Abstract

Modelocked semiconductor lasers are used to generate a set of phase-locked optical frequencies on a periodic grid. The periodic and phase coherent nature of the optical frequency combs makes it possible for the realization of high-performance optical and RF arbitrary-waveform synthesis. In addition, the resulting optical frequency components can be used for communication applications relying on direct detection, dense wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), coherent-detection WDM, optical time-division multiplexing, and optical code division multiple access. This paper highlights the recent results in the use of optical frequency combs generated from semiconductors for ultrawideband signal processing and communication applications.

© 2006 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. K. Nosu, "Advanced coherent lightwave technologies", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 15-21, Feb. 1988.
  2. R. Linke and A. H. Gnauck, "High-capacity coherent lightwave systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 1750-1769, Nov. 1988.
  3. S. Etemad, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, J. Young, T. Banwell, S. Gail, J. Jackel, P. Delfyett, C. Price and T. Turpin, "Spectrally efficient optical CDMA using coherent phase-frequency coding", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 929-931, Apr. 2005.
  4. A. J. Seeds, "Microwave photonics", IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 877-887, Mar. 2002.
  5. A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators", Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 1929-1960, May 2000.
  6. A. S. Bhushan, P. Kelkar and B. Jalali, "30 Gsamples/s time-stretch analog-to-digital converter", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 18, pp. 1526-1527, Aug. 2000.
  7. T. Yilmaz, C. DePriest, T. Turpin, J. Abeles and P. J. Delfyett, "Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a modelocked external cavity semiconductor laser", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1608-1610, Nov. 2002.
  8. B. Jalali, P. Kelkar and V. Saxena, "Photonic arbitrary waveform generator", in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Annu. Meeting Conf., 2001, pp. 253-254.
  9. Z. Jiang, D. S. Seo, D. E. Leiard and A. M. Weiner, "Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping", Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1557-1559, Jun. 2005.
  10. D. J. Jones, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis", Science, vol. 288, no. 5466, pp. 635-639, Apr. 2000.
  11. S. T. Cundiff, "Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses", J. Phys. D, Appl. Phys., vol. 35, no. 8, pp. R43-R59, Apr. 2002.
  12. R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall and J. Ye, "Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtoseconds lasers", Science, vol. 293, no. 5533, pp. 1286-1289, Aug. 2001.
  13. S. Stearns, Digital Signal Analysis, New York: Hayden, 1975.
  14. L. Cohen, Time-Frequency Analysis, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1995.
  15. E. Frumker, E. Tal, Y. Silberberg and D. Majer, "Femtosecond pulse shape modulation at nanosecond rates", Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 20, pp. 2796-2798, Oct. 2005.
  16. L. M. Johnson and C. M. Cox, "Serrodyne optical frequency translation with high sideband suppression", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 109-112, Jan. 1998.
  17. C. Laskoskie, H. Hung, T. El-Wailly and C. L. Chang, "Ti-LiNbO3 waveguide serrodyne modulator with ultrahigh sideband suppression for fiber optic gyroscopes", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 600-606, Apr. 1989.
  18. M. Shen and R. A. Minasian, "Serrodyne optical frequency translation using photonics-based waveforms", Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 24, pp. 1545-1547, Nov. 2004.
  19. S. Ozharar, S. Gee, F. Quinlan and P. J. Delfyett, "Heterodyne serrodyne with high sideband suppression via time division multiplexing for arbitrary waveform generation", in Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., vol. 5814, 2005, pp. 79-83.
  20. G. T. Harvey and L. F. Mollenauer, "Harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser with an internal Fabry-Pérot stabilizer for soliton transmission", Opt. Lett., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 107-109, Jan. 1993.
  21. C. M. DePriest, T. Yilmaz, P. J. Delfyett Jr., S. Etemad, A. Braun and J. Abeles, "Ultralow noise and supermode suppression in an actively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor diode ring laser", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 719-721, May 2002.
  22. S. Gee, F. Quinlan, S. Ozharar and P. J. Delfyett, "Simultaneous optical comb frequency stabilization and super mode noise suppression of harmonically modelocked semiconductor ring laser using an intracavity etalon", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 199-201, Jan. 2005.
  23. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator", Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 97-105, Jun. 1983.
  24. T. Yilmaz, C. M. DePriest, A. Braun, J. Abeles and P. J. Delfyett Jr., "Residual phase noise and longitudinal mode linewidth measurements of hybridly modelocked external linear cavity semiconductor laser", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 872-874, May 2002.
  25. T. Yilmaz, C. M. DePriest and P. J. Delfyett Jr., "Complete noise characterization of an external cavity semiconductor laser hybridly modelocked at 10 GHz", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 22, pp. 1338-1339, Oct. 2001.
  26. M. Shirasaki, "Large angular dispersion by a virtually imaged phased array and its application to a wavelength demultiplexer", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 366-367, Mar. 1996.
  27. M. Shirasaki, A. N. Akhter and C. Lin, "Virtually imaged phased array with graded reflectivity", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1443-1445, Nov. 1999.
  28. X. Shijun, A. M. Weiner and C. Lin, "Experimental and theoretical study of hyperfine WDM demultiplexer performance using the virtually imaged phased-array (VIPA)", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1456-1467, Mar. 2005.
  29. B. E. Little and S. T. Chu, "Toward very large-scale integrated photonics", Opt. Photon. News, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 24-29, Nov. 2000.
  30. S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, S. Gee and P. J. Delfyett, "Demonstration of endless phase modulation for arbitrary waveform generation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2739-2741, Dec. 2005.
  31. K. Kikuchi and K. Katoh, "Optical heterodyne receiver for selecting densely frequency division multiplexed signals", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 283-284, Mar. 2002.
  32. T. Kuri and K. Kiayama, "Optical heterodyne detection for 60 GHz-band radio-on-fiber systems", J. Commun. Res. Lab., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 45-56, 2002.
  33. N. Ohkawa, T. Sugie and Y. Hayashi, "A highly sensitive balanced receiver for 2.5 Gb/s heterodyne detection systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 375-377, Apr. 1991.
  34. B. K. Mathason and P. J. Delfyett, "Pulsed injection locking dynamics of passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser systems for all-optical clock recovery", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 1111-1120, Aug. 2000.
  35. K. Kikuchi, C.-E. Zah and T. P. Lee, "Amplitude-modulation sideband injection locking characteristics of semiconductor lasers and their application", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1821-1830, Dec. 1988.
  36. Z. Ahmed, H. F. Liu, D. Novak, Y. Ogawa, M. D. Pelusi and D. Y. Kim, "Locking characteristics of a passively mode-locked monolithic DBR laser stabilized by optical injection", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 37-39, Jan. 1996.
  37. W. Lee and P. J. Delfyett, "Dual mode injection locking of two independent modelocked semiconductor lasers", IEE Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 19, pp. 1182-1183, Sep. 2004.
  38. W. Lee, M. Mielke, S. Etemad and P. J. Delfyett, "Subgigahertz channel filtering by optical heterodyne detection using a single axial mode from an injection-locked passively mode-locked semiconductor laser", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1945-1947, Aug. 2004.

Other (38)

K. Nosu, "Advanced coherent lightwave technologies", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 15-21, Feb. 1988.

R. Linke and A. H. Gnauck, "High-capacity coherent lightwave systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 1750-1769, Nov. 1988.

S. Etemad, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, J. Young, T. Banwell, S. Gail, J. Jackel, P. Delfyett, C. Price and T. Turpin, "Spectrally efficient optical CDMA using coherent phase-frequency coding", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 929-931, Apr. 2005.

A. J. Seeds, "Microwave photonics", IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 877-887, Mar. 2002.

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators", Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 1929-1960, May 2000.

A. S. Bhushan, P. Kelkar and B. Jalali, "30 Gsamples/s time-stretch analog-to-digital converter", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 18, pp. 1526-1527, Aug. 2000.

T. Yilmaz, C. DePriest, T. Turpin, J. Abeles and P. J. Delfyett, "Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a modelocked external cavity semiconductor laser", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1608-1610, Nov. 2002.

B. Jalali, P. Kelkar and V. Saxena, "Photonic arbitrary waveform generator", in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Annu. Meeting Conf., 2001, pp. 253-254.

Z. Jiang, D. S. Seo, D. E. Leiard and A. M. Weiner, "Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping", Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1557-1559, Jun. 2005.

D. J. Jones, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis", Science, vol. 288, no. 5466, pp. 635-639, Apr. 2000.

S. T. Cundiff, "Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses", J. Phys. D, Appl. Phys., vol. 35, no. 8, pp. R43-R59, Apr. 2002.

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall and J. Ye, "Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtoseconds lasers", Science, vol. 293, no. 5533, pp. 1286-1289, Aug. 2001.

S. Stearns, Digital Signal Analysis, New York: Hayden, 1975.

L. Cohen, Time-Frequency Analysis, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1995.

E. Frumker, E. Tal, Y. Silberberg and D. Majer, "Femtosecond pulse shape modulation at nanosecond rates", Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 20, pp. 2796-2798, Oct. 2005.

L. M. Johnson and C. M. Cox, "Serrodyne optical frequency translation with high sideband suppression", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 109-112, Jan. 1998.

C. Laskoskie, H. Hung, T. El-Wailly and C. L. Chang, "Ti-LiNbO3 waveguide serrodyne modulator with ultrahigh sideband suppression for fiber optic gyroscopes", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 600-606, Apr. 1989.

M. Shen and R. A. Minasian, "Serrodyne optical frequency translation using photonics-based waveforms", Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 24, pp. 1545-1547, Nov. 2004.

S. Ozharar, S. Gee, F. Quinlan and P. J. Delfyett, "Heterodyne serrodyne with high sideband suppression via time division multiplexing for arbitrary waveform generation", in Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., vol. 5814, 2005, pp. 79-83.

G. T. Harvey and L. F. Mollenauer, "Harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser with an internal Fabry-Pérot stabilizer for soliton transmission", Opt. Lett., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 107-109, Jan. 1993.

C. M. DePriest, T. Yilmaz, P. J. Delfyett Jr., S. Etemad, A. Braun and J. Abeles, "Ultralow noise and supermode suppression in an actively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor diode ring laser", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 719-721, May 2002.

S. Gee, F. Quinlan, S. Ozharar and P. J. Delfyett, "Simultaneous optical comb frequency stabilization and super mode noise suppression of harmonically modelocked semiconductor ring laser using an intracavity etalon", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 199-201, Jan. 2005.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator", Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 97-105, Jun. 1983.

T. Yilmaz, C. M. DePriest, A. Braun, J. Abeles and P. J. Delfyett Jr., "Residual phase noise and longitudinal mode linewidth measurements of hybridly modelocked external linear cavity semiconductor laser", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 872-874, May 2002.

T. Yilmaz, C. M. DePriest and P. J. Delfyett Jr., "Complete noise characterization of an external cavity semiconductor laser hybridly modelocked at 10 GHz", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 22, pp. 1338-1339, Oct. 2001.

M. Shirasaki, "Large angular dispersion by a virtually imaged phased array and its application to a wavelength demultiplexer", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 366-367, Mar. 1996.

M. Shirasaki, A. N. Akhter and C. Lin, "Virtually imaged phased array with graded reflectivity", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1443-1445, Nov. 1999.

X. Shijun, A. M. Weiner and C. Lin, "Experimental and theoretical study of hyperfine WDM demultiplexer performance using the virtually imaged phased-array (VIPA)", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1456-1467, Mar. 2005.

B. E. Little and S. T. Chu, "Toward very large-scale integrated photonics", Opt. Photon. News, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 24-29, Nov. 2000.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, S. Gee and P. J. Delfyett, "Demonstration of endless phase modulation for arbitrary waveform generation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2739-2741, Dec. 2005.

K. Kikuchi and K. Katoh, "Optical heterodyne receiver for selecting densely frequency division multiplexed signals", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 283-284, Mar. 2002.

T. Kuri and K. Kiayama, "Optical heterodyne detection for 60 GHz-band radio-on-fiber systems", J. Commun. Res. Lab., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 45-56, 2002.

N. Ohkawa, T. Sugie and Y. Hayashi, "A highly sensitive balanced receiver for 2.5 Gb/s heterodyne detection systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 375-377, Apr. 1991.

B. K. Mathason and P. J. Delfyett, "Pulsed injection locking dynamics of passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser systems for all-optical clock recovery", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 1111-1120, Aug. 2000.

K. Kikuchi, C.-E. Zah and T. P. Lee, "Amplitude-modulation sideband injection locking characteristics of semiconductor lasers and their application", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1821-1830, Dec. 1988.

Z. Ahmed, H. F. Liu, D. Novak, Y. Ogawa, M. D. Pelusi and D. Y. Kim, "Locking characteristics of a passively mode-locked monolithic DBR laser stabilized by optical injection", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 37-39, Jan. 1996.

W. Lee and P. J. Delfyett, "Dual mode injection locking of two independent modelocked semiconductor lasers", IEE Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 19, pp. 1182-1183, Sep. 2004.

W. Lee, M. Mielke, S. Etemad and P. J. Delfyett, "Subgigahertz channel filtering by optical heterodyne detection using a single axial mode from an injection-locked passively mode-locked semiconductor laser", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1945-1947, Aug. 2004.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.