Abstract

A femtosecond laser has been used to asymmetrically modify the cladding of fiber containing long-period gratings. Following modification, devices in single-mode fiber are shown to be capable of sensing the magnitude and direction of bending in one plane by producing blue and red wavelength shifts depending upon the orientation of the bend. The resulting curvature sensitivities were -1.62 and +3.82 nm · m. Devices have also been produced using an elliptical core fiber to study the effects of the cladding modification on the two polarization eigenstates. A cladding modification applied on the fast axis of the fiber is shown to affect the light in the fast axis much more significantly than the light in the orthogonal state; this behavior may ultimately lead to a sensor capable of detecting the direction of bending in two dimensions for applications in shape sensing.

© 2006 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short-and long-period fibre Grating filters", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 1760-1773, 1997.
  2. A. D. Kersey, et al. "Fibre grating sensors", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1442-1462, Aug. 1997.
  3. T. Allsop, et al. "Embedded progressive-three layered fibre long-period gratings for respiratory monitoring", J. Biomed. Opt., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 552-558, Jul. 2003.
  4. T. Allsop, et al. "The spectral characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber as a bending sensors", presented at the Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS), Nara, Japan,Paper TuP-8, Oct. 2003.
  5. H. J. Patrick, "Self-aligning, bipolar bend transducer based on long period grating written in eccentric core fibre", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 21, pp. 1763-1764, Oct. 2000.
  6. A. Martinez, et al. "Point by point FBG inscription by a focused NIR femtosecond laser", presented at the OSA Conf.-Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics/Int. Quantum Electronics Conf. (CLEO/IQEC) and Photonic Applications, Systems and Technologies (PhAST), Washington, DC, CMY6, 2004.
  7. O. Duhem, et al. "Effect of UV-induced birefringence on long period-grating coupling characteristics", Electron. Lett., vol. 5, no. 36, pp. 456-417, Mar. 2000.
  8. A. M. Vengsarkar, et al. "Birefringence reduction in side-written photoinduced fiber devices by a dual-exposure method", Opt. Lett., vol. 19, no. 16, p. 1260, Aug. 1994.
  9. W. Du, H. Tam, M. Liu and X. Tao, "Long-period grating bending sensors in laminated composite structures", in Proc. SPIE Conf.-Smart Structures and Mater., vol. 3330, San Diego, CA, 1998, p. 284.
  10. T. Allsop, F. Floreani, D. J. Webb and I. Bennion, "The bending and temperature characteristics of long period gratings written in elliptical core step-index fibre", presented at the Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS)-17, Bruges, Belgium,Paper P2-30, 2005.
  11. T. Allsop, H. Dobb, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl, A. Gillooly, D. J. Webb and I. Bennion, "Spectral sensitivity of long period gratings fabricated in elliptical core D-shaped optical fiber", in Proc. SPIE Opt. East, vol. 5589, Philadelphia, PA, Oct 2004, pp. 266-277.
  12. M. Heiblum and J. H. Harris, "Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation", IEEE J. Quant. Electron., vol. QE-11, no. 2, pp. 75-83, Feb. 1975.
  13. T. Allsop, et al. "A comparison and characteristics of sensing parameters of long period gratings written in three different types of fiber", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 210-223, Oct. 2003.

Other (13)

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short-and long-period fibre Grating filters", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 1760-1773, 1997.

A. D. Kersey, et al. "Fibre grating sensors", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1442-1462, Aug. 1997.

T. Allsop, et al. "Embedded progressive-three layered fibre long-period gratings for respiratory monitoring", J. Biomed. Opt., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 552-558, Jul. 2003.

T. Allsop, et al. "The spectral characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber as a bending sensors", presented at the Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS), Nara, Japan,Paper TuP-8, Oct. 2003.

H. J. Patrick, "Self-aligning, bipolar bend transducer based on long period grating written in eccentric core fibre", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 21, pp. 1763-1764, Oct. 2000.

A. Martinez, et al. "Point by point FBG inscription by a focused NIR femtosecond laser", presented at the OSA Conf.-Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics/Int. Quantum Electronics Conf. (CLEO/IQEC) and Photonic Applications, Systems and Technologies (PhAST), Washington, DC, CMY6, 2004.

O. Duhem, et al. "Effect of UV-induced birefringence on long period-grating coupling characteristics", Electron. Lett., vol. 5, no. 36, pp. 456-417, Mar. 2000.

A. M. Vengsarkar, et al. "Birefringence reduction in side-written photoinduced fiber devices by a dual-exposure method", Opt. Lett., vol. 19, no. 16, p. 1260, Aug. 1994.

W. Du, H. Tam, M. Liu and X. Tao, "Long-period grating bending sensors in laminated composite structures", in Proc. SPIE Conf.-Smart Structures and Mater., vol. 3330, San Diego, CA, 1998, p. 284.

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, D. J. Webb and I. Bennion, "The bending and temperature characteristics of long period gratings written in elliptical core step-index fibre", presented at the Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS)-17, Bruges, Belgium,Paper P2-30, 2005.

T. Allsop, H. Dobb, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl, A. Gillooly, D. J. Webb and I. Bennion, "Spectral sensitivity of long period gratings fabricated in elliptical core D-shaped optical fiber", in Proc. SPIE Opt. East, vol. 5589, Philadelphia, PA, Oct 2004, pp. 266-277.

M. Heiblum and J. H. Harris, "Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation", IEEE J. Quant. Electron., vol. QE-11, no. 2, pp. 75-83, Feb. 1975.

T. Allsop, et al. "A comparison and characteristics of sensing parameters of long period gratings written in three different types of fiber", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 210-223, Oct. 2003.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.