "Impact-ionization and noise characteristics of thin III–V avalanche photodiodes ," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 2722-2731 (2001).

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, K. Y. Chang, J. S. Roberts, "Avalanche noise characteristics of thin GaAs structures with distributed carrier generation ," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 910-914 (2000).

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, P. N. Robson, R. Grey, "Avalanche multiplication noise characteristics in thin GaAs $\hbox{p}^{+} \hbox{-}\hbox{i}\hbox{-}\hbox{n}^{+}$ diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 45, 2102-2107 (1998).

A. Spinelli, A. L. Lacaita, "Mean gain of avalanche photodiodes in a dead space model," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 43, 23-30 (1996).

D. S. Ong, K. F. Li, G. J. Rees, G. M. Dunn, J. P. R. David, P. N. Robson, "A Monte Carlo investigation of multiplication noise in thin $\hbox{p}^{+} \hbox{in}^{+}$ avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 45, 1804-1810 (1998).

S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, D. S. Ong, K. F. Li, "A simple model including the effects of dead space," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 769-775 (1999).

J. Conradi, "The distributions of gains in uniformly multiplying avalanche photodiodes: Experimental ," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-19, 713-718 (1972).

M. M. Hayat, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, "Effect of dead space on gain and noise of double-carrier multiplication avalanche photodiodes ," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 39, 546-552 (1992).

R. J. McIntyre, "A new look at impact ionization—Part 1: A theory of gain, noise, breakdown probability and frequency response," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 1623-1631 (1999).

X. Li, X. Zheng, S. Wang, F. Ma, J. C. Campbell, "Calculation of gain and noise with dead space for GaAs and $\hbox{Al}_{\rm x} \hbox{Ga}_{1 - {\rm x}}\hbox{As}$ avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 1112-1117 (2002).

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

B. Jacob, P. N. Robson, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, "Fokker-Planck model for nonlocal impact ionization in semiconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1314-1317 (2001).

T. Kaneda, H. Matsumoto, T. Yamaoka, "A model for reach-through avalanche photodiodes (RAPD's)," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3135-3139 (1976).

R. B. Emmons, "Avalanche-photodiode frequency response," J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3705-3714 (1967).

S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. Grey, D. C. Herbert, D. R. Wright, A. W. Higgs, "Impact ionization in thin $\hbox{Al}_{\rm x}\hbox{Ga}_{1 - {\rm x}}\hbox{As}$ $({\rm x} = 0.15 - 0.30)$ p-i-n diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1231-1235 (1997).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

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