Abstract

The authors describe in detail the design considerations of our previously proposed novel optical quantizing and coding method for all-optical analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion using nonlinear optical switches based on the Sagnac interferometer. The multiperiod transfer function, which is the key to quantizing and coding, is achieved through a careful design of the Sagnac interferometer. In the experiments, the intensity of the pulse train input to our A/D converter is manually changed, and the corresponding digital signals are successfully mapped generated. Although the input-pulse trains are not the sampling of real analog signal, the principle of our proposed 3-bit A/D conversion at a 10 gigasample per second (Gsps) rate is demonstrated. The proposed optical quantizing and coding, combined with existing optical sampling techniques, will enable ultrafast photonic A/D conversion without electronics. The potential in the frequency regime of over a few hundred gigasamples per second was investigated by using an optical switch that utilizes the optical Kerr effect for fast operation. It was found out that the wavelength allocations and temporal widths of control and probe pulses have to be optimized with respect to the group-velocity dispersion of highly nonlinear fiber.

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  1. H. Nosaka, M. Nakamura, M. Ida, K. Kurishima, T. Shibata, M. Tokumitsu and M. Muraguchi, "A 24-Gsps 3-bit Nyquist ADC using InP HBTs for electronic dispersion compensation", in Proc. IEEE/MTTS Int. Microw. Symp., Jun. 2004, Paper TU5A-1,. pp. 101-104.
  2. R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis", IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 539-550, Apr. 1999.
  3. H. F. Taylor, "An optical analog-to-digital converter-design and analysis", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-15, no. 4, pp. 210-216, Apr. 1979.
  4. T. Yamamoto, E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, "Ultrafast nonlinear optical loop mirror for demultiplexing 640 Gb/s TDM signals", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1013-1014, May 1998.
  5. H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori and M. Saruwatari, "100 Gb/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicosecond supercontinuum pulses", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1152-1553, Jul. 1994.
  6. T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Kitoh and M. Saruwatari, "Error-free 500 Gb/s all-optical demultiplexing using low-noise, low-jitter supercontinuum short pulses", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 833-834, Apr. 1996.
  7. T. Konishi, K. Tanimura, K. Asao, Y. Oshita and Y. Ichioka, "All-optical analog-to-digital converter by use of self-frequency shifting in fiber and a pulse-shaping technique", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 2817-2823, Nov. 2002.
  8. S. Oda, A. Maruta and K. Kitayama, "All-optical quantization based on fiber nonlinearity", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 587-589, Feb. 2004.
  9. C. Xu and X. Liu, "Photonic analog-to-digital converter using soliton self-frequency shift and interleaving spectral filters", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 986-988, Jun. 2003.
  10. G. P. Agrawal, Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics, San Diego, CA: Academic, 2001, ch. 3.
  11. K. Ikeda, J. M. Abdul, S. Namiki and K. Kitayama, "Optical quantizing and coding for ultrafast A/D conversion using nonlinear fiber-optic switches based on Sagnac interferometer", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 4296-4302, May 2005.
  12. J. Hiroishi, N. Kumano, R. Sugizaki, O. Aso, M. Tadakuma, T. Shibuta, N. Oyama, T. Yagi and M. Sakano, "Highly nonlinear DSF with low dispersion slope for wavelength converter", in Proc. Optoelectron. and Commun. Conf., Jul. 2002, pp. 492-493.
  13. J. Hiroishi, N. Kumano, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, R. Miyabe, S. Matsushita, H. Tobioka, S. Namiki and T. Yagi, "Dispersion controlled HNL-DSF with high \gamma of 25 W-1km-1 and band conversion experiment using this fiber", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Sep. 2002, Paper PD1.5,. pp. 1-2.
  14. T. Sakamoto and K. Kikuchi, "Nonlinear optical loop mirror with an optical bias controller for achieving full-swing operation of gate switching", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 545-547, Feb. 2004.
  15. A. Bogoni, M. Scaffardi, P. Ghelfi and L. Poti, "Nonlinear optical loop mirrors: Investigation solution and experimental validation for undesirable counter propagating effects in all-optical signal processing", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1115-1123, Sep./Oct. 2004.
  16. H. Sotobayashi, "Ultrafast walk-off-free nonlinear optical loop mirror by a simplified configuration for 320-Gb/s time-division multiplexing signal demultiplexing", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 17, pp. 1555-1557, Sep. 2002.
  17. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic, 2001, pp. 412-414.
  18. H. Tobioka, K. Igarashi, S. Takasaka, R. Miyabe, J. Hiroishi, R. Sugizaki, T. Yagi, O. Aso and S. Namiki, "Low-noise ultra-fast fiber parametric wavelength converter for 160 GHz sub-picojoule picosecond pulse train using low dispersion slope highly-nonlinear fiber", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Sep. 2003, Paper We3.7.1,. pp. 544-545.
  19. N. J. Doran and D. Wood, "Nonlinear-optical loop mirror", Opt. Lett., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 56-58, Jan. 1988.
  20. W. S. Wong, S. Namiki, M. Margalit, H. A. Haus and E. P. Ippen, "Self-switching of optical pulses in dispersion-imbalanced nonlinear loop mirrors", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 15, pp. 1150-1152, Aug. 1997.
  21. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic, 2001, pp. 115-118.
  22. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic, 2001, pp. 204-218.
  23. M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, E. Yamada and A. Sahara, "TDM single channel 640 Gb/s transmission experiment over 60 km using 400 fs pulse train and walk-off free, dispersion flattened nonlinear optical loop mirror", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 907-908, Apr. 1998.
  24. K. Azadet, E. F. Haratsch, H. Kim, F. Saibi, J. H. Saunders, M. Shaffer, L. Song and M. Yu, "Equalization and FEC technique for optical transceivers", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 317-327, Mar. 2002.

Other (24)

H. Nosaka, M. Nakamura, M. Ida, K. Kurishima, T. Shibata, M. Tokumitsu and M. Muraguchi, "A 24-Gsps 3-bit Nyquist ADC using InP HBTs for electronic dispersion compensation", in Proc. IEEE/MTTS Int. Microw. Symp., Jun. 2004, Paper TU5A-1,. pp. 101-104.

R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis", IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 539-550, Apr. 1999.

H. F. Taylor, "An optical analog-to-digital converter-design and analysis", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-15, no. 4, pp. 210-216, Apr. 1979.

T. Yamamoto, E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, "Ultrafast nonlinear optical loop mirror for demultiplexing 640 Gb/s TDM signals", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1013-1014, May 1998.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori and M. Saruwatari, "100 Gb/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicosecond supercontinuum pulses", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1152-1553, Jul. 1994.

T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Kitoh and M. Saruwatari, "Error-free 500 Gb/s all-optical demultiplexing using low-noise, low-jitter supercontinuum short pulses", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 833-834, Apr. 1996.

T. Konishi, K. Tanimura, K. Asao, Y. Oshita and Y. Ichioka, "All-optical analog-to-digital converter by use of self-frequency shifting in fiber and a pulse-shaping technique", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 2817-2823, Nov. 2002.

S. Oda, A. Maruta and K. Kitayama, "All-optical quantization based on fiber nonlinearity", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 587-589, Feb. 2004.

C. Xu and X. Liu, "Photonic analog-to-digital converter using soliton self-frequency shift and interleaving spectral filters", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 986-988, Jun. 2003.

G. P. Agrawal, Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics, San Diego, CA: Academic, 2001, ch. 3.

K. Ikeda, J. M. Abdul, S. Namiki and K. Kitayama, "Optical quantizing and coding for ultrafast A/D conversion using nonlinear fiber-optic switches based on Sagnac interferometer", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 4296-4302, May 2005.

J. Hiroishi, N. Kumano, R. Sugizaki, O. Aso, M. Tadakuma, T. Shibuta, N. Oyama, T. Yagi and M. Sakano, "Highly nonlinear DSF with low dispersion slope for wavelength converter", in Proc. Optoelectron. and Commun. Conf., Jul. 2002, pp. 492-493.

J. Hiroishi, N. Kumano, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, R. Miyabe, S. Matsushita, H. Tobioka, S. Namiki and T. Yagi, "Dispersion controlled HNL-DSF with high \gamma of 25 W-1km-1 and band conversion experiment using this fiber", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Sep. 2002, Paper PD1.5,. pp. 1-2.

T. Sakamoto and K. Kikuchi, "Nonlinear optical loop mirror with an optical bias controller for achieving full-swing operation of gate switching", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 545-547, Feb. 2004.

A. Bogoni, M. Scaffardi, P. Ghelfi and L. Poti, "Nonlinear optical loop mirrors: Investigation solution and experimental validation for undesirable counter propagating effects in all-optical signal processing", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1115-1123, Sep./Oct. 2004.

H. Sotobayashi, "Ultrafast walk-off-free nonlinear optical loop mirror by a simplified configuration for 320-Gb/s time-division multiplexing signal demultiplexing", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 17, pp. 1555-1557, Sep. 2002.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic, 2001, pp. 412-414.

H. Tobioka, K. Igarashi, S. Takasaka, R. Miyabe, J. Hiroishi, R. Sugizaki, T. Yagi, O. Aso and S. Namiki, "Low-noise ultra-fast fiber parametric wavelength converter for 160 GHz sub-picojoule picosecond pulse train using low dispersion slope highly-nonlinear fiber", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Sep. 2003, Paper We3.7.1,. pp. 544-545.

N. J. Doran and D. Wood, "Nonlinear-optical loop mirror", Opt. Lett., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 56-58, Jan. 1988.

W. S. Wong, S. Namiki, M. Margalit, H. A. Haus and E. P. Ippen, "Self-switching of optical pulses in dispersion-imbalanced nonlinear loop mirrors", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 15, pp. 1150-1152, Aug. 1997.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic, 2001, pp. 115-118.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic, 2001, pp. 204-218.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, E. Yamada and A. Sahara, "TDM single channel 640 Gb/s transmission experiment over 60 km using 400 fs pulse train and walk-off free, dispersion flattened nonlinear optical loop mirror", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 907-908, Apr. 1998.

K. Azadet, E. F. Haratsch, H. Kim, F. Saibi, J. H. Saunders, M. Shaffer, L. Song and M. Yu, "Equalization and FEC technique for optical transceivers", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 317-327, Mar. 2002.

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