Abstract

A new photonic RF phase shifter structure for phased array antennas is presented. It is based on a single dual-output modulator and two optical switches and optical attenuators. This can realize continuous phase shifting of 0°-360° without altering the signal amplitude. It has the advantages of wide bandwidth, fast response time, and fine tuning resolution. Experimental results demonstrate phase shifts over a 360° phase range, with RF signal power changes of less than 0.2 dB, which is in close agreement with predictions. A tunable photonic RF notch filter, which is based on the new phase shifter, is also presented. Experimental results demonstrate continuous tuning of the photonic notch filter over a wide tuning range, which covers the full free spectral range, which is in good agreement with predictions.

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  1. P. R. Herczfeld, A. S. Daryoush, M. Kieli, S. Siegel and R. Soref, "Wide-band true time delay phase shifter devices", in Proc. IEEE MTT-S Dig., 1987, pp. 603-606.
  2. P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel and R. D. Esman, "A wide-band fiber-optic true-time-steered array receiver capable of multiple independent simultaneous beams", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 722-724, May 1998.
  3. J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant and P. H. Chang, "A photonic integrated-optic RF phase shifter for phased array antenna beam-forming applications", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 2201-2205, Dec. 1993.
  4. F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh and B. Jalali, "Continuously tunable photonic radio-frequency notch filter", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 339-341, Mar. 1997.
  5. J. M. Fuster and J. Marti, "Photonic RF phase shifter for harmonic downconversion in phased array antenna beam-forming applications", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 17, pp. 1426-1428, Aug. 1997.
  6. S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay and G. A. Knight, "A wide-band microwave photonic phase and frequency shifter", IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 1003-1006, Jun. 1997.
  7. R. A. Soref, "Voltage-controlled optical/RF phased shifter", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-3, no. 5, pp. 992-998, Oct. 1985.
  8. J. Han, B. J. Seo, S. K. Kim, H. Zhang and H. R. Fetterman, "Single-chip integrated electro-optic polymer photonic RF phase shifter array", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 3257-3261, Dec. 2003.
  9. J. Stulemeijer, F. E. van Vliet, K. W. Benoist, D. H. P. Maat and M. K. Smit, "Compact photonic integrated phase and amplitude controller for phased-array antennas", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 122-124, Jan. 1999.
  10. K. Ghorbani, A. Mitchell, R. B. Waterhouse and M. W. Austin, "A novel wide-band tunable RF phase shifter using a variable optical directional coupler", IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 645-648, May 1999.
  11. L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, T. H. Chio, S. Mansoori and E. R. Lopez, "Wide-band photonically phased array antenna using vector sum phase shifting approach", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 3589-3596, Nov. 2005.
  12. N. A. Riza, "Liquid crystal-based optical control of phased array antennas", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1974-1984, Dec. 1992.
  13. M. S. Yang, Y. O. Noh, Y. H. Won and W. Y. Hwang, "Very low crosstalk 1 × 2 digital optical switch integrated with variable optical attenuators", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 587-588, Apr. 2001.
  14. G. L. Li and P. K. L. Yu, "Optical intensity modulators for digital and analog applications", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 2010-2030, Sep. 2003.
  15. "Santec MOVA-1/8 attenuators, Santec Product Guide 2006", p. 9, 2006.
  16. W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, L. A. Everall and I. Bennion, "Fibre optic radio frequency notch filter with linear and continuous tuning by using a chirped fibre grating", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 18, pp. 1770-1772, Sep. 1998.
  17. D. B. Hunter and R. A. Minasian, "Tunable optical transversal filter based on chirped gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 25, pp. 2205-2207, Dec. 1995.
  18. J. X. Chen, Y. Wu, J. Hodiak and P. K. L. Yu, "A novel digitally tunable microwave-photonic notch filter using differential group-delay module", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 284-286, Feb. 2003.
  19. B. Vidal, V. Polo, J. L. Corral and J. Marti, "Photonic microwave filter with tuning and reconfiguration capabilities using optical switches and dispersive media", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 547-549, Mar. 2003.
  20. W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams and I. Bennion, "Optical fibre delay line filter free of limitation imposed by optical coherence", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 24, pp. 2133-2134, Nov. 1999.
  21. X. Yi, C. Lu, X. Yang, W. D. Zhong, F. Wei, L. Ding and Y. Wang, "Continuously tunable microwave-photonic filter design using high-birefringence linear chirped grating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 754-756, May 2003.
  22. N. You and R. A. Minasian, "A novel tunable microwave optical notch filter", IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 2002-2005, Oct. 2001.
  23. A. H. Quoc and S. Tedjini, "Experimental investigation on the optical unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers as microwave filters", IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 183-185, Jun. 1994.

Other (23)

P. R. Herczfeld, A. S. Daryoush, M. Kieli, S. Siegel and R. Soref, "Wide-band true time delay phase shifter devices", in Proc. IEEE MTT-S Dig., 1987, pp. 603-606.

P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel and R. D. Esman, "A wide-band fiber-optic true-time-steered array receiver capable of multiple independent simultaneous beams", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 722-724, May 1998.

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant and P. H. Chang, "A photonic integrated-optic RF phase shifter for phased array antenna beam-forming applications", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 2201-2205, Dec. 1993.

F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh and B. Jalali, "Continuously tunable photonic radio-frequency notch filter", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 339-341, Mar. 1997.

J. M. Fuster and J. Marti, "Photonic RF phase shifter for harmonic downconversion in phased array antenna beam-forming applications", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 17, pp. 1426-1428, Aug. 1997.

S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay and G. A. Knight, "A wide-band microwave photonic phase and frequency shifter", IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 1003-1006, Jun. 1997.

R. A. Soref, "Voltage-controlled optical/RF phased shifter", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-3, no. 5, pp. 992-998, Oct. 1985.

J. Han, B. J. Seo, S. K. Kim, H. Zhang and H. R. Fetterman, "Single-chip integrated electro-optic polymer photonic RF phase shifter array", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 3257-3261, Dec. 2003.

J. Stulemeijer, F. E. van Vliet, K. W. Benoist, D. H. P. Maat and M. K. Smit, "Compact photonic integrated phase and amplitude controller for phased-array antennas", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 122-124, Jan. 1999.

K. Ghorbani, A. Mitchell, R. B. Waterhouse and M. W. Austin, "A novel wide-band tunable RF phase shifter using a variable optical directional coupler", IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 645-648, May 1999.

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, T. H. Chio, S. Mansoori and E. R. Lopez, "Wide-band photonically phased array antenna using vector sum phase shifting approach", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 3589-3596, Nov. 2005.

N. A. Riza, "Liquid crystal-based optical control of phased array antennas", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1974-1984, Dec. 1992.

M. S. Yang, Y. O. Noh, Y. H. Won and W. Y. Hwang, "Very low crosstalk 1 × 2 digital optical switch integrated with variable optical attenuators", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 587-588, Apr. 2001.

G. L. Li and P. K. L. Yu, "Optical intensity modulators for digital and analog applications", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 2010-2030, Sep. 2003.

"Santec MOVA-1/8 attenuators, Santec Product Guide 2006", p. 9, 2006.

W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, L. A. Everall and I. Bennion, "Fibre optic radio frequency notch filter with linear and continuous tuning by using a chirped fibre grating", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 18, pp. 1770-1772, Sep. 1998.

D. B. Hunter and R. A. Minasian, "Tunable optical transversal filter based on chirped gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 25, pp. 2205-2207, Dec. 1995.

J. X. Chen, Y. Wu, J. Hodiak and P. K. L. Yu, "A novel digitally tunable microwave-photonic notch filter using differential group-delay module", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 284-286, Feb. 2003.

B. Vidal, V. Polo, J. L. Corral and J. Marti, "Photonic microwave filter with tuning and reconfiguration capabilities using optical switches and dispersive media", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 547-549, Mar. 2003.

W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams and I. Bennion, "Optical fibre delay line filter free of limitation imposed by optical coherence", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 24, pp. 2133-2134, Nov. 1999.

X. Yi, C. Lu, X. Yang, W. D. Zhong, F. Wei, L. Ding and Y. Wang, "Continuously tunable microwave-photonic filter design using high-birefringence linear chirped grating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 754-756, May 2003.

N. You and R. A. Minasian, "A novel tunable microwave optical notch filter", IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 2002-2005, Oct. 2001.

A. H. Quoc and S. Tedjini, "Experimental investigation on the optical unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers as microwave filters", IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 183-185, Jun. 1994.

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