Abstract

A new type of nematic liquid-crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap-guiding fiber for single polarization or high-birefringence guidance is proposed. Numerical studies demonstrate that modal birefringence can be tuned by proper selection of the structural and material parameters as well as by the application of an external electric field in conjunction with the specific liquid-crystal anchoring conditions.

© 2006 IEEE

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  2. J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibers", Nature, vol. 424, no. 6950, pp. 847-851, Aug. 2003.
  3. K. Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima and K. Sato, "Ultralow loss and long length photonic crystal fiber", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 7-10, Jan. 2004.
  4. H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, S. Koyanagi, M. Tanaka and S. Yamaguchi, "Absolutely single polarization photonic crystal fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 182-184, Jan. 2004.
  5. J. Ju, W. Jin and M. S. Demokan, "Design of single-polarization single-mode photonic crystal fiber at 1.30 and 1.55 µm", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 825-830, Feb. 2006.
  6. T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 588-590, Jun. 2001.
  7. T. Schreiber, F. Röser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, A. Petersson, C. Jacobsen, K. P. Hansen, J. Broeng and A. Tünnermann, "Stress-induced single-polarization single-transverse mode photonic crystal fiber with low nonlinearity", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 19, pp. 7621-7630, Sep. 2005.
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  11. H. Lim, A. Chong and F. Wise, "Environmentally-stable femtosecond ytterbium fiber laser with birefringent photonic bandgap fiber", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 3460-3464, May 2005.
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  13. A. Proulx, J.-M. Ménard, N. Hô, J. M. Laniel, R. Vallée and C. Paré, "Intensity and polarization dependences of the supercontinuum generation in birefringent and highly nonlinear microstructured fibers", Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 25, pp. 3338-3345, Dec. 2003.
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  19. Y. Huang, Y. Xu and A. Yariv, "Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, no. 22, pp. 5182-5184, Nov. 2004.
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  22. G. J. Pearce, J. M. Pottage, D. M. Bird, P. J. Roberts, J. C. Knight and P. S. J. Russell, "Hollow-core PCF for guidance in the mid to far infra-red", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 18, pp. 6937-6946, Sep. 2005.
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  25. S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, "The MIT Photonic-Bands Package",
  26. S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell's equations in a planewave basis", Opt. Express, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 173-190, Jan. 2001.
  27. A. P. Zhao, J. Juntunen and A. V. Räisänen, "A generalized compact 2-d fdtd model for the analysis of guided modes of anisotropic waveguides with arbitrary tensor permittivity", Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 17-23, 1998.
  28. C. O. Catanescu, S.-T. Wu and L.-C. Chien, "Tailoring the physical properties of some high birefringence isothiocyanato-based liquid crystals", Liq. Cryst., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 541-555, Apr. 2004.
  29. J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci and S. Faetti, "Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals", J. Appl. Phys, vol. 97, no. 7, p. 073501, Apr. 2005.
  30. G. P. Crawford, D. W. Allender and J. W. Doane, "Surface elastic and molecular-anchoring properties of nematic liquid crystals confined to cylindrical cavities", Phys. Rev. A, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 8693-8710, Jun. 1992.
  31. S. V. Burylov, "Equilibrium configuration of a nematic liquid crystal confined to a cylindrical cavity", J. Exp. Theor. Phys., vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 873-886, Nov. 1997.
  32. S. Zumer and J. W. Doane, "Light scattering from a small nematic droplet", Phys. Rev. A, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 3373-3385, Oct. 1986.
  33. J. F. Strömer, E. P. Raynes and C. V. Brown, "Study of elastic constant ratios in nematic liquid crystals", Appl. Phys. Lett, vol. 88, no. 5, p. 051915, Jan. 2006.

Other (33)

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibers, Boston, MA: Kluwer, 2003.

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibers", Nature, vol. 424, no. 6950, pp. 847-851, Aug. 2003.

K. Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima and K. Sato, "Ultralow loss and long length photonic crystal fiber", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 7-10, Jan. 2004.

H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, S. Koyanagi, M. Tanaka and S. Yamaguchi, "Absolutely single polarization photonic crystal fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 182-184, Jan. 2004.

J. Ju, W. Jin and M. S. Demokan, "Design of single-polarization single-mode photonic crystal fiber at 1.30 and 1.55 µm", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 825-830, Feb. 2006.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 588-590, Jun. 2001.

T. Schreiber, F. Röser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, A. Petersson, C. Jacobsen, K. P. Hansen, J. Broeng and A. Tünnermann, "Stress-induced single-polarization single-transverse mode photonic crystal fiber with low nonlinearity", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 19, pp. 7621-7630, Sep. 2005.

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, "Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1291-1293, Sep. 2002.

X. Chen, M.-J. Li, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, W. A. Wood, A. M. Crowley, J. P. Carberry, L. A. Zenteno and K. W. Koch, "Highly birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 16, pp. 3888-3893, Aug. 2004.

C. Kerbage and B. J. Eggleton, "Numerical analysis and experimental design of tunable birefringence in microstructured optical fiber", Opt. Express, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 245-255, May 2002.

H. Lim, A. Chong and F. Wise, "Environmentally-stable femtosecond ytterbium fiber laser with birefringent photonic bandgap fiber", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 3460-3464, May 2005.

M. Lehtonen, G. Genty, H. Ludvigsen and M. Kaivola, "Supercontinuum generation in a highly birefringent microstructured fiber", App. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, no. 14, pp. 2197-2199, Apr. 2003.

A. Proulx, J.-M. Ménard, N. Hô, J. M. Laniel, R. Vallée and C. Paré, "Intensity and polarization dependences of the supercontinuum generation in birefringent and highly nonlinear microstructured fibers", Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 25, pp. 3338-3345, Dec. 2003.

T. T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann and J. Broeng, "Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic fibers", Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 20, pp. 2589-2596, Oct. 2003.

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan and A. Bjarklev, "Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 819-821, Apr. 2005.

D. C. Zografopoulos, E. E. Kriezis and T. D. Tsiboukis, "Photonic crystal-liquid crystal fibers for single-polarization or high-birefringence guidance", Opt. Express, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 914-925, Jan. 2006.

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev and T. P. Hansen, "Selective filling of photonic crystal fibers", J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt., vol. 7, no. 8, pp. L13-L20, Aug. 2005.

L. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, H. L. Ho, Y. L. Hoo and C. Zhao, "Fabrication of selective injection microstructured optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 22, pp. 9014-9022, Oct. 2005.

Y. Huang, Y. Xu and A. Yariv, "Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, no. 22, pp. 5182-5184, Nov. 2004.

B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, J. A. Rogers, C. C. Huang and R. Pindak, "In-fiber nematic liquid crystal optical modulator based on in-plane switching with microsecond response time", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 81, no. 27, pp. 5243-5245, Dec. 2002.

J. M. Pottage, D. M. Bird, T. D. Hedley, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. S. J. Rusell, "Robust photonic band gaps for hollow core guidance in PCF made from high index glass", Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 22, pp. 2854-2861, Nov. 2003.

G. J. Pearce, J. M. Pottage, D. M. Bird, P. J. Roberts, J. C. Knight and P. S. J. Russell, "Hollow-core PCF for guidance in the mid to far infra-red", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 18, pp. 6937-6946, Sep. 2005.

B. Bahadur, Liquid Crystals: Applications and Uses,: Singapore: World Scientific, 1990,vol. 1.

X. Feng, A. K. Mairaj, D. W. Hewak and T. M. Monro, "Nonsilica glasses for holey fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 2046-2054, Jun. 2005.

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, "The MIT Photonic-Bands Package",

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell's equations in a planewave basis", Opt. Express, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 173-190, Jan. 2001.

A. P. Zhao, J. Juntunen and A. V. Räisänen, "A generalized compact 2-d fdtd model for the analysis of guided modes of anisotropic waveguides with arbitrary tensor permittivity", Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 17-23, 1998.

C. O. Catanescu, S.-T. Wu and L.-C. Chien, "Tailoring the physical properties of some high birefringence isothiocyanato-based liquid crystals", Liq. Cryst., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 541-555, Apr. 2004.

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci and S. Faetti, "Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals", J. Appl. Phys, vol. 97, no. 7, p. 073501, Apr. 2005.

G. P. Crawford, D. W. Allender and J. W. Doane, "Surface elastic and molecular-anchoring properties of nematic liquid crystals confined to cylindrical cavities", Phys. Rev. A, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 8693-8710, Jun. 1992.

S. V. Burylov, "Equilibrium configuration of a nematic liquid crystal confined to a cylindrical cavity", J. Exp. Theor. Phys., vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 873-886, Nov. 1997.

S. Zumer and J. W. Doane, "Light scattering from a small nematic droplet", Phys. Rev. A, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 3373-3385, Oct. 1986.

J. F. Strömer, E. P. Raynes and C. V. Brown, "Study of elastic constant ratios in nematic liquid crystals", Appl. Phys. Lett, vol. 88, no. 5, p. 051915, Jan. 2006.

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