Abstract

A highly versatile synthesis method for the design of a variety of tunable optical waveguide filters with independently variable bandwidths and tunable center frequencies and arbitrary infinite impulse response (IIR) characteristics is presented. The synthesized Mth-order tunable optical filter consists of the concatenation of M all-pole filters (APFs) with M all-zero filters (AZFs). The bandwidth and the center frequency of the designed tunable optical filter can be independently tuned by applying electric power to thin-film heaters loaded on the waveguides of both APFs and AZFs. One unique advantage of the proposed synthesis technique is that the poles and zeros of the filter can be adjusted independent of each other to enable the design of tunable optical filters with arbitrary IIR characteristics. By means of computer simulation, the effectiveness of the synthesis method is demonstrated with the design of second-order Butterworth bandpass and bandstop tunable optical filters with variable bandwidths and tunable center frequencies. To study the effects of fabrication tolerances on filter performances, the maximum allowable deviations of filter parameters from their designed values are also determined. The proposed synthesis method is general and flexible enough to enable the design of a variety of tunable optical filters with arbitrary IIR characteristics, which include Chebyshev and elliptic filter types.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. N. Q. Ngo and L. N. Binh, "Novel realization of monotonic Butterworth-type lowpass, highpass and bandpass optical filters using phase-modulated fiber-optic interferometers and ring resonators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 827-841, May 1994.
  2. K. Jinguji, "Synthesis of coherent two-port optical delay-line circuit with ring waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1882-1898, Aug. 1996.
  3. C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 1999.
  4. A. Rostami and G. Rostami, "All-optical implementation of tunable low-pass, high-pass and bandpass optical filters using ring resonators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 446-460, Jan. 2005.
  5. A. V. Oppenheim and R. W. Schafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1989.
  6. A. A. M. Saleh and J. Stone, "Two-stage Fabry-Pérot filters as demultiplexers in optical FDMA LAN's", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 323-330, Feb. 1989.
  7. K. Oda, S. Suzuki, H. Takahashi and H. Toba, "An optical FDM distribution experiment using a high finesse waveguide-type double ring resonator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 1031-1034, Aug. 1994.
  8. S. Y. Li, N. Q. Ngo, S. C. Tjin, P. Shum and J. Zhang, "Thermally tunable narrow bandpass filter based on linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 29-31, Jan. 2004.
  9. D. Sadot and E. Boimovich, "Tunable optical filter for dense WDM networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 50-55, Dec. 1998.
  10. M. G. Xu, H. Geiger and J. P. Dakin, "Interrogation of fibre-optic interferometer sensors using acousto-optic tunable filter", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 17, pp. 1487-1488, Aug. 1995.
  11. S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse and B. Y. Kim, "Wavelength-swept fiber laser with frequency shifted feedback and resonantly swept intra-cavity acoustooptic tunable filter", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1087-1096, Aug. 1997.
  12. P. V. Mamyshev and L. F. Mollenauer, "Stability of soliton propagation with sliding-frequency guiding filters", Opt. Lett., vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 2083-2085, Dec. 1994.
  13. K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen and H. A. Haus, "Optimization of filtering in soliton fiber lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1433-1435, Dec. 1994.
  14. S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino and K. Oda, "High-density integrated planar lightwave circuits using SiO2-GeO2 waveguides with a high-refractive index difference", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 790-796, May 1994.

Other

N. Q. Ngo and L. N. Binh, "Novel realization of monotonic Butterworth-type lowpass, highpass and bandpass optical filters using phase-modulated fiber-optic interferometers and ring resonators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 827-841, May 1994.

K. Jinguji, "Synthesis of coherent two-port optical delay-line circuit with ring waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1882-1898, Aug. 1996.

C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 1999.

A. Rostami and G. Rostami, "All-optical implementation of tunable low-pass, high-pass and bandpass optical filters using ring resonators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 446-460, Jan. 2005.

A. V. Oppenheim and R. W. Schafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1989.

A. A. M. Saleh and J. Stone, "Two-stage Fabry-Pérot filters as demultiplexers in optical FDMA LAN's", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 323-330, Feb. 1989.

K. Oda, S. Suzuki, H. Takahashi and H. Toba, "An optical FDM distribution experiment using a high finesse waveguide-type double ring resonator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 1031-1034, Aug. 1994.

S. Y. Li, N. Q. Ngo, S. C. Tjin, P. Shum and J. Zhang, "Thermally tunable narrow bandpass filter based on linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 29-31, Jan. 2004.

D. Sadot and E. Boimovich, "Tunable optical filter for dense WDM networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 50-55, Dec. 1998.

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger and J. P. Dakin, "Interrogation of fibre-optic interferometer sensors using acousto-optic tunable filter", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 17, pp. 1487-1488, Aug. 1995.

S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse and B. Y. Kim, "Wavelength-swept fiber laser with frequency shifted feedback and resonantly swept intra-cavity acoustooptic tunable filter", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1087-1096, Aug. 1997.

P. V. Mamyshev and L. F. Mollenauer, "Stability of soliton propagation with sliding-frequency guiding filters", Opt. Lett., vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 2083-2085, Dec. 1994.

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen and H. A. Haus, "Optimization of filtering in soliton fiber lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1433-1435, Dec. 1994.

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino and K. Oda, "High-density integrated planar lightwave circuits using SiO2-GeO2 waveguides with a high-refractive index difference", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 790-796, May 1994.

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