Abstract

Direct-sequence optical code-division multiple-access (DS-OCDMA) encoder/decoder based on sampled fiber Bragg gratings (S-FBGs) is characterized using phase-sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR). The OLCR technique allows localized measurements of FBG wavelength and physical length inside one S-FBG. This paper shows how the discrepancies between specifications and measurements of the different FBGs have some impact on spectral and temporal pulse responses of the OCDMA encoder/decoder. The FBG physical lengths lower than the specified ones are shown to affect the mean optical power reflected by the OCDMA encoder/decoder. The FBG wavelengths that are detuned from each other induce some modulations of S-FBG reflectivity resulting in encoder/decoder sensitivity to laser wavelength drift of the OCDMA system. Finally, highlighted by this OLCR study, some solutions to overcome limitations in performance with the S-FBG technology are suggested.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. J. A. Salehi, "Code division multiple access techniques in optical fiber networks.1. Fundamental principles", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 824-833, Aug. 1989.
  2. P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro and T. R. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-4, no. 5, pp. 547-554, May 1986.
  3. V. J. Hernandez, Y. Du, W. Cong, R. P. Scott, K. Li, J. P. Heritage, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner and S. J. B. Yoo, "Spectral phase-encoded time-spreading (SPECTS) optical code-division multiple access for terabit optical access networks", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2671-2679, Nov. 2004.
  4. Z. Wei, H. M. H. Shalaby and H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Modified quadratic congruence codes for fiber Bragg grating based spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1274-1281, Sep. 2001.
  5. H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch and S. LaRochelle, "Passive optical fast frequency-hop CDMA communications system", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 397-405, Mar. 1999.
  6. P. C. The, M. Ibsen, J. H. Lee, P. Petropoulos and D. J. Richardson, "Demonstration of a four channel WDM/OCDMA system using 255-chip 320-Gchip/s quarternary phase coding gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 227-229, Feb. 2002.
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  9. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 19, pp. 1620-1622, Sep. 1994.
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  11. S. Shen, A. M. Weiner, G. D. Sucha and M. L. Stock, "Bit error rate performance of ultrashort-pulse optical OCDMA detection under multi-access interferences", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 21, pp. 1795-1797, Oct. 2000.
  12. X. Wang and K. Kitayama, "Analysis of beat noise in coherent and incoherent time-spreading OCDMA", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 2226-2235, Oct. 2004.
  13. R. Adams and L. R. Chen, "Effect of encoder-decoder mismatch due to wavelength and time misalignments on the performance of two-dimensional wavelength-time optical code division multiple access systems", Appl. Opt., vol. 44, no. 20, pp. 4368-4374, Jul. 2005.
  14. E. I. Petermann, J. Skaar, B. E. Sahlgren, R. A. H. Stubbe and A. T. Friberg, "Characterization of fiber Bragg gratings by use of optical coherence domain reflectometry", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2371-2378, Nov. 1999.
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  16. C. Palavicini, Y. Jaouën, G. Debarge, E. Kerrinckx, Y. Quiquempois, M. Douay, C. Lepers, A.-F. Obaton and G. Melin, "Characterization of photonic crystal fiber properties using phase sensitive OLCR", Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 361-363, Feb. 2005.
  17. K. Takada, I. Yokohama, K. Chida and J. Noda, "New measurement system for fault location in optical waveguide devices based on an interferometric technique", Appl. Opt., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1603-1606, May 1987.
  18. R. C. Youngquist, S. Carr and D. E. N. Davies, "Optical coherence-domain reflectometry: A new optical evaluation technique", Opt. Lett., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 158-160, Mar. 1987.
  19. S. D. Dyer, K. B. Rochford and A. H. Rose, "Fast and accurate low-coherence interferometric measurements of fiber Bragg grating dispersion and reflectance", Opt. Express, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 262-266, Nov. 1999.
  20. D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizuehi, T. Erdogan and A. E. White, "Production of in-fiber gratings using a diffractive optical element", Electron. Lett., vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 566-568, Mar. 1993.
  21. T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1277-1294, Aug. 1997.
  22. P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley and R. Giedl, "Analysis of grating formation with excimer laser irradiated phase masks", Opt. Commun., vol. 115, no. 3/4, pp. 327-334, Mar. 1995.
  23. I. Fsaifes, C. Lepers, M. Lourdiane, R. Gabet and P. Gallion, "Pulsed laser source coherence time impairments in a direct detection DS-OCDMA system", presented at the CLEO Conf., Long Beach, CA, Paper CWH 6, 2006.
  24. P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, A. Fu, H. Geiger, R. L. Laming and D. J. Richardson, "Coherent control of short pulses using fibre Bragg gratings", in Proc. IEE Colloq. Opt. Fibre Gratings (Ref. No.1999/023), Mar. 26 1999, pp. 8/1-8/6.
  25. H. Fathallah and L. A. Rusch, "Robust optical FFH-CDMA communications: Coding in place of frequency and temperature controls", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1284-1293, Aug. 1999.
  26. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1442-1463, Aug. 1997.

Other (26)

J. A. Salehi, "Code division multiple access techniques in optical fiber networks.1. Fundamental principles", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 824-833, Aug. 1989.

P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro and T. R. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-4, no. 5, pp. 547-554, May 1986.

V. J. Hernandez, Y. Du, W. Cong, R. P. Scott, K. Li, J. P. Heritage, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner and S. J. B. Yoo, "Spectral phase-encoded time-spreading (SPECTS) optical code-division multiple access for terabit optical access networks", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2671-2679, Nov. 2004.

Z. Wei, H. M. H. Shalaby and H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Modified quadratic congruence codes for fiber Bragg grating based spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1274-1281, Sep. 2001.

H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch and S. LaRochelle, "Passive optical fast frequency-hop CDMA communications system", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 397-405, Mar. 1999.

P. C. The, M. Ibsen, J. H. Lee, P. Petropoulos and D. J. Richardson, "Demonstration of a four channel WDM/OCDMA system using 255-chip 320-Gchip/s quarternary phase coding gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 227-229, Feb. 2002.

I. Fsaifes, M. Lourdiane, C. Lepers, R. Gabet, V. Beugin and P. Gallion, "Performances of 1 Gb/s optical DS-CDMA based on sampled fiber Bragg gratings", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 5970, 2005, pp. 713-718.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 1035-1037, Mar. 1993.

J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 19, pp. 1620-1622, Sep. 1994.

J. Martin, M. Tetu, C. Latrasse, A. Bellemare and M. A. Duguay, "Use of a sampled Bragg grating as in-fiber optical resonator for the realization of a referencing optical frequency scale for WDM communications", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Dallas, TX, Paper ThJ5, Feb. 16-21, 1997.

S. Shen, A. M. Weiner, G. D. Sucha and M. L. Stock, "Bit error rate performance of ultrashort-pulse optical OCDMA detection under multi-access interferences", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 21, pp. 1795-1797, Oct. 2000.

X. Wang and K. Kitayama, "Analysis of beat noise in coherent and incoherent time-spreading OCDMA", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 2226-2235, Oct. 2004.

R. Adams and L. R. Chen, "Effect of encoder-decoder mismatch due to wavelength and time misalignments on the performance of two-dimensional wavelength-time optical code division multiple access systems", Appl. Opt., vol. 44, no. 20, pp. 4368-4374, Jul. 2005.

E. I. Petermann, J. Skaar, B. E. Sahlgren, R. A. H. Stubbe and A. T. Friberg, "Characterization of fiber Bragg gratings by use of optical coherence domain reflectometry", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2371-2378, Nov. 1999.

S. Mechels, K. Takada and K. Okamoto, "Optical low coherence reflectometer for measuring WDM components", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 857-859, Jul. 1999.

C. Palavicini, Y. Jaouën, G. Debarge, E. Kerrinckx, Y. Quiquempois, M. Douay, C. Lepers, A.-F. Obaton and G. Melin, "Characterization of photonic crystal fiber properties using phase sensitive OLCR", Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 361-363, Feb. 2005.

K. Takada, I. Yokohama, K. Chida and J. Noda, "New measurement system for fault location in optical waveguide devices based on an interferometric technique", Appl. Opt., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1603-1606, May 1987.

R. C. Youngquist, S. Carr and D. E. N. Davies, "Optical coherence-domain reflectometry: A new optical evaluation technique", Opt. Lett., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 158-160, Mar. 1987.

S. D. Dyer, K. B. Rochford and A. H. Rose, "Fast and accurate low-coherence interferometric measurements of fiber Bragg grating dispersion and reflectance", Opt. Express, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 262-266, Nov. 1999.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizuehi, T. Erdogan and A. E. White, "Production of in-fiber gratings using a diffractive optical element", Electron. Lett., vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 566-568, Mar. 1993.

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1277-1294, Aug. 1997.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley and R. Giedl, "Analysis of grating formation with excimer laser irradiated phase masks", Opt. Commun., vol. 115, no. 3/4, pp. 327-334, Mar. 1995.

I. Fsaifes, C. Lepers, M. Lourdiane, R. Gabet and P. Gallion, "Pulsed laser source coherence time impairments in a direct detection DS-OCDMA system", presented at the CLEO Conf., Long Beach, CA, Paper CWH 6, 2006.

P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, A. Fu, H. Geiger, R. L. Laming and D. J. Richardson, "Coherent control of short pulses using fibre Bragg gratings", in Proc. IEE Colloq. Opt. Fibre Gratings (Ref. No.1999/023), Mar. 26 1999, pp. 8/1-8/6.

H. Fathallah and L. A. Rusch, "Robust optical FFH-CDMA communications: Coding in place of frequency and temperature controls", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1284-1293, Aug. 1999.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1442-1463, Aug. 1997.

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