Abstract

Stimulated Raman scattering, two-photon absorption, free-carrier dispersion, self-phase and cross-phase modulations induced by the Kerr effect, walk-off, pump depletion, and polarization coupling are investigated theoretically in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides. The influence of submicrometer-scale rib waveguide sizes on the time-space evolution of both pump and fundamental and higher order Stokes' picosecond pulses is presented. Finally, the threshold conditions for higher order Stokes' waves have been found and interpolated by a simple formula.

© 2006 IEEE

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Other (34)

G. T. Reed, "The optical age of silicon", Nature, vol. 427, no. 6975, pp. 595-596, Feb. 2004.

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction, West Sussex: U.K.: Wiley, 2004.

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han and B. Jalali, "Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm", Opt. Express, vol. 10, no. 22, pp. 1305-1313, Nov. 2002.

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han and B. Jalali, "Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides", Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 15, pp. 1731-1739, Jul. 2003.

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen and D. Hak, "Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 18, pp. 4261-4268, Sep. 2004.

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida and M. Lipson, "Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-on-insulator waveguides", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 19, pp. 4437-4442, Sep. 2004.

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida and M. Lipson, "Demonstration of high Raman gain in a submicrometer-size silicon-on-insulator waveguide", Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 35-37, Jan. 2005.

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood Jr., S. J. McNab and Y. A. Vlasov, "Raman amplification in ultrasmall silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 16, pp. 3713-3718, Aug. 2004.

D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, R. Claps and B. Jalali, "Phase-matching and nonlinear optical processes in silicon waveguide", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 149-160, Jan. 2004.

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos and B. Jalali, "Anti-Stokes Raman conversion in silicon waveguides", Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 22, pp. 2862-2872, Nov. 2003.

V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos and B. Jalali, "Parametric Raman wavelength conversion in scaled silicon waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 2094-2102, Jun. 2005.

O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan and B. Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 17, pp. 4094-4102, Aug. 2004.

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos and B. Jalali, "Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in silicon waveguides", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 2774-2780, Jun. 2004.

T. K Liang and H.-K. Tsang, "Nonlinear absorption and Raman scattering in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1149-1153, Sep./Oct. 2004.

R. Jones, A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen and D. Hak, "Lossless optical modulation in a silicon waveguide using stimulated Raman scattering", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1716-1723, Mar. 2005.

L. Pavesi, L. D. Negro, G. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo and S. Priolo, "Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals", Nature, vol. 408, no. 6811, pp. 440-444, Nov. 2000.

J. Ruan, P. M. Fauchet, L. D. Negro, M. Cazzanelli and L. Pavesi, "Stimulated emission in nanocrystalline silicon superlattices", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, no. 26, pp. 5479-5481, Dec. 2003.

A. Polman and F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, "Broadband sensitizers for erbium-doped planar optical amplifiers: Review", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 871-892, May 2004.

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, D. Dimitropoulos and B. Jalali, "Raman amplification and lasing in SiGe waveguides", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 2459-2466, Apr. 2005.

L. Sirleto, V. Raghunathan, A. Rossi and B. Jalali, "Raman emission in porous silicon at 1.54 µm", Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 19, pp. 1221-1222, Sep. 2004.

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 21, pp. 5269-5273, Oct. 2004.

M. Krause, H. Renner and E. Brinkmeyer, "Analysis of Raman lasing characteristics in silicon-on-insulator waveguides", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 23, pp. 5703-5710, Nov. 2004.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser", Nature, vol. 433, no. 7027, pp. 725-728, Feb. 2005.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser", Nature, vol. 433, no. 7023, pp. 292-294, Jan. 2005.

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of directly modulated silicon Raman laser", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 796-800, Feb. 2005.

D. Dimitropoulos, B. Houshmand, R. Claps and B. Jalali, "Coupled-mode theory of Raman effect in silicon-on-insulator waveguides", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 20, pp. 1954-1956, Oct. 2003.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. London: U.K.: Academic, 2001, pp. 31-58.

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi and S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 4629-4637, Jun. 2005.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-23, no. 1, pp. 123-129, Jan. 1987.

S. Deb and A. Sharma, "Nonlinear pulse propagation through optical fibers: An efficient numerical method", Opt. Eng., vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 695-699, Nov. 1993.

"COMSOL Multiphysics", COMSOL Inc, Stockholm, Sweden, 2005.

A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak and M. Paniccia, "Optical amplification and lasing by stimulated Raman scattering in silicon waveguides", IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1440-1455, Mar. 2006.

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1971-1974, Aug. 1991.

S. P. Chan, C. E. Png, S. T. Lim, G. T. Reed and V. M. N. Passaro, "Single-mode and polarization-independent silicon-on-insulator waveguides with small cross section", IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 2103-2111, Jun. 2005.

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