Abstract

We have proposed and demonstrated in recent years a unique technique to synthesize the optical-coherence function by manipulating the frequency and the phase of lightwave. Based upon this technique, the synthesis of optical coherence function (SOCF), various distributed photonic sensing and optical-information-processing applications have been developed. In this paper, the principle of SOCF is summarized. A series of functional optical-sensing systems, including fiber-optic reflectometries, distributed stress-location sensors, multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, are introduced. Fully distributed fiber-optic strain sensing systems by Brillouin frequency shift are highlighted, and a distributed sensor based on synthesized dynamic grating is also presented. Applications in two-or three-dimensional distributed measurements, such as optical tomography of scattering medium, are also reviewed.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. K. Hotate, "Fiber sensor technology today," in Optical Fiber Technology, New York: Academic, Mar. 1998, pp. 356-402.
  2. T. Horiguchi, A. Rogers, W. C. Michie, G. Stewart and B. Culshaw, Optical Fiber Sensors IV, J. Dakin, and B. Culshaw, Eds. Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1997, pp. 309-368.
  3. L. Thévenaz, Trends in Optical Non-Destructive Testing and Inspection, P. Rastogi, and D. Inaudi, Eds. Amsterdam: The Netherlands: Elsevier, 2000, pp. 447-458.
  4. K. Hotate, T. Saida and Z. He, "Distribution sensing by synthesis of the optical coherence function", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 3407, Balatonfu¨red, Hungary,Jun. 1998, pp. 366-373.
  5. K. Hotate, Z. He and T. Saida, "Synthesis of the optical coherence function and its applications in photonic sensing", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 3478, San Diego, CA, Jul. 1998, pp. 254-265.
  6. K. Hotate, "Application of synthesized coherence function to distributed optical sensing", Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1746-1755, Nov. 2002.
  7. K. Hotate and O. Kamatani, "Optical coherence domain reflectometry by synthesis of coherence function", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1701-1710, Oct. 1993.
  8. O. Kamatani and K. Hotate, "Optical coherence domain reflectometry by synthesis of coherence function with non-linearity compensation in frequency modulation of a laser diode", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1854-1862, Nov. 1993.
  9. K. Hotate and T. Saida, "Phase-modulating optical coherence domain reflectometry by synthesis of coherence function", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 475-476, Mar. 1995.
  10. Z. He and K. Hotate, "Enlargement of dynamic range by hamming window in synthesis of optical coherence function", in Proc. CLEO/QELS, San Francisco, CA, May 2000, pp. 570-571.
  11. T. Saida and K. Hotate, "High spatial resolution reflectometry by synthesis of optical coherence function for measuring reflectivity distribution at a long distance", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 573-575, Apr. 1998.
  12. K. Hotate and M. Kashiwagi, "High spatial resolution reflectometry for optical subscriber networks by synthesis of optical coherence function with measurement range enhancement", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E86-C, no. 2, pp. 213-217, Feb. 2003.
  13. M. Kashiwagi and K. Hotate, "Long range and high resolution reflectometry by synthesis of optical coherence function at region beyond the coherence length", in Proc. 17th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sens., Bruges, Belgium,May 2005, pp. 539-542.
  14. Z. He, S. Yoshiyama, M. Enyama and K. Hotate, "High-reflectance-resolution optical reflectometry with synthesis of optical coherence function", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. L117-L119, Dec. 2004.
  15. Z. He, T. Tomizawa, M. Kashiwagi and K. Hotate, "High-speed high-reflectance-resolution optical reflectometry by synthesis of optical coherence function", in Proc. Tech. Dig. 11th MOC, Tokyo, Japan,Nov. 2005, pp. 110-111.
  16. T. Saida and K. Hotate, "Distributed fiber optic stress sensor by synthesis of the optical coherence function", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 484-486, Apr. 1997.
  17. K. Hotate, X. Song and Z. He, "Stress-location measurement along an optical fiber by synthesis of triangle-shape optical coherence function", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 233-235, Mar. 2001.
  18. Z. He and K. Hotate, "Distributed fiber-optic stress-location measurement by arbitrary shaping of optical coherence function", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1715-1723, Sep. 2002.
  19. K. Hotate and K. Makino, "High spatial resolution fiber optic distributed force sensing with synthesis of optical coherence function", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 5272, Providence, RI, Oct. 2003, pp. 157-161.
  20. K. Hotate, A. Kuramoto and Z. He, "Optical fiber stress-location measurement by synthesis of binary optical coherence function", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 578-580, Feb. 2004.
  21. K. Hotate, M. Enyama, S. Yamashita and Y. Nasu, "A multiplexing technique of fiber Bragg grating sensors with the same reflection wavelength by the synthesis of optical coherence function", Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 148-153, Jan. 2004.
  22. K. Hotate and M. Enyama, "Dynamic strain measurement by FBG sensing system with synthesis of optical coherence function", in Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sens., Nara, Japan,Oct. 2003, pp. 522-525.
  23. M. Enyama, Z. He and K. Hotate, "Expansion of spatial measurement range by use of Vernier effect in multiplexed fibre Bragg grating strain sensor with synthesis of optical coherence function", Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 977-983, Apr. 2005.
  24. X. Fan, Z. He and K. Hotate, "Novel distributed fiber-optic strain sensor by localizing dynamic grating in polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber: Proposal and theoretical analysis", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 1101-1106, Feb. 2005.
  25. X. Fan, Z. He, Y. Mizuno and K. Hotate, "Bandwidth-adjustable dynamic grating in erbium-doped fiber by synthesis of optical coherence function", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 15, pp. 5756-5761, Jul. 2005.
  26. X. Fan, Z. He and K. Hotate, "Novel strain-and temperature-sensing mechanism based on dynamic grating in polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber", Opt. Express, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 556-561, Jan. 2006.
  27. K. Hotate and T. Hasegawa, "Measurement of Brillouin gain spectrum distribution along an optical fiber using a correlation-based technique-proposal, experiment and simulation-", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E83-C, no. 3, pp. 405-412, Mar. 2000.
  28. K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, "Correlation-based continuous-wave technique for fiber optic distributed strain measurement using Brillouin scattering with cm-order spatial resolution -Applications to smart material-", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E84-C, no. 12, pp. 1823-1828, Dec. 2001.
  29. K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, "Distributed fiber Brillouin strain sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-based continuous-wave technique", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 179-181, Feb. 2002.
  30. M. Tanaka and K. Hotate, "Application of correlation-based continuous-wave technique for fiber Brillouin sensing to measurement of strain distribution on a small size material", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 675-677, May 2002.
  31. K. Hotate and S. S. L. Ong, "Dynamic strain measurement at 50 Hz using a Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis based fiber optic sensor", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4920, Shanghai, China,Dec. 2002, pp. 299-310.
  32. K. Hotate and S. S. L. Ong, "Distributed dynamic strain measurement using a correlation-based Brillouin sensing system", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 272-274, Feb. 2003.
  33. S. S. L. Ong, H. Kumagai, H. Iwaki and K. Hotate, "Crack detection in concrete using a Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis based fiber optic distributed strain sensor", in Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sens., Nara, Japan,Oct. 2003, pp. 462-465.
  34. S. S. L. Ong, M. Imai, Y. Sako, Y. Miyamoto, S. Miura and K. Hotate, "Dynamic strain measurement and damage assessment of a building model using a Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis based distributed strain sensor", in Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sens., Nara, Japan,Oct. 2003, pp. 458-461.
  35. K. Hotate and T. Yamauchi, "Simplified system of fiber Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis for distributed strain sensing", in Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sens., Nara, Japan,Oct. 2003, pp. 290-293.
  36. K. Hotate and T. Yamauchi, "Fiber optic distributed strain sensing system by Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with a simple and accurate time-division pump-probe generation scheme", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 44, no. 32, pp. 1030-1033, Jul. 2005.
  37. M. Kannou, S. Adachi and K. Hotate, "Temporal gating scheme for enlargement of measurement range of Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis for optical fiber distributed strain measurement", in Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sens., Nara, Japan,Oct. 2003, pp. 454-457.
  38. K. Hotate and H. Arai, "Enlargement of measurement range of simplified BOCDA fiber-optic distributed strain sensing system using a temporal gating scheme", in Proc. 17th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sens., Bruges, Belgium,May 2005, pp. 184-187.
  39. K. Hotate and T. Okugawa, "Optical information processing by synthesis of the coherence function", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1247-1255, Jul. 1994.
  40. T. Okugawa and K. Hotate, "Real-time optical image processing by synthesis of the coherence function using real-time holography", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 257-259, Feb. 1996.
  41. Z. He, N. Mukohzaka and K. Hotate, "Selective image extraction by synthesis of the coherence function using two-dimensional optical lock-in amplifier with microchannel spatial light modulator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 514-516, Apr. 1997.
  42. Z. He and K. Hotate, "Measurement of scattering media by synthesis of optical coherence function with super-structure grating distributed Bragg reflector laser diode", Opt. Rev., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 372-377, 1999.
  43. Z. He and K. Hotate, "Synthesized optical coherence tomography for scattering objects by use of a stepwise frequency-modulated tunable laser diode", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 1502-1504, Nov. 1999.
  44. K. Hotate, Z. He and T. Kitazume, "Surface shape measurement for a multi-layered object by synthesis of optical coherence function", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 723-729, Sep./Oct. 2000.

Other (44)

K. Hotate, "Fiber sensor technology today," in Optical Fiber Technology, New York: Academic, Mar. 1998, pp. 356-402.

T. Horiguchi, A. Rogers, W. C. Michie, G. Stewart and B. Culshaw, Optical Fiber Sensors IV, J. Dakin, and B. Culshaw, Eds. Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1997, pp. 309-368.

L. Thévenaz, Trends in Optical Non-Destructive Testing and Inspection, P. Rastogi, and D. Inaudi, Eds. Amsterdam: The Netherlands: Elsevier, 2000, pp. 447-458.

K. Hotate, T. Saida and Z. He, "Distribution sensing by synthesis of the optical coherence function", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 3407, Balatonfu¨red, Hungary,Jun. 1998, pp. 366-373.

K. Hotate, Z. He and T. Saida, "Synthesis of the optical coherence function and its applications in photonic sensing", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 3478, San Diego, CA, Jul. 1998, pp. 254-265.

K. Hotate, "Application of synthesized coherence function to distributed optical sensing", Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1746-1755, Nov. 2002.

K. Hotate and O. Kamatani, "Optical coherence domain reflectometry by synthesis of coherence function", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1701-1710, Oct. 1993.

O. Kamatani and K. Hotate, "Optical coherence domain reflectometry by synthesis of coherence function with non-linearity compensation in frequency modulation of a laser diode", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1854-1862, Nov. 1993.

K. Hotate and T. Saida, "Phase-modulating optical coherence domain reflectometry by synthesis of coherence function", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 475-476, Mar. 1995.

Z. He and K. Hotate, "Enlargement of dynamic range by hamming window in synthesis of optical coherence function", in Proc. CLEO/QELS, San Francisco, CA, May 2000, pp. 570-571.

T. Saida and K. Hotate, "High spatial resolution reflectometry by synthesis of optical coherence function for measuring reflectivity distribution at a long distance", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 573-575, Apr. 1998.

K. Hotate and M. Kashiwagi, "High spatial resolution reflectometry for optical subscriber networks by synthesis of optical coherence function with measurement range enhancement", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E86-C, no. 2, pp. 213-217, Feb. 2003.

M. Kashiwagi and K. Hotate, "Long range and high resolution reflectometry by synthesis of optical coherence function at region beyond the coherence length", in Proc. 17th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sens., Bruges, Belgium,May 2005, pp. 539-542.

Z. He, S. Yoshiyama, M. Enyama and K. Hotate, "High-reflectance-resolution optical reflectometry with synthesis of optical coherence function", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. L117-L119, Dec. 2004.

Z. He, T. Tomizawa, M. Kashiwagi and K. Hotate, "High-speed high-reflectance-resolution optical reflectometry by synthesis of optical coherence function", in Proc. Tech. Dig. 11th MOC, Tokyo, Japan,Nov. 2005, pp. 110-111.

T. Saida and K. Hotate, "Distributed fiber optic stress sensor by synthesis of the optical coherence function", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 484-486, Apr. 1997.

K. Hotate, X. Song and Z. He, "Stress-location measurement along an optical fiber by synthesis of triangle-shape optical coherence function", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 233-235, Mar. 2001.

Z. He and K. Hotate, "Distributed fiber-optic stress-location measurement by arbitrary shaping of optical coherence function", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1715-1723, Sep. 2002.

K. Hotate and K. Makino, "High spatial resolution fiber optic distributed force sensing with synthesis of optical coherence function", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 5272, Providence, RI, Oct. 2003, pp. 157-161.

K. Hotate, A. Kuramoto and Z. He, "Optical fiber stress-location measurement by synthesis of binary optical coherence function", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 578-580, Feb. 2004.

K. Hotate, M. Enyama, S. Yamashita and Y. Nasu, "A multiplexing technique of fiber Bragg grating sensors with the same reflection wavelength by the synthesis of optical coherence function", Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 148-153, Jan. 2004.

K. Hotate and M. Enyama, "Dynamic strain measurement by FBG sensing system with synthesis of optical coherence function", in Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sens., Nara, Japan,Oct. 2003, pp. 522-525.

M. Enyama, Z. He and K. Hotate, "Expansion of spatial measurement range by use of Vernier effect in multiplexed fibre Bragg grating strain sensor with synthesis of optical coherence function", Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 977-983, Apr. 2005.

X. Fan, Z. He and K. Hotate, "Novel distributed fiber-optic strain sensor by localizing dynamic grating in polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber: Proposal and theoretical analysis", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 1101-1106, Feb. 2005.

X. Fan, Z. He, Y. Mizuno and K. Hotate, "Bandwidth-adjustable dynamic grating in erbium-doped fiber by synthesis of optical coherence function", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 15, pp. 5756-5761, Jul. 2005.

X. Fan, Z. He and K. Hotate, "Novel strain-and temperature-sensing mechanism based on dynamic grating in polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber", Opt. Express, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 556-561, Jan. 2006.

K. Hotate and T. Hasegawa, "Measurement of Brillouin gain spectrum distribution along an optical fiber using a correlation-based technique-proposal, experiment and simulation-", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E83-C, no. 3, pp. 405-412, Mar. 2000.

K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, "Correlation-based continuous-wave technique for fiber optic distributed strain measurement using Brillouin scattering with cm-order spatial resolution -Applications to smart material-", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E84-C, no. 12, pp. 1823-1828, Dec. 2001.

K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, "Distributed fiber Brillouin strain sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-based continuous-wave technique", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 179-181, Feb. 2002.

M. Tanaka and K. Hotate, "Application of correlation-based continuous-wave technique for fiber Brillouin sensing to measurement of strain distribution on a small size material", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 675-677, May 2002.

K. Hotate and S. S. L. Ong, "Dynamic strain measurement at 50 Hz using a Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis based fiber optic sensor", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4920, Shanghai, China,Dec. 2002, pp. 299-310.

K. Hotate and S. S. L. Ong, "Distributed dynamic strain measurement using a correlation-based Brillouin sensing system", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 272-274, Feb. 2003.

S. S. L. Ong, H. Kumagai, H. Iwaki and K. Hotate, "Crack detection in concrete using a Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis based fiber optic distributed strain sensor", in Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sens., Nara, Japan,Oct. 2003, pp. 462-465.

S. S. L. Ong, M. Imai, Y. Sako, Y. Miyamoto, S. Miura and K. Hotate, "Dynamic strain measurement and damage assessment of a building model using a Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis based distributed strain sensor", in Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sens., Nara, Japan,Oct. 2003, pp. 458-461.

K. Hotate and T. Yamauchi, "Simplified system of fiber Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis for distributed strain sensing", in Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sens., Nara, Japan,Oct. 2003, pp. 290-293.

K. Hotate and T. Yamauchi, "Fiber optic distributed strain sensing system by Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with a simple and accurate time-division pump-probe generation scheme", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 44, no. 32, pp. 1030-1033, Jul. 2005.

M. Kannou, S. Adachi and K. Hotate, "Temporal gating scheme for enlargement of measurement range of Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis for optical fiber distributed strain measurement", in Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sens., Nara, Japan,Oct. 2003, pp. 454-457.

K. Hotate and H. Arai, "Enlargement of measurement range of simplified BOCDA fiber-optic distributed strain sensing system using a temporal gating scheme", in Proc. 17th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sens., Bruges, Belgium,May 2005, pp. 184-187.

K. Hotate and T. Okugawa, "Optical information processing by synthesis of the coherence function", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1247-1255, Jul. 1994.

T. Okugawa and K. Hotate, "Real-time optical image processing by synthesis of the coherence function using real-time holography", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 257-259, Feb. 1996.

Z. He, N. Mukohzaka and K. Hotate, "Selective image extraction by synthesis of the coherence function using two-dimensional optical lock-in amplifier with microchannel spatial light modulator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 514-516, Apr. 1997.

Z. He and K. Hotate, "Measurement of scattering media by synthesis of optical coherence function with super-structure grating distributed Bragg reflector laser diode", Opt. Rev., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 372-377, 1999.

Z. He and K. Hotate, "Synthesized optical coherence tomography for scattering objects by use of a stepwise frequency-modulated tunable laser diode", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 1502-1504, Nov. 1999.

K. Hotate, Z. He and T. Kitazume, "Surface shape measurement for a multi-layered object by synthesis of optical coherence function", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 723-729, Sep./Oct. 2000.

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