Abstract

This paper reports the first optical transmitter implementations operating at a serial bit rate of 107 Gb/s using solely electronic time-division multiplexing. Two methods to overcome modulator bandwidth limitations are proposed and demonstrated: low-bandwidth optical duobinary modulation and integrated optical equalization. Both transmitters are characterized in terms of bit error ratio and chromatic dispersion tolerance.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. A. Zapata, M. Düser, J. Spencer, P. Bayvel, I. De Miguel, D. Breuer, N. Hanik and A. Gladisch, "Next-generation 100-Gigabit Metro Ethernet (100 GbME) using multiwavelength optical rings", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2420-2434, Nov. 2004.
  2. M. Duelk, "Next generation 100 G Ethernet", in Proc. ECOC, 2005, Paper Tu3.1.2,. pp. 15-18.
  3. H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tb/s and 2.56 Tb/s DQPSK transmission", presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC'05), Paper Th4.1.2, 2005.
  4. M. Murata, K. Sano, H. Kitabayashi, S. Sugitani, H. Sugahara and T. Enoki, "100-Gb/s multiplexing and demultiplexing IC operations in InP HEMT technology", J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 207-213, Jan. 2004.
  5. M. Meghelli, "A 132-Gb/s 4:1 multiplexer in 0.13-mm SiGe-Bipolar technology", J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 2403-2407, Dec. 2004.
  6. Y. Yu, R. Lewen, S. Irmscher, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, U. Eriksson and W. S. Lee, "80 Gb/s ETDM transmitter with a travelling-wave electroabsorption modulator", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC'05), Paper OWE1,2005.
  7. K. Schuh, B. Junginger, E. Lach, A. Klekamp and E. Schlag, "85.4 Gb/s ETDM receiver with full rate electronic clock recovery circuit", presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC'04), Paper Th4.1.1, 2004.
  8. P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon and M. Duelk, "107-Gb/s optical ETDM transmitter for 100 G Ethernet transport", presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC'05), Paper Th4.1.1, 2005.
  9. C. R. Doerr, P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, L. L. Buhl, M. A. Cappuzzo, A. Wong-Foy, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez and M. Duelk, "A single-chip optical equalizer enabling high-fidelity 107-Gb/s optical non-return-to-zero signal generation", presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC'05), Paper Th4.2.1, 2005.
  10. T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, H. Tagami, M. Akita and K. Motoshima, "Next generation FEC for optical transmission systems", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC'03), Paper ThN1, 2003.
  11. P. J. Winzer, "Optical transmitters, receivers, and noise," in Wiley Encyclopedia of Telecommunications, J. G. Proakis, Ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2002, pp. 1824-1840.
  12. H. Kim, G. Lee, H. Lee, S. K. Kim, I. Kang, S. Hwang and Y. Oh, "On the use of 2.5-Gb/s Mach-Zehnder modulators to generate 10-Gb/s optical duobinary signals", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 2577-2579, Nov. 2004.
  13. D. M. Gill, A. H. Gnauck, X. Liu, X. Wei, D. S. Levy, S. Chandrasekhar and C. R. Doerr, "42.7-Gb/s cost-effective duobinary optical transmitter using a commercial 10-Gb/s Mach-Zehnder modulator with optical filtering", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 917-919, Apr. 2005.
  14. X. Gu and C. Blank, "10 Gbit/s unrepeated three-level optical transmission over 100 km of standard fibre", IEE Electron. Lett., vol. 29, no. 25, pp. 2209-2211, 1993.
  15. G. Toptchiyski, S. Randel, K. Petermann, C. Schubert, J. Berger and H. G. Weber, "Characterization of switching windows of an 160-Gb/s all-optical demultiplexer with data base rates of 10 and 40 Gb/s", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 534-536, Apr. 2002.
  16. C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek and E. Burrows, "Simple multi-channel optical equalizer mitigating intersymbol interference for 40-Gb/s non return-to-zero signals", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 249-256, Jan. 2004.
  17. C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, A. Griffin and L. Buhl, "Bending of a planar lightwave circuit 2 × 2 coupler to desensitize it to wavelength, polarization and fabrication changes", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1211-1213, Jun. 2005.
  18. A. Lender, "The duobinary technique for high-speed data transmission", IEEE Trans. Commun. Electron., vol. CE-82, no. 66, pp. 214-218, May 1963.
  19. A. J. Price and N. LeMercier, "Reduced bandwidth optical digital intensity modulation with improved chromatic dispersion tolerance", IEE Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 58-59, Jan. 1995.
  20. C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold and P. J. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 178-186, Jan. 2005.
  21. A. H. Gnauck, J. Sinsky, P. J. Winzer and S. Chandrasekhar, "Linear microwave-domain dispersion compensation of 10-Gb/s signals using heterodyne detection", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC'05), Paper PDP31, 2005.
  22. D. Stahl, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr and S. Chandrasekhar, "Extending the chromatic dispersion tolerance by optical equalization at 43 Gb/s", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC'04), Paper ThU5, 2004.

Other (22)

A. Zapata, M. Düser, J. Spencer, P. Bayvel, I. De Miguel, D. Breuer, N. Hanik and A. Gladisch, "Next-generation 100-Gigabit Metro Ethernet (100 GbME) using multiwavelength optical rings", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2420-2434, Nov. 2004.

M. Duelk, "Next generation 100 G Ethernet", in Proc. ECOC, 2005, Paper Tu3.1.2,. pp. 15-18.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tb/s and 2.56 Tb/s DQPSK transmission", presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC'05), Paper Th4.1.2, 2005.

M. Murata, K. Sano, H. Kitabayashi, S. Sugitani, H. Sugahara and T. Enoki, "100-Gb/s multiplexing and demultiplexing IC operations in InP HEMT technology", J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 207-213, Jan. 2004.

M. Meghelli, "A 132-Gb/s 4:1 multiplexer in 0.13-mm SiGe-Bipolar technology", J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 2403-2407, Dec. 2004.

Y. Yu, R. Lewen, S. Irmscher, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, U. Eriksson and W. S. Lee, "80 Gb/s ETDM transmitter with a travelling-wave electroabsorption modulator", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC'05), Paper OWE1,2005.

K. Schuh, B. Junginger, E. Lach, A. Klekamp and E. Schlag, "85.4 Gb/s ETDM receiver with full rate electronic clock recovery circuit", presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC'04), Paper Th4.1.1, 2004.

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon and M. Duelk, "107-Gb/s optical ETDM transmitter for 100 G Ethernet transport", presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC'05), Paper Th4.1.1, 2005.

C. R. Doerr, P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, L. L. Buhl, M. A. Cappuzzo, A. Wong-Foy, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez and M. Duelk, "A single-chip optical equalizer enabling high-fidelity 107-Gb/s optical non-return-to-zero signal generation", presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC'05), Paper Th4.2.1, 2005.

T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, H. Tagami, M. Akita and K. Motoshima, "Next generation FEC for optical transmission systems", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC'03), Paper ThN1, 2003.

P. J. Winzer, "Optical transmitters, receivers, and noise," in Wiley Encyclopedia of Telecommunications, J. G. Proakis, Ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2002, pp. 1824-1840.

H. Kim, G. Lee, H. Lee, S. K. Kim, I. Kang, S. Hwang and Y. Oh, "On the use of 2.5-Gb/s Mach-Zehnder modulators to generate 10-Gb/s optical duobinary signals", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 2577-2579, Nov. 2004.

D. M. Gill, A. H. Gnauck, X. Liu, X. Wei, D. S. Levy, S. Chandrasekhar and C. R. Doerr, "42.7-Gb/s cost-effective duobinary optical transmitter using a commercial 10-Gb/s Mach-Zehnder modulator with optical filtering", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 917-919, Apr. 2005.

X. Gu and C. Blank, "10 Gbit/s unrepeated three-level optical transmission over 100 km of standard fibre", IEE Electron. Lett., vol. 29, no. 25, pp. 2209-2211, 1993.

G. Toptchiyski, S. Randel, K. Petermann, C. Schubert, J. Berger and H. G. Weber, "Characterization of switching windows of an 160-Gb/s all-optical demultiplexer with data base rates of 10 and 40 Gb/s", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 534-536, Apr. 2002.

C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek and E. Burrows, "Simple multi-channel optical equalizer mitigating intersymbol interference for 40-Gb/s non return-to-zero signals", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 249-256, Jan. 2004.

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, A. Griffin and L. Buhl, "Bending of a planar lightwave circuit 2 × 2 coupler to desensitize it to wavelength, polarization and fabrication changes", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1211-1213, Jun. 2005.

A. Lender, "The duobinary technique for high-speed data transmission", IEEE Trans. Commun. Electron., vol. CE-82, no. 66, pp. 214-218, May 1963.

A. J. Price and N. LeMercier, "Reduced bandwidth optical digital intensity modulation with improved chromatic dispersion tolerance", IEE Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 58-59, Jan. 1995.

C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold and P. J. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 178-186, Jan. 2005.

A. H. Gnauck, J. Sinsky, P. J. Winzer and S. Chandrasekhar, "Linear microwave-domain dispersion compensation of 10-Gb/s signals using heterodyne detection", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC'05), Paper PDP31, 2005.

D. Stahl, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr and S. Chandrasekhar, "Extending the chromatic dispersion tolerance by optical equalization at 43 Gb/s", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC'04), Paper ThU5, 2004.

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