Abstract

A semi-analytical theory for the gain saturation of parametric amplifiers is presented. The theory is both simple and intuitive, it is compared with experiments on a parametric amplifier, and a very good agreement is found. Furthermore, using theoretical results, a method to obtain saturation characteristics for parametric amplifiers that have features not easily reproduced by theory is presented. The obtained method finds saturation characteristics in a few steps, providing that the gain studied is above 15 dB, where the approximations upon which our simple expression is based are strictly valid. An exact solution of the gain saturation when the pump power is totally converted is also presented and compared with the simplified expression using previously obtained theoretical results.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, "Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 194-196, Mar. 2001.
  2. J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Lie and P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based parametric amplifiers and their applications", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 506-520, May/Jun. 2002.
  3. P. O. Hedekvist and P. A. Andrekson, "Noise characteristics of fiber-based optical phase conjugators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 74-79, Jan. 1999.
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  5. S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni and A. R. Chraplyvy, "All-optical regeneration in one-and two-pump parametric amplifiers using highly nonlinear optical fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 957-959, Jul. 2003.
  6. M. Matsumoto, "Regeneration of RZ-DPSK signal by fiber-based all-optical regenerators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1055-1057, May 2005.
  7. K. Inoue and T. Mukai, "Experimental study on noise characteristics of a gain-saturated fiber optical parametric amplifier", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 969-973, May/Jun. 2002.
  8. K. Inoue, "Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifiers", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1016-1017, Jun. 2000.
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  10. T. Touronidis, H. Sunnerud, P. O. Hedekvist and P. A. Andrekson, "Amplification of WDM signals in fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1061-1063, Aug. 2003.
  11. A. Jurkus and P. N. Robson, "Gain saturation effects in a travelling-wave parametric amplifier", Proc. Inst. Radio Eng., vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 1433-1434, Sep. 1961.
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  13. C. J. McKinstrie and D. F. DuBois, "Relativistic solitary-wave solutions of the beat-wave equations", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 57, no. 16, pp. 2022-2025, Oct. 1986.
  14. G. Cappellini and S. Trillo, "Third-order three-wave mixing in single-mode fibers: Exact solutions and spatial instability effects", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 824-838, Apr. 1990.
  15. P. Kylemark, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Gain saturation characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers", presented at the European Conf. Optical Commun., (ECOC), Cannes, France,We 1.6.4, 2004.
  16. R. H. Stolen and J. E. Björkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. STQE-18, no. 7, pp. 1062-1072, Jul. 1982.
  17. J. Hansryd, F. Dross, M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson and S. N. Knudsen, "Increase of the SBS threshold in a short highly nonlinear fiber by applying a temperature distribution", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1691-1697, Nov. 2001.
  18. M. E. Marhic, K. K. Y. Wong, M. C. Ho and L. G. Kazovsky, "92% pump depletion in a continuous-wave one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 620-622, May 2001.

Other (18)

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, "Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 194-196, Mar. 2001.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Lie and P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based parametric amplifiers and their applications", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 506-520, May/Jun. 2002.

P. O. Hedekvist and P. A. Andrekson, "Noise characteristics of fiber-based optical phase conjugators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 74-79, Jan. 1999.

P. Kylemark, P. O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 409-416, Feb. 2004.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni and A. R. Chraplyvy, "All-optical regeneration in one-and two-pump parametric amplifiers using highly nonlinear optical fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 957-959, Jul. 2003.

M. Matsumoto, "Regeneration of RZ-DPSK signal by fiber-based all-optical regenerators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1055-1057, May 2005.

K. Inoue and T. Mukai, "Experimental study on noise characteristics of a gain-saturated fiber optical parametric amplifier", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 969-973, May/Jun. 2002.

K. Inoue, "Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifiers", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1016-1017, Jun. 2000.

E. Ciaramella, F. Curti and S. Trillo, "All-optical signal reshaping by means of four-wave mixing in optical fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 142-144, Feb. 2001.

T. Touronidis, H. Sunnerud, P. O. Hedekvist and P. A. Andrekson, "Amplification of WDM signals in fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1061-1063, Aug. 2003.

A. Jurkus and P. N. Robson, "Gain saturation effects in a travelling-wave parametric amplifier", Proc. Inst. Radio Eng., vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 1433-1434, Sep. 1961.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric", Phys. Rev., vol. 127, no. 6, pp. 1918-1939, Sep. 1962.

C. J. McKinstrie and D. F. DuBois, "Relativistic solitary-wave solutions of the beat-wave equations", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 57, no. 16, pp. 2022-2025, Oct. 1986.

G. Cappellini and S. Trillo, "Third-order three-wave mixing in single-mode fibers: Exact solutions and spatial instability effects", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 824-838, Apr. 1990.

P. Kylemark, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Gain saturation characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers", presented at the European Conf. Optical Commun., (ECOC), Cannes, France,We 1.6.4, 2004.

R. H. Stolen and J. E. Björkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. STQE-18, no. 7, pp. 1062-1072, Jul. 1982.

J. Hansryd, F. Dross, M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson and S. N. Knudsen, "Increase of the SBS threshold in a short highly nonlinear fiber by applying a temperature distribution", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1691-1697, Nov. 2001.

M. E. Marhic, K. K. Y. Wong, M. C. Ho and L. G. Kazovsky, "92% pump depletion in a continuous-wave one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 620-622, May 2001.

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