Abstract

The authors describe the design and performance of an ultrafast optical clock recovery system that is based on two-photon absorption (TPA) in a silicon avalanche photodiode. Unlike many other optical clock recovery techniques, the system is shown to be polarization insensitive, broadband, low jitter, and scalable to high data rates. Moreover, the system is simple, economical, and suitable for integration with silicon electronics. Successful operation of the system is reported for speeds up to 80 Gb/s and transmission distances up to 840 km using a recirculating loop. The authors introduce a new dithering detection scheme that dramatically improves the dynamic range and decreases polarization and wavelength dependence, without introducing an additional timing jitter. The system achieves a dynamic range of 10 dB and optical bandwidth exceeding 35 nm.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. Y. Li, C. Kim, G. Li, Y. Kaneko, R. L. Jungerman and O. Buccafusca, "Wavelength and polarization insensitive all-optical clock recovery from 96-Gb/s data by using a two-section gain-coupled DFB laser", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 590-592, Apr. 2003.
  2. Y. Yang, Y. J. Wen, A. Nirmalathas, H. F. Liu and D. Novak, "Optical clock recovery at line rates via injection locking of a long cavity Fabry-Pérot lase diode", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1561-1563, Jun. 2004.
  3. T. Ohno, K. Sato, R. Iga, Y. Kondo, T. Ito, T. Furuta, K. Toshino and H. Ito, "Recovery of 160 GHz optical clock from 160 Gb/s data stream using modelocked laser diode", Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 265-267, 2004.
  4. Z. Hu, H.-F. Chou, K. Nishimura, M. Usami, J. E. Bowers and D. J. Blumenthal, "Optical clock recovery circuits using travelling-wave electroabsorption modulator-based ring oscillator for 3R regeneration", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 329-337, Mar./Apr. 2005.
  5. J. Lasri, P. Devgan, R. Tang and P. Kumar, "Ultralow timing jitter 40 Gb/s clock recovery using a self-staring optoelectronic oscillator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 263-265, Jan. 2004.
  6. H. Tsuchida and M. Suzuki, "40 Gb/s optical clock recovery using an injection-locked optoelectronic oscillator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 211-213, Jan. 2005.
  7. T. Saito, Y. Yano and N. Henmi, "Optical TDM 20 Gb/s-105 km transmission employing newly proposed optical PLL timing extraction", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 555-557, Apr. 1994.
  8. O. Kamatani and S. Kawanishi, "Ultra-high speed clock recovery with phase lock loop based on four-wave mixing in a travelling-wave laser diode amplifier", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1757-1767, Aug. 1996.
  9. E. Awad, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton and J. Goldhar, "Subharmonic optical clock recovery from 160 Gb/s using time-dependent loss saturation inside a single electroabsorption modulator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1764-1766, Dec. 2003.
  10. T. Yamamoto, L. K. Oxenlowe, C. Schmidt, C. Schubert, E. Hilliger, U. Feiste, J. Berger, R. Ludwig and H. G. Weber, "Clock recovery from 160 Gb/s data signals using phase-locked loop with interferometric optical switch based on semiconductor optical amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 509-510, 2001.
  11. D. T. K. Tong, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, T. N. Nielsen, K. F. Dreyer and J. E. Johnson, "Optoelectronic phase-locked loop with balanced photodetection for clock recovery in high-speed optical time-division-multiplexed systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1064-1066, Aug. 2000.
  12. S. Takasaka, Y. Ozeki, K. Igarashi and S. Namiki, "Optical phase-locking of 160 GHz optical beat to 40 GHz optical pulse train using a three-electrode DFB-LD and a Si avalanche photodiode", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., vol. 4, 2005, pp. 799-800.
  13. C. Boerner, C. Schubert, C. Schmidt, E. Hilliger, V. Marembert, J. Berger, S. Ferber, E. Diertrich, R. Ludwig, B. Schmauss and H. G. Weber, "160 Gb/s clock recovery with electro-optical PLL using bidirectionally operated electroabsorption modulator as phase comparator", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 14, pp. 1071-1073, 2003.
  14. Y. J. Wen, C.-J. Chae and H. F. Liu, "Time-domain polarization interleaving of signal to allow polarization-insensitive all-optical clock recovery", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1304-1306, Jun. 2005.
  15. T. Sakamoto, K. Seo, K. Taira, N. S. Moon and K. Kikuchi, "Polarization-insensitive all-optical time-division demultiplexing using a fiber four-wave mixer with a peak-holding optical phase-locked loop", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 563-565, Feb. 2004.
  16. T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue and K. Oda, "Polarization independent frequency conversion by fiber four-wave mixing with a polarization diversity technique", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 947-949, Aug. 1993.
  17. R. Salem and T. E. Murphy, "Polarization-insensitive cross-correlation using two-photon absorption in a silicon photodiode", Optics Lett., vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 1524-1526, Jul. 2004.
  18. M. E. Marhic, K. K. Y. Wong and L. G. Kazovsky, "Fibre optical parametric amplifiers with circularly-polarised pumps", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 350-351, Feb. 2003.
  19. R. Salem, G. E. Tudury, T. U. Horton, G. M. Carter and T. E. Murphy, "Polarization-insensitive optical clock recovery at 80 Gb/s using a silicon photodiode", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1968-1970, Sep. 2005.
  20. G. E. Tudury, R. Salem, G. M. Carter and T. E. Murphy, "Transmission of 80 Gb/s over 840 km in standard fibre without polarisation control", Electron. Lett., vol. 41, no. 25, pp. 1394-1396, Dec. 2005.
  21. T. F. Carruthers and J. W. Lou, "80 to 10 Gb/s clock recovery using phase detection with Mach-Zehnder modulator", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 14, pp. 906-907, Jul. 2001.
  22. I. D. Phillips, A. Gloag, P. N. Kean, N. J. Doran, I. Bennion and A. D. Ellis, "Simultaneous demultiplexing, data recognition and clock recovery with a single semiconductor optical amplifier-based nonlinear-optical loop mirror", Optics Lett., vol. 22, no. 17, pp. 1326-1328, 1997.

Other (22)

Y. Li, C. Kim, G. Li, Y. Kaneko, R. L. Jungerman and O. Buccafusca, "Wavelength and polarization insensitive all-optical clock recovery from 96-Gb/s data by using a two-section gain-coupled DFB laser", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 590-592, Apr. 2003.

Y. Yang, Y. J. Wen, A. Nirmalathas, H. F. Liu and D. Novak, "Optical clock recovery at line rates via injection locking of a long cavity Fabry-Pérot lase diode", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1561-1563, Jun. 2004.

T. Ohno, K. Sato, R. Iga, Y. Kondo, T. Ito, T. Furuta, K. Toshino and H. Ito, "Recovery of 160 GHz optical clock from 160 Gb/s data stream using modelocked laser diode", Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 265-267, 2004.

Z. Hu, H.-F. Chou, K. Nishimura, M. Usami, J. E. Bowers and D. J. Blumenthal, "Optical clock recovery circuits using travelling-wave electroabsorption modulator-based ring oscillator for 3R regeneration", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 329-337, Mar./Apr. 2005.

J. Lasri, P. Devgan, R. Tang and P. Kumar, "Ultralow timing jitter 40 Gb/s clock recovery using a self-staring optoelectronic oscillator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 263-265, Jan. 2004.

H. Tsuchida and M. Suzuki, "40 Gb/s optical clock recovery using an injection-locked optoelectronic oscillator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 211-213, Jan. 2005.

T. Saito, Y. Yano and N. Henmi, "Optical TDM 20 Gb/s-105 km transmission employing newly proposed optical PLL timing extraction", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 555-557, Apr. 1994.

O. Kamatani and S. Kawanishi, "Ultra-high speed clock recovery with phase lock loop based on four-wave mixing in a travelling-wave laser diode amplifier", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1757-1767, Aug. 1996.

E. Awad, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton and J. Goldhar, "Subharmonic optical clock recovery from 160 Gb/s using time-dependent loss saturation inside a single electroabsorption modulator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1764-1766, Dec. 2003.

T. Yamamoto, L. K. Oxenlowe, C. Schmidt, C. Schubert, E. Hilliger, U. Feiste, J. Berger, R. Ludwig and H. G. Weber, "Clock recovery from 160 Gb/s data signals using phase-locked loop with interferometric optical switch based on semiconductor optical amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 509-510, 2001.

D. T. K. Tong, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, T. N. Nielsen, K. F. Dreyer and J. E. Johnson, "Optoelectronic phase-locked loop with balanced photodetection for clock recovery in high-speed optical time-division-multiplexed systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1064-1066, Aug. 2000.

S. Takasaka, Y. Ozeki, K. Igarashi and S. Namiki, "Optical phase-locking of 160 GHz optical beat to 40 GHz optical pulse train using a three-electrode DFB-LD and a Si avalanche photodiode", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., vol. 4, 2005, pp. 799-800.

C. Boerner, C. Schubert, C. Schmidt, E. Hilliger, V. Marembert, J. Berger, S. Ferber, E. Diertrich, R. Ludwig, B. Schmauss and H. G. Weber, "160 Gb/s clock recovery with electro-optical PLL using bidirectionally operated electroabsorption modulator as phase comparator", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 14, pp. 1071-1073, 2003.

Y. J. Wen, C.-J. Chae and H. F. Liu, "Time-domain polarization interleaving of signal to allow polarization-insensitive all-optical clock recovery", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1304-1306, Jun. 2005.

T. Sakamoto, K. Seo, K. Taira, N. S. Moon and K. Kikuchi, "Polarization-insensitive all-optical time-division demultiplexing using a fiber four-wave mixer with a peak-holding optical phase-locked loop", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 563-565, Feb. 2004.

T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue and K. Oda, "Polarization independent frequency conversion by fiber four-wave mixing with a polarization diversity technique", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 947-949, Aug. 1993.

R. Salem and T. E. Murphy, "Polarization-insensitive cross-correlation using two-photon absorption in a silicon photodiode", Optics Lett., vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 1524-1526, Jul. 2004.

M. E. Marhic, K. K. Y. Wong and L. G. Kazovsky, "Fibre optical parametric amplifiers with circularly-polarised pumps", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 350-351, Feb. 2003.

R. Salem, G. E. Tudury, T. U. Horton, G. M. Carter and T. E. Murphy, "Polarization-insensitive optical clock recovery at 80 Gb/s using a silicon photodiode", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1968-1970, Sep. 2005.

G. E. Tudury, R. Salem, G. M. Carter and T. E. Murphy, "Transmission of 80 Gb/s over 840 km in standard fibre without polarisation control", Electron. Lett., vol. 41, no. 25, pp. 1394-1396, Dec. 2005.

T. F. Carruthers and J. W. Lou, "80 to 10 Gb/s clock recovery using phase detection with Mach-Zehnder modulator", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 14, pp. 906-907, Jul. 2001.

I. D. Phillips, A. Gloag, P. N. Kean, N. J. Doran, I. Bennion and A. D. Ellis, "Simultaneous demultiplexing, data recognition and clock recovery with a single semiconductor optical amplifier-based nonlinear-optical loop mirror", Optics Lett., vol. 22, no. 17, pp. 1326-1328, 1997.

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