Abstract

The authors demonstrate the use of cascaded uniform fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) for the generation of periodic optical pulses with arbitrary waveform. It is a significantly simplified structure compared to complex FBG shapes. The pulse shaping is based on splitting of the input pulses by low-reflecting FBGs into a number of replicas and their superposition with proper amplitude, time delay, and phase shift that depend on the FBG parameters. The reflection amplitude and phase of each grating are unambiguously determined by the needed pulse shape. This method was experimentally verified for converting sinusoidally phase-modulated radiation of continuous-wave laser diode into a Gaussian pulse train with a pulsewidth of 30 ps. A method for controlling the parameters of FBGs during their fabrication process is also presented. It is done by measuring the spectral interference between the reflections from the FBGs and the fiber end by an optical spectrum analyzer and performing a fast Fourier transform. The method allows correction of the FBGs until the needed parameters are obtained during the writing process, as well as at any time after that.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators", Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 1929-1960, May 2000.
  2. T. Kurokawa, H. Tsuda, K. Okamoto, K. Naganuma, H. Takenouchi, Y. Inoue and M. Ishii, "Time-space-conversion optical signal processing using arrayed-waveguide grating", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 22, pp. 1890-1891, Oct. 1997.
  3. A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage and E. M. Kirschner, "High-resolution femtosecond pulse shaping", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1563-1572, Aug. 1988.
  4. A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, J. S. Patel and J. R. Wullert, "Programmable femtosecond pulse shaping by use of a multielement liquid-crystal phase modulator", Opt. Lett., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 326-328, Mar. 1990.
  5. C. W. Hillegas, J. X. Tull, D. Goswami, D. Strickland and W. S. Warren, "Femtosecond laser pulse shaping by use of microsecond radio-frequency pulses", Opt. Lett., vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 737-739, May 1994.
  6. D. Meshulach, D. Yelin and Y. Silberberg, "Adaptive real-time femtosecond pulse shaping", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1615-1619, May 1998.
  7. M. Haner and W. S. Warren, "Synthesis of crafted optical pulses by time domain modulation in a fiber-grating compressor", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 52, no. 18, pp. 1458-1460, May 1988.
  8. A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe and J. N. Sweetser, "Fibre Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 13, pp. 1096-1097, Jun. 1999.
  9. M. Marano, S. Longhi, P. Laporta, M. Belmonte and B. Agogliati, "All-optical square-pulse generation and multiplication at 1.5 µm by use of a novel class of fiber Bragg gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 1615-1617, Oct. 2001.
  10. J. Azaña and L. R. Chen, "Synthesis of temporal optical waveforms by fiber Bragg gratings: A new approach based on space-to-frequency-to-time mapping", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 2758-2769, Nov. 2002.
  11. P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, A. D. Ellis and D. J. Richardson, "Rectangular pulse generation based on pulse reshaping using a superstructured fiber Bragg grating", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 746-752, May 2001.
  12. P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, R. Kashyap and M. De Lathouwer, "Fiber Bragg grating for optical dark soliton generation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 1122-1124, Aug. 1997.
  13. N. K. Berger, B. Levit, S. Atkins and B. Fischer, "Repetition-rate multiplication of optical pulses using uniform fiber Bragg gratings", Opt. Commun., vol. 221, no. 4-6, pp. 331-335, Jun. 2003.
  14. M. Takeda, H. Ina and S. Kobayashi, "Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 156-160, Jan. 1982.

Other (14)

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators", Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 1929-1960, May 2000.

T. Kurokawa, H. Tsuda, K. Okamoto, K. Naganuma, H. Takenouchi, Y. Inoue and M. Ishii, "Time-space-conversion optical signal processing using arrayed-waveguide grating", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 22, pp. 1890-1891, Oct. 1997.

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage and E. M. Kirschner, "High-resolution femtosecond pulse shaping", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1563-1572, Aug. 1988.

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, J. S. Patel and J. R. Wullert, "Programmable femtosecond pulse shaping by use of a multielement liquid-crystal phase modulator", Opt. Lett., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 326-328, Mar. 1990.

C. W. Hillegas, J. X. Tull, D. Goswami, D. Strickland and W. S. Warren, "Femtosecond laser pulse shaping by use of microsecond radio-frequency pulses", Opt. Lett., vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 737-739, May 1994.

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin and Y. Silberberg, "Adaptive real-time femtosecond pulse shaping", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1615-1619, May 1998.

M. Haner and W. S. Warren, "Synthesis of crafted optical pulses by time domain modulation in a fiber-grating compressor", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 52, no. 18, pp. 1458-1460, May 1988.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe and J. N. Sweetser, "Fibre Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 13, pp. 1096-1097, Jun. 1999.

M. Marano, S. Longhi, P. Laporta, M. Belmonte and B. Agogliati, "All-optical square-pulse generation and multiplication at 1.5 µm by use of a novel class of fiber Bragg gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 1615-1617, Oct. 2001.

J. Azaña and L. R. Chen, "Synthesis of temporal optical waveforms by fiber Bragg gratings: A new approach based on space-to-frequency-to-time mapping", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 2758-2769, Nov. 2002.

P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, A. D. Ellis and D. J. Richardson, "Rectangular pulse generation based on pulse reshaping using a superstructured fiber Bragg grating", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 746-752, May 2001.

P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, R. Kashyap and M. De Lathouwer, "Fiber Bragg grating for optical dark soliton generation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 1122-1124, Aug. 1997.

N. K. Berger, B. Levit, S. Atkins and B. Fischer, "Repetition-rate multiplication of optical pulses using uniform fiber Bragg gratings", Opt. Commun., vol. 221, no. 4-6, pp. 331-335, Jun. 2003.

M. Takeda, H. Ina and S. Kobayashi, "Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 156-160, Jan. 1982.

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