Abstract

The effects of zero-dispersion wavelength (ZDWL) fluctuations on the noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) are investigated. The numerical derivation of the noise figure (NF) in terms of the amplifier operating conditions and the magnitude of ZDWL fluctuations is achieved by utilizing a simulation method based on the three-coupled propagation equations. The numerical analysis shows that the average NF of FOPAs is increased compared with the case of uniform dispersion, especially at high-gain operation. Apart from the NF, the gain-to-NF ratio is also evaluated to assess the amplifier performance for a variety of amplifier operating conditions and dispersion profiles.

© 2006 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Lie and P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 506-520, May/Jun. 2002.
  2. S. Radic and C. J. McKinstrie, "Two-pump fiber parametric amplifiers", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 7-23, Jan. 2003.
  3. J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, "Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 194-196, Mar. 2001.
  4. S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, A. R. Chraplyvy, G. Raybon, J. C. Centanni, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Continuous-wave parametric gain synthesis using nondegenerate pump four-wave mixing", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1406-1408, Oct. 2002.
  5. K. Inoue, "Tunable and selective wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two pump lights", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1451-1453, Dec. 1994.
  6. S. Radic, R. M. Jopson, C. J. McKinstrie, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar and J. C. Centanni, "Wavelength-division-multiplexed transmission over standard single-mode fiber using polarization-insensitive signal conjugation in highly-nonlinear optical fiber", in Proc. OFC, 2003, pp. PD12-1-PD12-3.
  7. K. Inoue, "Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1016-1017, Jun. 2000.
  8. E. Ciaramella and S. Trillo, "All-optical signal reshaping via four-wave mixing in optical fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 849-851, Jul. 2000.
  9. S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni and A. R. Chraplyvy, "All-optical regeneration in one-and two-pump parametric amplifiers using highly nonlinear optical fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 957-959, Jul. 2003.
  10. J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, "Wavelength tunable 40 GHz pulse source based on fiber optical parametric amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 584-585, Apr. 2001.
  11. J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, "O-TDM demultiplexer with 40 dB gain based on a fiber optical parametric amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 732-734, Jul. 2001.
  12. J. Li, J. Hansryd, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson and S. N. Knudsen, "300 Gb/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber based parametric amplification", in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., vol. 4, 2001, pp. PD31-1-PD31-3.
  13. S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, J. C. Centanni and A. R. Chraplyvy, "Multi-band bit-level switching in two-pump fiber parametric devices", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 852-854, Mar. 2004.
  14. C. M. Caves, "Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers", Phys. Rev. D, Part. Fields, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1817-1839, Oct. 1982.
  15. Y. Yamamoto and T. Mukai, "Fundamentals of optical amplifiers", Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. S1-S14, Jan. 1989.
  16. P. O. Hedekvist and P. A. Andrekson, "Noise characteristics of fiber-based optical phase conjugators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 74-79, Jan. 1999.
  17. P. Kylemark, P. O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 409-416, Feb. 2004.
  18. P. Kylemark, P. O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Errata to ‘Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers’", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 6, p. 2192, Jun. 2005.
  19. P. Kylemark, P. O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Noise figure characterisation of fiber optical parametric amplifiers", in Proc. ECOC, Rimini, Italy,Sep. 2003,Paper We 2.3.5,. pp. 404-405.
  20. H. A. Haus, "Optimum noise performance of optical amplifiers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 813-823, Jun. 2001.
  21. R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson and H. A. Haus, "Raman response function of silica-core fibers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1159-1166, Jun. 1989.
  22. P. L. Voss and P. Kumar, "Raman-effect induced noise limits on chi(3) parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters", J. Opt., B Quantum Semiclass. Opt., vol. 6, no. 8, pp. S762-S770, Aug. 2004.
  23. K. K. Y. Wong, K. Shimizu, M. E. Marhic, K. Uesaka, G. Kalogerakis and L. G. Kazovsky, "Continuous-wave fiber optical parametric wavelength converter with 40 dB conversion efficiency and a 3.8 dB noise figure", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 692-694, May 2003.
  24. N. Kuwaki and M. Ohashi, "Evaluation of longitudinal chromatic dispersion", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1476-1481, Oct. 1990.
  25. L. Provino, A. Mussot, E. Lantz, T. Sylvestre and H. Maillotte, "Broadband and flat parametric amplifiers with a multisection dispersion-tailored nonlinear fiber arrangement", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1532-1537, Jul. 2003.
  26. M. Karlsson, "Four-wave mixing in fibers with randomly varying zero-dispersion wavelength", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 2269-2275, Aug. 1998.
  27. F. Yaman, Q. Lin, S. Radic and G. P. Agrawal, "Impact of dispersion fluctuation on dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1292-1294, May 2004.
  28. E. Ciaramella, "Effect of non uniform chromatic dispersion of fibre link in determining system limitations due to four wave mixing", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 202-203, Jan. 1998.
  29. A. Durecu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz and H. Maillotte, "Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber-optical parametric amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1178-1180, Jun. 2005.
  30. A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, P. Kylemark and P. A. Andrekson, "Noise characteristics of dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 2788-2795, Sep. 2005.
  31. M. Faramand and M. de Sterke, "Parametric amplification in the presence of dispersion fluctuation", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 136-142, Jan. 2004.
  32. M. A. Mahdi, K. A. Khairi, B. Bouzid and M. K. Abdullah, "Optimum pumping scheme of dual-stage triple pass erbium-doped fiber amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 419-421, Feb. 2004.

Other (32)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Lie and P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 506-520, May/Jun. 2002.

S. Radic and C. J. McKinstrie, "Two-pump fiber parametric amplifiers", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 7-23, Jan. 2003.

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, "Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 194-196, Mar. 2001.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, A. R. Chraplyvy, G. Raybon, J. C. Centanni, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Continuous-wave parametric gain synthesis using nondegenerate pump four-wave mixing", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1406-1408, Oct. 2002.

K. Inoue, "Tunable and selective wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two pump lights", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1451-1453, Dec. 1994.

S. Radic, R. M. Jopson, C. J. McKinstrie, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar and J. C. Centanni, "Wavelength-division-multiplexed transmission over standard single-mode fiber using polarization-insensitive signal conjugation in highly-nonlinear optical fiber", in Proc. OFC, 2003, pp. PD12-1-PD12-3.

K. Inoue, "Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1016-1017, Jun. 2000.

E. Ciaramella and S. Trillo, "All-optical signal reshaping via four-wave mixing in optical fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 849-851, Jul. 2000.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni and A. R. Chraplyvy, "All-optical regeneration in one-and two-pump parametric amplifiers using highly nonlinear optical fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 957-959, Jul. 2003.

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, "Wavelength tunable 40 GHz pulse source based on fiber optical parametric amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 584-585, Apr. 2001.

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, "O-TDM demultiplexer with 40 dB gain based on a fiber optical parametric amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 732-734, Jul. 2001.

J. Li, J. Hansryd, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson and S. N. Knudsen, "300 Gb/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber based parametric amplification", in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., vol. 4, 2001, pp. PD31-1-PD31-3.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, J. C. Centanni and A. R. Chraplyvy, "Multi-band bit-level switching in two-pump fiber parametric devices", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 852-854, Mar. 2004.

C. M. Caves, "Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers", Phys. Rev. D, Part. Fields, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1817-1839, Oct. 1982.

Y. Yamamoto and T. Mukai, "Fundamentals of optical amplifiers", Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. S1-S14, Jan. 1989.

P. O. Hedekvist and P. A. Andrekson, "Noise characteristics of fiber-based optical phase conjugators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 74-79, Jan. 1999.

P. Kylemark, P. O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 409-416, Feb. 2004.

P. Kylemark, P. O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Errata to ‘Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers’", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 6, p. 2192, Jun. 2005.

P. Kylemark, P. O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Noise figure characterisation of fiber optical parametric amplifiers", in Proc. ECOC, Rimini, Italy,Sep. 2003,Paper We 2.3.5,. pp. 404-405.

H. A. Haus, "Optimum noise performance of optical amplifiers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 813-823, Jun. 2001.

R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson and H. A. Haus, "Raman response function of silica-core fibers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1159-1166, Jun. 1989.

P. L. Voss and P. Kumar, "Raman-effect induced noise limits on chi(3) parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters", J. Opt., B Quantum Semiclass. Opt., vol. 6, no. 8, pp. S762-S770, Aug. 2004.

K. K. Y. Wong, K. Shimizu, M. E. Marhic, K. Uesaka, G. Kalogerakis and L. G. Kazovsky, "Continuous-wave fiber optical parametric wavelength converter with 40 dB conversion efficiency and a 3.8 dB noise figure", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 692-694, May 2003.

N. Kuwaki and M. Ohashi, "Evaluation of longitudinal chromatic dispersion", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1476-1481, Oct. 1990.

L. Provino, A. Mussot, E. Lantz, T. Sylvestre and H. Maillotte, "Broadband and flat parametric amplifiers with a multisection dispersion-tailored nonlinear fiber arrangement", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1532-1537, Jul. 2003.

M. Karlsson, "Four-wave mixing in fibers with randomly varying zero-dispersion wavelength", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 2269-2275, Aug. 1998.

F. Yaman, Q. Lin, S. Radic and G. P. Agrawal, "Impact of dispersion fluctuation on dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1292-1294, May 2004.

E. Ciaramella, "Effect of non uniform chromatic dispersion of fibre link in determining system limitations due to four wave mixing", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 202-203, Jan. 1998.

A. Durecu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz and H. Maillotte, "Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber-optical parametric amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1178-1180, Jun. 2005.

A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, P. Kylemark and P. A. Andrekson, "Noise characteristics of dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 2788-2795, Sep. 2005.

M. Faramand and M. de Sterke, "Parametric amplification in the presence of dispersion fluctuation", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 136-142, Jan. 2004.

M. A. Mahdi, K. A. Khairi, B. Bouzid and M. K. Abdullah, "Optimum pumping scheme of dual-stage triple pass erbium-doped fiber amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 419-421, Feb. 2004.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.