Abstract

The authors demonstrate in-service channel monitoring of a chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) for a return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) signals based on the asynchronous amplitude-histogram evaluation (AAHE) technique. The waveform evolution of the RZ-DPSK signal under the effects of the CD and PMD is investigated analytically and numerically. The CD leads to a power level splitting at the valley of the waveform before demodulation. The intensities of these two levels further increase due to the PMD. By tracking the intensities of these levels using the AAHE method, the CD and PMD can be measured. The principle of a simultaneous monitoring of the CD and PMD is demonstrated experimentally for 10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK signals. The effects of the signal's optical signal-to-noise ratio and the number of the sampling points on the accuracy of the monitoring results are also presented.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 115-130, Jan. 2005.
  2. M. Tomizawa, Y. Yamabayashi, Y. Sato and T. Kataoka, "Nonlinear influence on PM-AM conversion measurement of group velocity dispersion in optical fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 17, pp. 1434-1435, Aug. 1994.
  3. T. E. Dimmick, G. Rossi and D. J. Blumenthal, "Optical dispersion monitoring technique using double sideband subcarriers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 900-902, Jul. 2000.
  4. M. N. Peterson, Z. Pan, S. Lee, S. A. Havstad and A. E. Willner, "Dispersion monitoring and compensation using a single in-band subcarrier tone", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper WH4-1, 2001.
  5. Y. Takushima, H. Yoshimi, Y. Ozeki, K. Kikuchi, H. Yamauchi and H. Taga, "In-service dispersion monitoring in 32*10.7 Gb/s WDM transmission system over transatlantic distance using optical frequency-modulation method", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 257-265, Jan. 2004.
  6. T. Inui, T. Komukai, M. Nakazawa, K. Suzuki, K. R. Tamura, K. Uchiyama and T. Morioka, "Adaptive dispersion slope equalizer using a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating pair with a nonvel dispersion detection technique", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 4>, pp. 549-551, Apr. 2002.
  7. S. Li and D. V. Kuksenkov, "A novel dispersion monitoring technique based on four-wave mixing in optical fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 942-944, Mar. 2004.
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  10. T. E. Dimmick, G. Rossi and D. J. Blumenthal, "Optical dispersion monitoring technique using double sideband subcarriers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 900-902, Jul. 2000.
  11. F. Buchali, S. Lanne, J. P. Thiery, W. Baumert and H. Bulow, "Fast eye monitoring for 10 Gb/s and its application for optical PMD compensation", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications (OFC), Paper TuP5-1, 2001.
  12. M. Bohn, W. Rosenkranz, P. M. Krummrich, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein and G. L. Bona, "Experimental verification of combined adaptive PMD and GVD compensation in a 40 Gb/s transmission using integrated optical FIR-filters and spectrum monitoring", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications (OFC), Paper TuG3, 2004.
  13. N. Kikuchi, "Analysis of signal degree of polarization degradation used as control signal for optical polarization mode-dispersion compensation", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 480-486, Apr. 2001.
  14. T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, L. S. Yan, A. B. Sahin and A. E. Willner, "PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 2177-2179, Sep. 2004.
  15. S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, Y. W. Song, A. B. Sahin, Z. Pan and A. E. Willner, "PMD monitoring in WDM systems for NRZ data using a chromatic-dispersion-regenerated clock", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications (OFC), Paper WE5, 2004.
  16. B. Fu and R. Hui, "Fiber chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion monitoring using coherent detection", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1561-1563, Jul. 2005.
  17. Z. Li, Y. Wang, C. Lu and G. Li, "In-service signal quality monitoring and multi-impairment discrimination based on asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation for NRZ-DPSK systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1998-2000, Sep. 2005.
  18. Z. Li and G. Li, "In-line performance monitoring for RZ DPSK signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 472-474, Feb. 2006.
  19. J. Wang and J. M. Kahn, "Impact of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersions on DPSK systems using interferometric demodulation and direct detection", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 362-371, Feb. 2004.
  20. Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Song, R. Motaghian, S. Havstad and A. Willner, "Monitoring chromatic dispersion and PMD impairments in optical differential phase shift keyed (DPSK) systems", presented at the Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), Atlanta, GA, Paper WP1, 2003.
  21. H. Y. Pua, K. Peddanarappagari, B. Zhu, C. Allen, K. Demarest and R. Hui, "An adaptive first-order polarization-mode dispersion compensation system aided by polarization scrambling: theory and demonstration", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 832-841, Jun. 2000.
  22. L. S. Yan, Q. Yu, A. B. Sahin and A. E. Willner, "Differential group delay monitoring used as feed forward information for polarization mode dispersion compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1463-1465, Oct. 2002.

Other (22)

A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 115-130, Jan. 2005.

M. Tomizawa, Y. Yamabayashi, Y. Sato and T. Kataoka, "Nonlinear influence on PM-AM conversion measurement of group velocity dispersion in optical fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 17, pp. 1434-1435, Aug. 1994.

T. E. Dimmick, G. Rossi and D. J. Blumenthal, "Optical dispersion monitoring technique using double sideband subcarriers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 900-902, Jul. 2000.

M. N. Peterson, Z. Pan, S. Lee, S. A. Havstad and A. E. Willner, "Dispersion monitoring and compensation using a single in-band subcarrier tone", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper WH4-1, 2001.

Y. Takushima, H. Yoshimi, Y. Ozeki, K. Kikuchi, H. Yamauchi and H. Taga, "In-service dispersion monitoring in 32*10.7 Gb/s WDM transmission system over transatlantic distance using optical frequency-modulation method", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 257-265, Jan. 2004.

T. Inui, T. Komukai, M. Nakazawa, K. Suzuki, K. R. Tamura, K. Uchiyama and T. Morioka, "Adaptive dispersion slope equalizer using a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating pair with a nonvel dispersion detection technique", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 4>, pp. 549-551, Apr. 2002.

S. Li and D. V. Kuksenkov, "A novel dispersion monitoring technique based on four-wave mixing in optical fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 942-944, Mar. 2004.

A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara and Y. Miyamoto, "A novel dispersion compensation scheme based on phase comparison between two SSB signals generated from a spectrally filtered CS-RZ signal", in Proc. OFC Tech. Dig., 2002, pp. 196-197.

M. N. Petersen, Z. Pan, S. Lee, S. A. Havstad and A. E. Willner, "On-line chromatic dispersion monitoring and compensation using a single in-band subcarrier tone", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 570-572, Apr. 2002.

T. E. Dimmick, G. Rossi and D. J. Blumenthal, "Optical dispersion monitoring technique using double sideband subcarriers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 900-902, Jul. 2000.

F. Buchali, S. Lanne, J. P. Thiery, W. Baumert and H. Bulow, "Fast eye monitoring for 10 Gb/s and its application for optical PMD compensation", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications (OFC), Paper TuP5-1, 2001.

M. Bohn, W. Rosenkranz, P. M. Krummrich, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein and G. L. Bona, "Experimental verification of combined adaptive PMD and GVD compensation in a 40 Gb/s transmission using integrated optical FIR-filters and spectrum monitoring", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications (OFC), Paper TuG3, 2004.

N. Kikuchi, "Analysis of signal degree of polarization degradation used as control signal for optical polarization mode-dispersion compensation", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 480-486, Apr. 2001.

T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, L. S. Yan, A. B. Sahin and A. E. Willner, "PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 2177-2179, Sep. 2004.

S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, Y. W. Song, A. B. Sahin, Z. Pan and A. E. Willner, "PMD monitoring in WDM systems for NRZ data using a chromatic-dispersion-regenerated clock", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications (OFC), Paper WE5, 2004.

B. Fu and R. Hui, "Fiber chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion monitoring using coherent detection", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1561-1563, Jul. 2005.

Z. Li, Y. Wang, C. Lu and G. Li, "In-service signal quality monitoring and multi-impairment discrimination based on asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation for NRZ-DPSK systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1998-2000, Sep. 2005.

Z. Li and G. Li, "In-line performance monitoring for RZ DPSK signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 472-474, Feb. 2006.

J. Wang and J. M. Kahn, "Impact of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersions on DPSK systems using interferometric demodulation and direct detection", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 362-371, Feb. 2004.

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Song, R. Motaghian, S. Havstad and A. Willner, "Monitoring chromatic dispersion and PMD impairments in optical differential phase shift keyed (DPSK) systems", presented at the Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), Atlanta, GA, Paper WP1, 2003.

H. Y. Pua, K. Peddanarappagari, B. Zhu, C. Allen, K. Demarest and R. Hui, "An adaptive first-order polarization-mode dispersion compensation system aided by polarization scrambling: theory and demonstration", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 832-841, Jun. 2000.

L. S. Yan, Q. Yu, A. B. Sahin and A. E. Willner, "Differential group delay monitoring used as feed forward information for polarization mode dispersion compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1463-1465, Oct. 2002.

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