Abstract

Coherent coupling of lateral modes is suggested to explain the phenomena associated with beam-steering kinks, which appear in the L-I curves of many ridge waveguide lasers. The analysis that is presented explains quantitatively the previously reported experiments.

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  1. A. Oosenbrug and A. Jakubowicz, "Operational stability of 980-nm pump lasers at 200 mW and above", Proc. SPIE, vol. 3004, pp. 62-70, 1997.
  2. N. Chand, S. N. G. Chu, N. K. Dutta, J. Lopata, M. Geva, A. V. Syrbu, A. Z. Mereutza and V. P. Yakovlev, "Growth and fabrication of high-performance 980-nm strained InGaAs quantum-well lasers for Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 424-439, Feb. 1994.
  3. C. Harder, P. Buchmann and H. Meier, "High-power ridge-waveguide AlGaAs GRIN-SCH laser diode", Electron. Lett., vol. 22, no. 20, pp. 1081-1082, Sep. 1986.
  4. J. Näppi, A. Ovtchinnikov, H. Asonen, P. Savolainen and M. Pessa, "Limitations of two-dimensional passive waveguide model for lambda = 980\ nm Al-free ridge waveguide lasers", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 64, no. 17, pp. 2203-2205, Apr. 1994.
  5. J. Temmyo and M. Shimizu, "Strained InGaAs quantum well lasers with small-divergence angles for high-power pump modules", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 24, pp. 2046-2047, Nov. 1994.
  6. J. Temmyo and M. Sugo, "Design of high-power strained InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well lasers with a vertical divergence angle of 18°", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 642-644, Apr. 1995.
  7. P. Savolainen, M. Toivonen, H. Asonen, M. Pessa and R. Murison, "High-performance 980-nm strained-layer GaInAs-GaInAsP-GaInP quantum-well lasers grown by all solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 986-988, Aug. 1996.
  8. M. F. C. Schemmann, C. J. van der Poel, B. A. H. van Bakel, H. P. M. M. Ambrosius, A. Valster, J. A. M. van den Heijkant and G. A. Acket, "Kink power in weakly index guided semiconductor lasers", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 66, no. 8, pp. 920-922, Feb. 1995.
  9. J. Guthrie, G. L. Tan, M. Ohkubo, T. Fukushima, Y. Ikegami, T. Ijichi, M. Irikawa, R. S. Mand and J. M. Xu, "Beam instability in 980-nm power lasers: Experiment and analysis", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1409-1411, Dec. 1994.
  10. M. Ohkubo, Y. Ikegami, T. Ijichi and T. Ninomiya, "Experimental study of beam steering in 980-nm InGaP cladding lasers", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, no. 1A, pp. L34-L36, Jan. 1996.
  11. W. D. Herzog, B. B. Goldberg and M. S. Unlü, "Beam steering in narrow-stripe high-power 980-nm laser diodes", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1604-1606, Dec. 2000.
  12. G. Hunziker and C. Harder, "Beam quality of InGaAs ridge lasers at high output power", Appl. Opt., vol. 34, no. 27, pp. 6118-6122, Sep. 1995.
  13. J. W. R. ten Cate, L. M. Weegels, A. H. van Bakel, C. J. van der Poel and H. P. M. Ambrosius, "Kinks induced by free-carrier absorption in weakly index guided semiconductor lasers", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 19-21, Jul. 1997.
  14. M. L. Xu, G. L. Tan, R. Clayton and J. M. Xu, "Increased threshold for the first-order lateral mode lasing in low-ridge waveguide high power QW lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1444-1446, Nov. 1996.
  15. G. L. Tan, R. S. Mand and J. M. Xu, "Self-consistent modeling of beam instabilities in 980-nm fiber pump lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1384-1395, Aug. 1997.
  16. B. L. Frescura, C. J. Hwang, H. Luechinger and J. E. Ripper, "Suppression of output nonlinearities in double-heterostructure lasers by use of misaligned mirrors", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 770-773, Dec. 1977.
  17. D. R. Scifres, W. Streifer and R. D. Burnham, "GaAs/GaAlAs diode lasers with angled pumping stripes", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-14, no. 4, pp. 223-227, Apr. 1978.
  18. A. D. Rakic, V. E. Boros and M. L. Majewski, "Cooperatively frequency-locked multimode operation in proton implanted VCSELs", in Proc. Conf. Optoelectron. Microelectron. Mater. Devices, Perth, Australia,Dec. 14-16 1998, pp. 116-119.
  19. H. Kogelnik, "Theory of optical waveguides," in Guided-Wave Optoelectronics, T. Tamir, Ed. 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1990, ch. 2.
  20. L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, New York: Wiley, 1995.
  21. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968.
  22. M. Ito and T. Kimura, "Carrier density dependence of refractive index in AlGaAs semiconductor lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-16, no. 9, pp. 910-911, Sep. 1980.

Other (22)

A. Oosenbrug and A. Jakubowicz, "Operational stability of 980-nm pump lasers at 200 mW and above", Proc. SPIE, vol. 3004, pp. 62-70, 1997.

N. Chand, S. N. G. Chu, N. K. Dutta, J. Lopata, M. Geva, A. V. Syrbu, A. Z. Mereutza and V. P. Yakovlev, "Growth and fabrication of high-performance 980-nm strained InGaAs quantum-well lasers for Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 424-439, Feb. 1994.

C. Harder, P. Buchmann and H. Meier, "High-power ridge-waveguide AlGaAs GRIN-SCH laser diode", Electron. Lett., vol. 22, no. 20, pp. 1081-1082, Sep. 1986.

J. Näppi, A. Ovtchinnikov, H. Asonen, P. Savolainen and M. Pessa, "Limitations of two-dimensional passive waveguide model for lambda = 980\ nm Al-free ridge waveguide lasers", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 64, no. 17, pp. 2203-2205, Apr. 1994.

J. Temmyo and M. Shimizu, "Strained InGaAs quantum well lasers with small-divergence angles for high-power pump modules", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 24, pp. 2046-2047, Nov. 1994.

J. Temmyo and M. Sugo, "Design of high-power strained InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well lasers with a vertical divergence angle of 18°", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 642-644, Apr. 1995.

P. Savolainen, M. Toivonen, H. Asonen, M. Pessa and R. Murison, "High-performance 980-nm strained-layer GaInAs-GaInAsP-GaInP quantum-well lasers grown by all solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 986-988, Aug. 1996.

M. F. C. Schemmann, C. J. van der Poel, B. A. H. van Bakel, H. P. M. M. Ambrosius, A. Valster, J. A. M. van den Heijkant and G. A. Acket, "Kink power in weakly index guided semiconductor lasers", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 66, no. 8, pp. 920-922, Feb. 1995.

J. Guthrie, G. L. Tan, M. Ohkubo, T. Fukushima, Y. Ikegami, T. Ijichi, M. Irikawa, R. S. Mand and J. M. Xu, "Beam instability in 980-nm power lasers: Experiment and analysis", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1409-1411, Dec. 1994.

M. Ohkubo, Y. Ikegami, T. Ijichi and T. Ninomiya, "Experimental study of beam steering in 980-nm InGaP cladding lasers", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, no. 1A, pp. L34-L36, Jan. 1996.

W. D. Herzog, B. B. Goldberg and M. S. Unlü, "Beam steering in narrow-stripe high-power 980-nm laser diodes", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1604-1606, Dec. 2000.

G. Hunziker and C. Harder, "Beam quality of InGaAs ridge lasers at high output power", Appl. Opt., vol. 34, no. 27, pp. 6118-6122, Sep. 1995.

J. W. R. ten Cate, L. M. Weegels, A. H. van Bakel, C. J. van der Poel and H. P. M. Ambrosius, "Kinks induced by free-carrier absorption in weakly index guided semiconductor lasers", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 19-21, Jul. 1997.

M. L. Xu, G. L. Tan, R. Clayton and J. M. Xu, "Increased threshold for the first-order lateral mode lasing in low-ridge waveguide high power QW lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1444-1446, Nov. 1996.

G. L. Tan, R. S. Mand and J. M. Xu, "Self-consistent modeling of beam instabilities in 980-nm fiber pump lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1384-1395, Aug. 1997.

B. L. Frescura, C. J. Hwang, H. Luechinger and J. E. Ripper, "Suppression of output nonlinearities in double-heterostructure lasers by use of misaligned mirrors", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 770-773, Dec. 1977.

D. R. Scifres, W. Streifer and R. D. Burnham, "GaAs/GaAlAs diode lasers with angled pumping stripes", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-14, no. 4, pp. 223-227, Apr. 1978.

A. D. Rakic, V. E. Boros and M. L. Majewski, "Cooperatively frequency-locked multimode operation in proton implanted VCSELs", in Proc. Conf. Optoelectron. Microelectron. Mater. Devices, Perth, Australia,Dec. 14-16 1998, pp. 116-119.

H. Kogelnik, "Theory of optical waveguides," in Guided-Wave Optoelectronics, T. Tamir, Ed. 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1990, ch. 2.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, New York: Wiley, 1995.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968.

M. Ito and T. Kimura, "Carrier density dependence of refractive index in AlGaAs semiconductor lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-16, no. 9, pp. 910-911, Sep. 1980.

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