Abstract

With high-bandwidth and on-demand applications continuing to emerge, next-generation core optical networks will require significant improvements in capacity, configurability, and resiliency. These advancements need to be achieved with architectures and technologies that are scalable with respect to network cost, size, and power requirements. To investigate the limitations of extending today's solutions to meet these goals, a North American backbone network with a tenfold growth in traffic is modeled. The results of this paper illuminate at least three areas that will potentially require innovative solutions, namely 1) transmission modulation formats, 2) switching granularity, and 3) edge traffic grooming. In addition to probing issues related to increased capacity, configurability is also examined, mainly in the context of switching architectures. Advanced network protection is discussed as well, at a high level. A central theme is how to harness the trend of optics scaling better than electronics. Throughout this paper, potential advancements in architecture and technology are enumerated to serve as a foundation for the research needed to attain the goals of next-generation core networks.

© 2006 IEEE

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Other

A. A. M. Saleh, "Transparent optical networking in backbone networks", in Proc. OFC, Baltimore, MD, Mar. 7-10 2000,ThD7,. pp. 62-64.

S. Elby, "Beyond the Internet-Emerging bandwidth drivers", presented at Proc. OFC/NFOEC.

S. Melle, et al. "Network planning and economic analysis of an innovative new optical transport architecture: The digital optical network", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Expo. (OFC)/Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, Paper NTuA1, Mar. 6-11, 2005.

M. Lasserre and V. Kompella, "Virtual private LAN services over MPLS", IETF,, Feb. 2005.

"User Network Interface (UNI) 1.0 Signaling Specification, Release 2", Optical Internetworking Forum,, Feb. 27, 2004.

G. Swallow, et al. "Generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS) user-network interface (UNI): Resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) support for the overlay model", IETF,, Oct. 2004.

I. Foster, "The grid: A new infrastructure for 21st century science", Phys. Today, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 42-47, Feb. 2002.

I. Foster, and C. Kesselman, Eds. The Grid 2: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure, "2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2004.

C. Catlett, "The philosophy of TeraGrid: Building an open, extensible, distributed TeraScale facility", in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Cluster Computing and Grid, Berlin, Germany,May 21-24 2002, p. 8.

"About GLIF", Global Lambda Integrated Facility Web Page,,

J. Mambretti, et al. "The photonic TeraStream: Enabling next generation applications through intelligent optical networking at iGRID2002", Future Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 897-908, Aug. 2003.

S. Figueira, et al. "DWDM-RAM: Enabling grid services with dynamic optical networks", in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Cluster Computing and Grid, Chicago, IL, Apr. 19-22 2004, pp. 707-714.

L. Smarr, et al. "The OptIPuter, quartzite and starlight projects: A campus to global-scale testbed for optical technologies enabling LambdaGrid computing", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Expo. (OFC)/Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, Paper OWG7, Mar. 6-11, 2005.

G. Karmous-Edwards, "Today's optical network research infrastructures for E-Science applications", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Expo. (OFC)/Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, Paper OWU3, Mar. 5-10, 2006.

A. Cebrowski and J. Garstka, "Network-centric warfare: Its origin and future", Proc. Naval Inst., vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 28-35, Jan. 1998.

F. Stein, "Observations on the emergence of network centric warfare", in Proc. Command and Control Res. and Technol. Symp., Monterey, CA, Jun. 1998, pp. 212-220.

I. Tomkos, et al. "Ultra-long-haul DWDM network with 320 × 320 wavelength-port ‘Broadcast & Select’ OXCs", in Proc. ECOC, Copenhagen, Denmark,Sep. 8-12 2002, pp. 1-2.

A. Pratt, et al. "40 × 10.7 Gb/s DWDM transmission over a meshed ULH network with dynamically reconfigurable optical crossconnects", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Atlanta, GA, Paper PD09, Mar. 23-28, 2003.

J. M. Simmons, "On determining the optimal optical reach for a long-haul network", IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1039-1048, Mar. 2005.

J. M. Simmons and A. A. M Saleh, "The value of optical bypass in reducing router size in gigabit networks", in Proc. ICC, Vancouver, BC, Canada,Jun. 6-10 1999, pp. 591-596.

P. Hofmann, et al. "DWDM long haul network deployment for the Verizon GNI nationwide network", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Expo. (OFC)/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, Paper OTuP5, Mar. 6-11, 2005.

B. Zhu, et al. "High spectral density long-haul 40-Gb/s transmission using CSRZ-DPSK format", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 208-214, Jan. 2004.

Z. Xu, K. Rottwitt and P. Jeppesen, "Evaluation of modulation formats for 160 Gb/s transmission systems using Raman amplifiers", in Proc. LEOS Annu. Meeting, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico,Nov. 7-11 2004, pp. 613-614.

S. Hardy, "A long road ahead for 40G pioneers", Lightwave, vol. 22, no. 3, p. 39, Mar. 2005.

K. Grobe, L. Friedrich and V. Lempert, "Assessment of 40 Gb/s techniques for metro/regional applications", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Expo. (OFC)/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, Paper NThA1, Mar. 5-10, 2006.

S. Sengupta, et al. "Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 60-70, Jun. 2003.

T. Hausken, "The 40G optical network: Why, how, when?", Lightwave Eur., vol. 8, no. 11, p. 16, Nov. 2004.

P. P. Mitra and J. B. Stark, "Nonlinear limits to the information capacity of optical fibre communications", Nature, vol. 411, no. 6841, pp. 1027-1030, Jun. 28, 2001.

J. M. Kahn and K.-P. Ho, "Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM systems", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 259-272, Mar./Apr. 2004.

E. Ip and J. Kahn, "Carrier synchronization for 3-and 4-bit-per-symbol optical transmission", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 4110-4124, Dec. 2005.

M. Suzuki and I. Morita, "High spectral efficiency for large-capacity optical communication systems", in Proc. Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Netw., Wroclaw, Poland,Jul. 4-8 2004, pp. 171-176.

P. Cho, et al. "Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-Gb/s DWDM transmission over 4 × 100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing", Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 656-658, Feb. 2004.

N. Yoshikane and I. Morita, "1.14 b/s/Hz spectrally efficient 50 × 85.4-Gb/s transmission over 300 km using copolarized RZ-DQPSK signals", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 108-114, Jan. 2005.

A. Chowdhury, et al. "Compensation of intrachannel nonlinearities in 40-Gb/s pseudolinear systems using optical-phase conjugation", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 172-177, Jan. 2005.

S. Jansen, et al. "Optical phase conjugation for ultra long-haul phase-shift-keyed transmission", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 54-64, Jan. 2006.

P. Bayvel and R. Killey, "Nonlinear optical effects in WDM transmission," in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV B, I. Kaminow, and T. Li, Eds. New York: Elsevier, 2002.

N. Chi, et al. "All-optical wavelength conversion and multichannel 2R regeneration based on highly nonlinear dispersion-imbalanced loop mirror", Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1581-1583, Nov. 2002.

Y. K. Huang, et al. "Simultaneous all-optical 3R regeneration of multiple WDM channels", in Proc. LEOS Annu. Meeting, Sydney, Australia,Oct. 23-27 2005, pp. 135-136.

O. Leclerc, et al. "Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2779-2790, Nov. 2003.

J. Leuthold, J. Jaques and S. Cabot, "All-optical wavelength conversion and regeneration", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Atlanta, GA, Paper WN1, Mar. 23-28, 2003.

J. M. Simmons, "Analysis of wavelength conversion in all-optical express backbone networks", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper TuG2, Mar. 17-22, 2002.

K. Croussore, C. Kim and G. Li, "All-optical regeneration of differential phase-shift keying signals based on phase-sensitive amplification", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 20, pp. 2357-2359, Oct. 15, 2004.

A. Striegler, et al. "NOLM-based RZ-DPSK signal regeneration", Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 639-641, Mar. 2005.

M. Matsumoto, "Regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals by fiber-based all-optical regenerators", Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1055-1057, May 2005.

O. Gerstel, et al. "Merits of low-density WDM line systems for long-haul networks", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Atlanta, GA, Paper FA3, Mar. 23-28, 2003.

A. A. M. Saleh and J. M. Simmons, "Architectural principles of optical regional and metropolitan access networks", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2431-2448, Dec. 1999.

L. Noire, et al. "Impact of intermediate traffic grouping on the dimensioning of multi-granularity optical networks", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper TuG3, Mar. 19-22, 2001.

R. Lingampalli and P. Vengalam, "Effect of wavelength and waveband grooming on all-optical networks with single layer photonic switching", in Proc. OFC, Anaheim, CA, Mar. 17-22 2002,ThP4,. pp. 501-502.

X. Cao, et al. "Waveband switching in optical networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 105-112, Apr. 2003.

P. Bullock, et al. "Optimizing wavelength grouping granularity for optical add-drop network architectures", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Atlanta, GA, Paper WH2, Mar. 23-28, 2003.

V. Kaman, et al. "A cyclic MUX-DMUX photonic cross-connect architecture for transparent waveband optical networks", Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 638-640, Feb. 2004.

D. Blumenthal, "Optical packet switching", in Proc. LEOS Annu. Meeting, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico,Nov. 7-11 2004, pp. 910-912.

H. Yang and S. J. B. Yoo, "All-optical variable buffering strategies and switch fabric architectures for future all-optical data routers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 3321-3330, Oct. 2005.

D. Blumenthal and M. Masanovic, "LASOR (label switched optical router): Architecture and underlying integration technologies", in Proc. ECOC, Glasgow, U.K.,Sep. 25-29 2005, p. 49.

M. Zirngible, "IRIS: Optical switching technologies for scalable data networks", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Expo. (OFC)/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, Paper OWP1, Mar. 5-10, 2006.

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